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Mein Kampf

Adolf Hitler

Author's Introduction

ON APRIL 1st, 1924, I began to serve my sentence of detention in the Fortress of
Landsberg am Lech, following the verdict of the Munich People's Court of that time.

After years of uninterrupted labour it was now possible for the first time to begin a
work which many had asked for and which I myself felt would be profitable for the
Movement. So I decided to devote two volumes to a description not only of the aims of
our Movement but also of its development. There is more to be learned from this than
from any purely doctrinaire treatise.

This has also given me the opportunity of describing my own development in so far as
such a description is necessary to the understanding of the first as well as the second
volume and to destroy the legendary fabrications which the Jewish Press have
circulated about me.

In this work I turn not to strangers but to those followers of the Movement whose
hearts belong to it and who wish to study it more profoundly. I know that fewer people
are won over by the written word than by the spoken word and that every great
movement on this earth owes its growth to great speakers and not to great writers.

Nevertheless, in order to produce more equality and uniformity in the defence of any
doctrine, its fundamental principles must be committed to writing. May these two
volumes therefore serve as the building stones which I contribute to the joint work.

The Fortress, Landsberg am Lech.

At half-past twelve in the afternoon of November 9th, 1923, those whose names are
given below fell in front of the FELDHERRNHALLE and in the forecourt of the former
War Ministry in Munich for their loyal faith in the resurrection of their people:

· Alfarth, Felix, Merchant, born July 5th, 1901
· Bauriedl, Andreas, Hatmaker, born May 4th, 1879
· Casella, Theodor, Bank Official, born August 8th, 1900
· Ehrlich, Wilhelm, Bank Official, born August 19th, 1894
· Faust, Martin, Bank Official, born January 27th, 1901

· Hechenberger, Anton, Locksmith, born September 28th, 1902
· Koerner, Oskar, Merchant, born January 4th, 1875
· Kuhn, Karl, Head Waiter, born July 25th, 1897
· Laforce, Karl, Student of Engineering, born October 28th, 1904
· Neubauer, Kurt, Waiter, born March 27th, 1899
· Pape, Claus von, Merchant, born August 16th, 1904
· Pfordten, Theodor von der, Councillor to the Superior Provincial Court, born
May 14th, 1873
· Rickmers, Johann, retired Cavalry Captain, born May 7th, 1881
· Scheubner-Richter, Max Erwin von, Dr. of Engineering, born January 9th, 1884
· Stransky, Lorenz Ritter von, Engineer, born March 14th, 1899
· Wolf, Wilhelm, Merchant, born October 19th, 1898

So-called national officials refused to allow the dead heroes a common burial. So I
dedicate the first volume of this work to them as a common memorial, that the memory
of those martyrs may be a permanent source of light for the followers of our Movement.

The Fortress, Landsberg a/L.,
October 16th, 1924

Chapter 1

In The Home Of My Parents

IT HAS turned out fortunate for me to-day that destiny appointed Braunau-on-the-Inn
to be my birthplace. For that little town is situated just on the frontier between those
two States the reunion of which seems, at least to us of the younger generation, a task to
which we should devote our lives and in the pursuit of which every possible means
should be employed.

German-Austria must be restored to the great German Motherland. And not indeed on
any grounds of economic calculation whatsoever. No, no. Even if the union were a
matter of economic indifference, and even if it were to be disadvantageous from the
economic standpoint, still it ought to take place. People of the same blood should be in
the same REICH. The German people will have no right to engage in a colonial policy
until they shall have brought all their children together in the one State. When the
territory of the REICH embraces all the Germans and finds itself unable to assure them
a livelihood, only then can the moral right arise, from the need of the people to acquire
foreign territory. The plough is then the sword; and the tears of war will produce the
daily bread for the generations to come.

And so this little frontier town appeared to me as the symbol of a great task. But in
another regard also it points to a lesson that is applicable to our day. Over a hundred
years ago this sequestered spot was the scene of a tragic calamity which affected the
whole German nation and will be remembered for ever, at least in the annals of German
history. At the time of our Fatherland's deepest humiliation a bookseller, Johannes
Palm, uncompromising nationalist and enemy of the French, was put to death here
because he had the misfortune to have loved Germany well. He obstinately refused to
disclose the names of his associates, or rather the principals who were chiefly
responsible for the affair. Just as it happened with Leo Schlageter. The former, like the
latter, was denounced to the French by a Government agent. It was a director of police
from Augsburg who won an ignoble renown on that occasion and set the example
which was to be copied at a later date by the neo-German officials of the REICH under
Herr Severing's regime (Note 1).

In this little town on the Inn, haloed by the memory of a German martyr, a town that
was Bavarian by blood but under the rule of the Austrian State, my parents were

domiciled towards the end of the last century. My father was a civil servant who
fulfilled his duties very conscientiously. My mother looked after the household and
lovingly devoted herself to the care of her children. From that period I have not retained
very much in my memory; because after a few years my father had to leave that frontier
town which I had come to love so much and take up a new post farther down the Inn
valley, at Passau, therefore actually in Germany itself.

In those days it was the usual lot of an Austrian civil servant to be transferred
periodically from one post to another. Not long after coming to Passau my father was
transferred to Linz, and while there he retired finally to live on his pension. But this did
not mean that the old gentleman would now rest from his labours.

He was the son of a poor cottager, and while still a boy he grew restless and left home.
When he was barely thirteen years old he buckled on his satchel and set forth from his
native woodland parish. Despite the dissuasion of villagers who could speak from
'experience,' he went to Vienna to learn a trade there. This was in the fiftieth year of the
last century. It was a sore trial, that of deciding to leave home and face the unknown,
with three gulden in his pocket. By when the boy of thirteen was a lad of seventeen and
had passed his apprenticeship examination as a craftsman he was not content. Quite the
contrary. The persistent economic depression of that period and the constant want and
misery strengthened his resolution to give up working at a trade and strive for
'something higher.' As a boy it had seemed to him that the position of the parish priest
in his native village was the highest in the scale of human attainment; but now that the
big city had enlarged his outlook the young man looked up to the dignity of a State
official as the highest of all. With the tenacity of one whom misery and trouble had
already made old when only half-way through his youth the young man of seventeen
obstinately set out on his new project and stuck to it until he won through. He became a
civil servant. He was about twenty-three years old, I think, when he succeeded in
making himself what he had resolved to become. Thus he was able to fulfil the promise
he had made as a poor boy not to return to his native village until he was 'somebody.'

He had gained his end. But in the village there was nobody who had remembered him
as a little boy, and the village itself had become strange to him.

Now at last, when he was fifty-six years old, he gave up his active career; but he could
not bear to be idle for a single day. On the outskirts of the small market town of
Lambach in Upper Austria he bought a farm and tilled it himself. Thus, at the end of a
long and hard-working career, he came back to the life which his father had led.

It was at this period that I first began to have ideals of my own. I spent a good deal of
time scampering about in the open, on the long road from school, and mixing up with
some of the roughest of the boys, which caused my mother many anxious moments. All
this tended to make me something quite the reverse of a stay-at-home. I gave scarcely

any serious thought to the question of choosing a vocation in life; but I was certainly
quite out of sympathy with the kind of career which my father had followed. I think
that an inborn talent for speaking now began to develop and take shape during the
more or less strenuous arguments which I used to have with my comrades. I had
become a juvenile ringleader who learned well and easily at school but was rather
difficult to manage. In my freetime I practised singing in the choir of the monastery
church at Lambach, and thus it happened that I was placed in a very favourable
position to be emotionally impressed again and again by the magnificent splendour of
ecclesiastical ceremonial. What could be more natural for me than to look upon the
Abbot as representing the highest human ideal worth striving for, just as the position of
the humble village priest had appeared to my father in his own boyhood days? At least,
that was my idea for a while. But the juvenile disputes I had with my father did not lead
him to appreciate his son's oratorical gifts in such a way as to see in them a favourable
promise for such a career, and so he naturally could not understand the boyish ideas I
had in my head at that time. This contradiction in my character made him feel
somewhat anxious.

As a matter of fact, that transitory yearning after such a vocation soon gave way to
hopes that were better suited to my temperament. Browsing through my father's books,
I chanced to come across some publications that dealt with military subjects. One of
these publications was a popular history of the Franco-German War of 1870-71. It
consisted of two volumes of an illustrated periodical dating from those years. These
became my favourite reading. In a little while that great and heroic conflict began to
take first place in my mind. And from that time onwards I became more and more
enthusiastic about everything that was in any way connected with war or military

But this story of the Franco-German War had a special significance for me on other
grounds also. For the first time, and as yet only in quite a vague way, the question
began to present itself: Is there a difference--and if there be, what is it--between the
Germans who fought that war and the other Germans? Why did not Austria also take
part in it? Why did not my father and all the others fight in that struggle? Are we not
the same as the other Germans? Do we not all belong together?

That was the first time that this problem began to agitate my small brain. And from the
replies that were given to the questions which I asked very tentatively, I was forced to
accept the fact, though with a secret envy, that not all Germans had the good luck to
belong to Bismarck's Empire. This was something that I could not understand.

It was decided that I should study. Considering my character as a whole, and especially
my temperament, my father decided that the classical subjects studied at the Lyceum
were not suited to my natural talents. He thought that the REALSCHULE (Note 2)
would suit me better. My obvious talent for drawing confirmed him in that view; for in

his opinion drawing was a subject too much neglected in the Austrian GYMNASIUM.
Probably also the memory of the hard road which he himself had travelled contributed
to make him look upon classical studies as unpractical and accordingly to set little value
on them. At the back of his mind he had the idea that his son also should become an
official of the Government. Indeed he had decided on that career for me. The difficulties
through which he had to struggle in making his own career led him to overestimate
what he had achieved, because this was exclusively the result of his own indefatigable
industry and energy. The characteristic pride of the self-made man urged him towards
the idea that his son should follow the same calling and if possible rise to a higher
position in it. Moreover, this idea was strengthened by the consideration that the results
of his own life's industry had placed him in a position to facilitate his son's
advancement in the same career.

He was simply incapable of imagining that I might reject what had meant everything in
life to him. My father's decision was simple, definite, clear and, in his eyes, it was
something to be taken for granted. A man of such a nature who had become an autocrat
by reason of his own hard struggle for existence, could not think of allowing
'inexperienced' and irresponsible young fellows to choose their own careers. To act in
such a way, where the future of his own son was concerned, would have been a grave
and reprehensible weakness in the exercise of parental authority and responsibility,
something utterly incompatible with his characteristic sense of duty.

And yet it had to be otherwise.

For the first time in my life--I was then eleven years old--I felt myself forced into open
opposition. No matter how hard and determined my father might be about putting his
own plans and opinions into action, his son was no less obstinate in refusing to accept
ideas on which he set little or no value.

I would not become a civil servant.

No amount of persuasion and no amount of 'grave' warnings could break down that
opposition. I would not become a State official, not on any account. All the attempts
which my father made to arouse in me a love or liking for that profession, by picturing
his own career for me, had only the opposite effect. It nauseated me to think that one
day I might be fettered to an office stool, that I could not dispose of my own time but
would be forced to spend the whole of my life filling out forms.

One can imagine what kind of thoughts such a prospect awakened in the mind of a
young fellow who was by no means what is called a 'good boy' in the current sense of
that term. The ridiculously easy school tasks which we were given made it possible for
me to spend far more time in the open air than at home. To-day, when my political
opponents pry into my life with diligent scrutiny, as far back as the days of my

boyhood, so as finally to be able to prove what disreputable tricks this Hitler was
accustomed to in his young days, I thank heaven that I can look back to those happy
days and find the memory of them helpful. The fields and the woods were then the
terrain on which all disputes were fought out.

Even attendance at the REALSCHULE could not alter my way of spending my time. But
I had now another battle to fight.

So long as the paternal plan to make a State functionary contradicted my own
inclinations only in the abstract, the conflict was easy to bear. I could be discreet about
expressing my personal views and thus avoid constantly recurrent disputes. My own
resolution not to become a Government official was sufficient for the time being to put
my mind completely at rest. I held on to that resolution inexorably. But the situation
became more difficult once I had a positive plan of my own which I might present to
my father as a counter-suggestion. This happened when I was twelve years old. How it
came about I cannot exactly say now; but one day it became clear to me that I would be
a painter--I mean an artist. That I had an aptitude for drawing was an admitted fact. It
was even one of the reasons why my father had sent me to the REALSCHULE; but he
had never thought of having that talent developed in such a way that I could take up
painting as a professional career. Quite the contrary. When, as a result of my renewed
refusal to adopt his favourite plan, my father asked me for the first time what I myself
really wished to be, the resolution that I had already formed expressed itself almost
automatically. For a while my father was speechless. "A painter? An artist-painter?" he

He wondered whether I was in a sound state of mind. He thought that he might not
have caught my words rightly, or that he had misunderstood what I meant. But when I
had explained my ideas to him and he saw how seriously I took them, he opposed them
with that full determination which was characteristic of him. His decision was
exceedingly simple and could not be deflected from its course by any consideration of
what my own natural qualifications really were.

"Artist! Not as long as I live, never." As the son had inherited some of the father's
obstinacy, besides having other qualities of his own, my reply was equally energetic.
But it stated something quite the contrary.

At that our struggle became stalemate. The father would not abandon his 'Never', and I
became all the more consolidated in my 'Nevertheless'.

Naturally the resulting situation was not pleasant. The old gentleman was bitterly
annoyed; and indeed so was I, although I really loved him. My father forbade me to
entertain any hopes of taking up the art of painting as a profession. I went a step further
and declared that I would not study anything else. With such declarations the situation

became still more strained, so that the old gentleman irrevocably decided to assert his
parental authority at all costs. That led me to adopt an attitude of circumspect silence,
but I put my threat into execution. I thought that, once it became clear to my father that
I was making no progress at the REALSCHULE, for weal or for woe, he would be
forced to allow me to follow the happy career I had dreamed of.

I do not know whether I calculated rightly or not. Certainly my failure to make progress
became quite visible in the school. I studied just the subjects that appealed to me,
especially those which I thought might be of advantage to me later on as a painter.
What did not appear to have any importance from this point of view, or what did not
otherwise appeal to me favourably, I completely sabotaged. My school reports of that
time were always in the extremes of good or bad, according to the subject and the
interest it had for me. In one column my qualification read 'very good' or 'excellent'. In
another it read 'average' or even 'below average'. By far my best subjects were
geography and, even more so, general history. These were my two favourite subjects,
and I led the class in them.

When I look back over so many years and try to judge the results of that experience I
find two very significant facts standing out clearly before my mind.

First, I became a nationalist.

Second, I learned to understand and grasp the true meaning of history.

The old Austria was a multi-national State. In those days at least the citizens of the
German Empire, taken through and through, could not understand what that fact
meant in the everyday life of the individuals within such a State. After the magnificent
triumphant march of the victorious armies in the Franco-German War the Germans in
the REICH became steadily more and more estranged from the Germans beyond their
frontiers, partly because they did not deign to appreciate those other Germans at their
true value or simply because they were incapable of doing so.

The Germans of the REICH did not realize that if the Germans in Austria had not been
of the best racial stock they could never have given the stamp of their own character to
an Empire of 52 millions, so definitely that in Germany itself the idea arose--though
quite an erroneous one--that Austria was a German State. That was an error which led
to dire consequences; but all the same it was a magnificent testimony to the character of
the ten million Germans in that East Mark. (Note 3) Only very few of the Germans in
the REICH itself had an idea of the bitter struggle which those Eastern Germans had to
carry on daily for the preservation of their German language, their German schools and
their German character. Only to-day, when a tragic fate has torn several millions of our
kinsfolk away from the REICH and has forced them to live under the rule of the
stranger, dreaming of that common fatherland towards which all their yearnings are

directed and struggling to uphold at least the sacred right of using their mother tongue-
-only now have the wider circles of the German population come to realize what it
means to have to fight for the traditions of one's race. And so at last perhaps there are
people here and there who can assess the greatness of that German spirit which
animated the old East Mark and enabled those people, left entirely dependent on their
own resources, to defend the Empire against the Orient for several centuries and
subsequently to hold fast the frontiers of the German language through a guerilla
warfare of attrition, at a time when the German Empire was sedulously cultivating an
interest for colonies but not for its own flesh and blood before the threshold of its own

What has happened always and everywhere, in every kind of struggle, happened also
in the language fight which was carried on in the old Austria. There were three groups--
the fighters, the hedgers and the traitors. Even in the schools this sifting already began
to take place. And it is worth noting that the struggle for the language was waged
perhaps in its bitterest form around the school; because this was the nursery where the
seeds had to be watered which were to spring up and form the future generation. The
tactical objective of the fight was the winning over of the child, and it was to the child
that the first rallying cry was addressed:

"German youth, do not forget that you are a German," and "Remember, little girl, that
one day you must be a German mother."

Those who know something of the juvenile spirit can understand how youth will
always lend a glad ear to such a rallying cry. Under many forms the young people led
the struggle, fighting in their own way and with their own weapons. They refused to
sing non-German songs. The greater the efforts made to win them away from their
German allegiance, the more they exalted the glory of their German heroes. They
stinted themselves in buying things to eat, so that they might spare their pennies to help
the war chest of their elders. They were incredibly alert in the significance of what the
non-German teachers said and they contradicted in unison. They wore the forbidden
emblems of their own kinsfolk and were happy when penalised for doing so, or even
physically punished. In miniature they were mirrors of loyalty from which the older
people might learn a lesson.

And thus it was that at a comparatively early age I took part in the struggle which the
nationalities were waging against one another in the old Austria. When meetings were
held for the South Mark German League and the School League we wore cornflowers
and black-red-gold colours to express our loyalty. We greeted one another with HEIL!
and instead of the Austrian anthem we sang our own DEUTSCHLAND ÜBER ALLES,
despite warnings and penalties. Thus the youth were educated politically at a time
when the citizens of a so-called national State for the most part knew little of their own
nationality except the language. Of course, I did not belong to the hedgers. Within a

little while I had become an ardent 'German National', which has a different meaning
from the party significance attached to that phrase to-day.

I developed very rapidly in the nationalist direction, and by the time I was 15 years old
I had come to understand the distinction between dynastic patriotism and nationalism
based on the concept of folk, or people, my inclination being entirely in favour of the

Such a preference may not perhaps be clearly intelligible to those who have never taken
the trouble to study the internal conditions that prevailed under the Habsburg

Among historical studies universal history was the subject almost exclusively taught in
the Austrian schools, for of specific Austrian history there was only very little. The fate
of this State was closely bound up with the existence and development of Germany as a
whole; so a division of history into German history and Austrian history would be
practically inconceivable. And indeed it was only when the German people came to be
divided between two States that this division of German history began to take place.

The insignia (Note 4) of a former imperial sovereignty which were still preserved in
Vienna appeared to act as magical relics rather than as the visible guarantee of an
everlasting bond of union.

When the Habsburg State crumbled to pieces in 1918 the Austrian Germans
instinctively raised an outcry for union with their German fatherland. That was the
voice of a unanimous yearning in the hearts of the whole people for a return to the
unforgotten home of their fathers. But such a general yearning could not be explained
except by attributing the cause of it to the historical training through which the
individual Austrian Germans had passed. Therein lay a spring that never dried up.
Especially in times of distraction and forgetfulness its quiet voice was a reminder of the
past, bidding the people to look out beyond the mere welfare of the moment to a new

The teaching of universal history in what are called the middle schools is still very
unsatisfactory. Few teachers realize that the purpose of teaching history is not the
memorizing of some dates and facts, that the student is not interested in knowing the
exact date of a battle or the birthday of some marshal or other, and not at all--or at least
only very insignificantly--interested in knowing when the crown of his fathers was
placed on the brow of some monarch. These are certainly not looked upon as important

To study history means to search for and discover the forces that are the causes of those
results which appear before our eyes as historical events. The art of reading and
studying consists in remembering the essentials and forgetting what is not essential.

Probably my whole future life was determined by the fact that I had a professor of
history who understood, as few others understand, how to make this viewpoint prevail
in teaching and in examining. This teacher was Dr. Leopold Poetsch, of the
REALSCHULE at Linz. He was the ideal personification of the qualities necessary to a
teacher of history in the sense I have mentioned above. An elderly gentleman with a
decisive manner but a kindly heart, he was a very attractive speaker and was able to
inspire us with his own enthusiasm. Even to-day I cannot recall without emotion that
venerable personality whose enthusiastic exposition of history so often made us entirely
forget the present and allow ourselves to be transported as if by magic into the past. He
penetrated through the dim mist of thousands of years and transformed the historical
memory of the dead past into a living reality. When we listened to him we became afire
with enthusiasm and we were sometimes moved even to tears.

It was still more fortunate that this professor was able not only to illustrate the past by
examples from the present but from the past he was also able to draw a lesson for the
present. He understood better than any other the everyday problems that were then
agitating our minds. The national fervour which we felt in our own small way was
utilized by him as an instrument of our education, inasmuch as he often appealed to our
national sense of honour; for in that way he maintained order and held our attention
much more easily than he could have done by any other means. It was because I had
such a professor that history became my favourite subject. As a natural consequence,
but without the conscious connivance of my professor, I then and there became a young
rebel. But who could have studied German history under such a teacher and not
become an enemy of that State whose rulers exercised such a disastrous influence on the
destinies of the German nation? Finally, how could one remain the faithful subject of
the House of Habsburg, whose past history and present conduct proved it to be ready
ever and always to betray the interests of the German people for the sake of paltry
personal interests? Did not we as youngsters fully realize that the House of Habsburg
did not, and could not, have any love for us Germans?

What history taught us about the policy followed by the House of Habsburg was
corroborated by our own everyday experiences. In the north and in the south the poison
of foreign races was eating into the body of our people, and even Vienna was steadily
becoming more and more a non-German city. The 'Imperial House' favoured the Czechs
on every possible occasion. Indeed it was the hand of the goddess of eternal justice and
inexorable retribution that caused the most deadly enemy of Germanism in Austria, the
Archduke Franz Ferdinand, to fall by the very bullets which he himself had helped to
cast. Working from above downwards, he was the chief patron of the movement to
make Austria a Slav State.

The burdens laid on the shoulders of the German people were enormous and the
sacrifices of money and blood which they had to make were incredibly heavy.

Yet anybody who was not quite blind must have seen that it was all in vain. What
affected us most bitterly was the consciousness of the fact that this whole system was
morally shielded by the alliance with Germany, whereby the slow extirpation of
Germanism in the old Austrian Monarchy seemed in some way to be more or less
sanctioned by Germany herself. Habsburg hypocrisy, which endeavoured outwardly to
make the people believe that Austria still remained a German State, increased the
feeling of hatred against the Imperial House and at the same time aroused a spirit of
rebellion and contempt.

But in the German Empire itself those who were then its rulers saw nothing of what all
this meant. As if struck blind, they stood beside a corpse and in the very symptoms of
decomposition they believed that they recognized the signs of a renewed vitality. In
that unhappy alliance between the young German Empire and the illusory Austrian
State lay the germ of the World War and also of the final collapse.

In the subsequent pages of this book I shall go to the root of the problem. Suffice it to
say here that in the very early years of my youth I came to certain conclusions which I
have never abandoned. Indeed I became more profoundly convinced of them as the
years passed. They were: That the dissolution of the Austrian Empire is a preliminary
condition for the defence of Germany; further, that national feeling is by no means
identical with dynastic patriotism; finally, and above all, that the House of Habsburg
was destined to bring misfortune to the German nation.

As a logical consequence of these convictions, there arose in me a feeling of intense love
for my German-Austrian home and a profound hatred for the Austrian State.

That kind of historical thinking which was developed in me through my study of
history at school never left me afterwards. World history became more and more an
inexhaustible source for the understanding of contemporary historical events, which
means politics. Therefore I will not "learn" politics but let politics teach me.

A precocious revolutionary in politics I was no less a precocious revolutionary in art. At
that time the provincial capital of Upper Austria had a theatre which, relatively
speaking, was not bad. Almost everything was played there. When I was twelve years
old I saw William Tell performed. That was my first experience of the theatre. Some
months later I attended a performance of LOHENGRIN, the first opera I had ever
heard. I was fascinated at once. My youthful enthusiasm for the Bayreuth Master knew
no limits. Again and again I was drawn to hear his operas; and to-day I consider it a

great piece of luck that these modest productions in the little provincial city prepared
the way and made it possible for me to appreciate the better productions later on.

But all this helped to intensify my profound aversion for the career that my father had
chosen for me; and this dislike became especially strong as the rough corners of
youthful boorishness became worn off, a process which in my case caused a good deal
of pain. I became more and more convinced that I should never be happy as a State
official. And now that the REALSCHULE had recognized and acknowledged my
aptitude for drawing, my own resolution became all the stronger. Imprecations and
threats had no longer any chance of changing it. I wanted to become a painter and no
power in the world could force me to become a civil servant. The only peculiar feature
of the situation now was that as I grew bigger I became more and more interested in
architecture. I considered this fact as a natural development of my flair for painting and
I rejoiced inwardly that the sphere of my artistic interests was thus enlarged. I had no
notion that one day it would have to be otherwise.

The question of my career was decided much sooner than I could have expected.

When I was in my thirteenth year my father was suddenly taken from us. He was still
in robust health when a stroke of apoplexy painlessly ended his earthly wanderings and
left us all deeply bereaved. His most ardent longing was to be able to help his son to
advance in a career and thus save me from the harsh ordeal that he himself had to go
through. But it appeared to him then as if that longing were all in vain. And yet, though
he himself was not conscious of it, he had sown the seeds of a future which neither of us
foresaw at that time.

At first nothing changed outwardly.

My mother felt it her duty to continue my education in accordance with my father's
wishes, which meant that she would have me study for the civil service. For my own
part I was even more firmly determined than ever before that under no circumstances
would I become an official of the State. The curriculum and teaching methods followed
in the middle school were so far removed from my ideals that I became profoundly
indifferent. Illness suddenly came to my assistance. Within a few weeks it decided my
future and put an end to the long-standing family conflict. My lungs became so
seriously affected that the doctor advised my mother very strongly not under any
circumstances to allow me to take up a career which would necessitate working in an
office. He ordered that I should give up attendance at the REALSCHULE for a year at
least. What I had secretly desired for such a long time, and had persistently fought for,
now became a reality almost at one stroke.

Influenced by my illness, my mother agreed that I should leave the REALSCHULE and
attend the Academy.

Those were happy days, which appeared to me almost as a dream; but they were bound
to remain only a dream. Two years later my mother's death put a brutal end to all my
fine projects. She succumbed to a long and painful illness which from the very
beginning permitted little hope of recovery. Though expected, her death came as a
terrible blow to me. I respected my father, but I loved my mother.

Poverty and stern reality forced me to decide promptly.

The meagre resources of the family had been almost entirely used up through my
mother's severe illness. The allowance which came to me as an orphan was not enough
for the bare necessities of life. Somehow or other I would have to earn my own bread.

With my clothes and linen packed in a valise and with an indomitable resolution in my
heart, I left for Vienna. I hoped to forestall fate, as my father had done fifty years before.
I was determined to become 'something'--but certainly not a civil servant.

[Note 1. In order to understand the reference here, and similar references in later
portions of MEIN KAMPF, the following must be borne in mind:

From 1792 to 1814 the French Revolutionary Armies overran Germany. In 1800 Bavaria
shared in the Austrian defeat at Hohenlinden and the French occupied Munich. In 1805
the Bavarian Elector was made King of Bavaria by Napoleon and stipulated to back up
Napoleon in all his wars with a force of 30,000 men. Thus Bavaria became the absolute
vassal of the French. This was 'TheTime of Germany's Deepest Humiliation', Which is
referred to again and again by Hitler.

In 1806 a pamphlet entitled 'Germany's Deepest Humiliation' was published in South
Germany. Amnng those who helped to circulate the pamphlet was the Nürnberg
bookseller, Johannes Philipp Palm. He was denounced to the French by a Bavarian
police agent. At his trial he refused to disclose thename of the author. By Napoleon's
orders, he was shot at Braunau-on-the-Innon August 26th, 1806. A monument erected
to him on the site of the executionwas one of the first public objects that made an
impression on Hitler asa little boy.

Leo Schlageter's case was in many respects parallel to that of Johannes Palm. Schlageter
was a German theological student who volunteered for service in 1914. He became an
artillery officer and won the Iron Cross of both classes. When the French occupied the
Ruhr in 1923 Schlageter helped to organize the passive resistance on the German side.
He and his companions blew up a railway bridge for the purpose of making the
transport of coal to France more difficult.

Those who took part in the affair were denounced to the French by a German informer.
Schlageter took the whole responsibility on his own shoulders and was condemned to
death, his companions being sentenced to various terms of imprisonment and penal
servitude by the French Court. Schlageter refused to disclose the identity of those who
issued the order to blow up the railway bridge and he would not plead for mercy before
a French Court. He was shot by a French firing-squad on May 26th, 1923. Severing was
at that time German Minister of the Interior. It is said that representations were made,
to himon Schlageter's behalf and that he refused to interfere.

Schlageter has become the chief martyr of the German resistancc to the French
occupation of the Ruhr and also one of the great heroes of the National Socialist
Movement. He had joined the Movement at a very early stage, his card of membership
bearing the number 61.]

[Note 2. Non-classical secondary school. The Lyceum and GYMNASIUM were classical
or semi-classical secondary schools.]

[Note 3. See Translator's Introduction.]

[Note 4. When Francis II had laid down his title as Emperor of the Holy Roman
Empireof the German Nation, which he did at the command of Napoleon, the
Crownand Mace, as the Imperial Insignia, were kept in Vienna. After the German
Empire was refounded, in 1871, under William I, there were many demands tohave the
Insignia transferred to Berlin. But these went unheeded. Hitler had them brought to
Germany after the Austrian Anschluss and displayed at Nuremberg during the Party
Congress in September 1938.]

Chapter 2

Years Of Study And Suffering In Vienna

WHEN MY mother died my fate had already been decided in one respect. During the
last months of her illness I went to Vienna to take the entrance examination for the
Academy of Fine Arts. Armed with a bulky packet of sketches, I felt convinced that I
should pass the examination quite easily. At the REALSCHULE I was by far the best
student in the drawing class, and since that time I had made more than ordinary
progress in the practice of drawing. Therefore I was pleased with myself and was proud
and happy at the prospect of what I considered an assured success.

But there was one misgiving: It seemed to me that I was better qualified for drawing
than for painting, especially in the various branches of architectural drawing. At the
same time my interest in architecture was constantly increasing. And I advanced in this
direction at a still more rapid pace after my first visit to Vienna, which lasted two
weeks. I was not yet sixteen years old. I went to the Hof Museum to study the paintings
in the art gallery there; but the building itself captured almost all my interest, from early
morning until late at night I spent all my time visiting the various public buildings. And
it was the buildings themselves that were always the principal attraction for me. For
hours and hours I could stand in wonderment before the Opera and the Parliament. The
whole Ring Strasse had a magic effect upon me, as if it were a scene from the Thousand-

And now I was here for the second time in this beautiful city, impatiently waiting to
hear the result of the entrance examination but proudly confident that I had got
through. I was so convinced of my success that when the news that I had failed to pass
was brought to me it struck me like a bolt from the skies. Yet the fact was that I had
failed. I went to see the Rector and asked him to explain the reasons why they refused
to accept me as a student in the general School of Painting, which was part of the
Academy. He said that the sketches which I had brought with me unquestionably
showed that painting was not what I was suited for but that the same sketches gave
clear indications of my aptitude for architectural designing. Therefore the School of
Painting did not come into question for me but rather the School of Architecture, which
also formed part of the Academy. At first it was impossible to understand how this
could be so, seeing that I had never been to a school for architecture and had never
received any instruction in architectural designing.

When I left the Hansen Palace, on the SCHILLER PLATZ, I was quite crestfallen. I felt
out of sorts with myself for the first time in my young life. For what I had heard about
my capabilities now appeared to me as a lightning flash which clearly revealed a
dualism under which I had been suffering for a long time, but hitherto I could give no
clear account whatsoever of the why and wherefore.

Within a few days I myself also knew that I ought to become an architect. But of course
the way was very difficult. I was now forced bitterly to rue my former conduct in
neglecting and despising certain subjects at the REALSCHULE. Before taking up the
courses at the School of Architecture in the Academy it was necessary to attend the
Technical Building School; but a necessary qualification for entrance into this school
was a Leaving Certificate from the Middle School. And this I simply did not have.
According to the human measure of things my dream of following an artistic calling
seemed beyond the limits of possibility.

After the death of my mother I came to Vienna for the third time. This visit was
destined to last several years. Since I had been there before I had recovered my old calm
and resoluteness. The former self-assurance had come back, and I had my eyes steadily
fixed on the goal. I would be an architect. Obstacles are placed across our path in life,
not to be boggled at but to be surmounted. And I was fully determined to surmount
these obstacles, having the picture of my father constantly before my mind, who had
raised himself by his own efforts to the position of a civil servant though he was the
poor son of a village shoemaker. I had a better start, and the possibilities of struggling
through were better. At that time my lot in life seemed to me a harsh one; but to-day I
see in it the wise workings of Providence. The Goddess of Fate clutched me in her
hands and often threatened to smash me; but the will grew stronger as the obstacles
increased, and finally the will triumphed.

I am thankful for that period of my life, because it hardened me and enabled me to be as
tough as I now am. And I am even more thankful because I appreciate the fact that I
was thus saved from the emptiness of a life of ease and that a mother's darling was
taken from tender arms and handed over to Adversity as to a new mother. Though I
then rebelled against it as too hard a fate, I am grateful that I was thrown into a world
of misery and poverty and thus came to know the people for whom I was afterwards to

It was during this period that my eyes were opened to two perils, the names of which I
scarcely knew hitherto and had no notion whatsoever of their terrible significance for
the existence of the German people. These two perils were Marxism and Judaism.

For many people the name of Vienna signifies innocent jollity, a festive place for happy
mortals. For me, alas, it is a living memory of the saddest period in my life. Even to-day

the mention of that city arouses only gloomy thoughts in my mind. Five years of
poverty in that Phaecian (Note 5) town. Five years in which, first as a casual labourer
and then as a painter of little trifles, I had to earn my daily bread. And a meagre morsel
indeed it was, not even sufficient to still the hunger which I constantly felt. That hunger
was the faithful guardian which never left me but took part in everything I did. Every
book that I bought meant renewed hunger, and every visit I paid to the opera meant the
intrusion of that inalienabl companion during the following days. I was always
struggling with my unsympathic friend. And yet during that time I learned more than I
had ever learned before. Outside my architectural studies and rare visits to the opera,
for which I had to deny myself food, I had no other pleasure in life except my books.

I read a great deal then, and I pondered deeply over what I read. All the free time after
work was devoted exclusively to study. Thus within a few years I was able to acquire a
stock of knowledge which I find useful even to-day.

But more than that. During those years a view of life and a definite outlook on the
world took shape in my mind. These became the granite basis of my conduct at that
time. Since then I have extended that foundation only very little, and I have changed
nothing in it.

On the contrary: I am firmly convinced to-day that, generally speaking, it is in youth
that men lay the essential groundwork of their creative thought, wherever that creative
thought exists. I make a distinction between the wisdom of age--which can only arise
from the greater profundity and foresight that are based on the experiences of a long
life--and the creative genius of youth, which blossoms out in thought and ideas with
inexhaustible fertility, without being able to put these into practice immediately,
because of their very superabundance. These furnish the building materials and plans
for the future; and it is from them that age takes the stones and builds the edifice, unless
the so-called wisdom of the years may have smothered the creative genius of youth.

The life which I had hitherto led at home with my parents differed in little or nothing
from that of all the others. I looked forward without apprehension to the morrow, and
there was no such thing as a social problem to be faced. Those among whom I passed
my young days belonged to the small bourgeois class. Therefore it was a world that had
very little contact with the world of genuine manual labourers. For, though at first this
may appear astonishing, the ditch which separates that class, which is by no means
economically well-off; from the manual labouring class is often deeper than people
think. The reason for this division, which we may almost call enmity, lies in the fear that
dominates a social group which has only just risen above the level of the manual
labourer--a fear lest it may fall back into its old condition or at least be classed with the
labourers. Moreover, there is something repulsive in remembering the cultural
indigence of that lower class and their rough manners with one another; so that people
who are only on the first rung of the social ladder find it unbearable to be forced to have

any contact with the cultural level and standard of living out of which they have

And so it happens that very often those who belong to what can really be called the
upper classes find it much easier than do the upstarts to descend to and intermingle
with their fellow beings on the lowest social level. For by the word upstart I mean
everyone who has raised himself through his own efforts to a social level higher than
that to which he formerly belonged. In the case of such a person the hard struggle
through which he passes often destroys his normal human sympathy. His own fight for
existence kills his sensibility for the misery of those who have been left behind.

From this point of view fate had been kind to me. Circumstances forced me to return to
that world of poverty and economic insecurity above which my father had raised
himself in his early days; and thus the blinkers of a narrow PETIT BOURGEOIS
education were torn from my eyes. Now for the first time I learned to know men and I
learned to distinguish between empty appearances or brutal manners and the real inner
nature of the people who outwardly appeared thus.

At the beginning of the century Vienna had already taken rank among those cities
where social conditions are iniquitous. Dazzling riches and loathsome destitution were
intermingled in violent contrast. In the centre and in the Inner City one felt the pulse-
beat of an Empire which had a population of fifty-two millions, with all the perilous
charm of a State made up of multiple nationalities. The dazzling splendour of the Court
acted like a magnet on the wealth and intelligence of the whole Empire. And this
attraction was further strengthened by the dynastic policy of the Habsburg Monarchy in
centralizing everything in itself and for itself.

This centralizing policy was necessary in order to hold together that hotchpotch of
heterogeneous nationalities. But the result of it was an extraordinary concentration of
higher officials in the city, which was at one and the same time the metropolis and
imperial residence.

But Vienna was not merely the political and intellectual centre of the Danubian
Monarchy; it was also the commercial centre. Besides the horde of military officers of
high rank, State officials, artists and scientists, there was the still vaster horde of
workers. Abject poverty confronted the wealth of the aristocracy and the merchant class
face to face. Thousands of unemployed loitered in front of the palaces on the Ring
Strasse; and below that VIA TRIUMPHALIS of the old Austria the homeless huddled
together in the murk and filth of the canals.

There was hardly any other German city in which the social problem could be studied
better than in Vienna. But here I must utter a warning against the illusion that this
problem can be 'studied' from above downwards. The man who has never been in the

clutches of that crushing viper can never know what its poison is. An attempt to study
it in any other way will result only in superficial talk and sentimental delusions. Both
are harmful. The first because it can never go to the root of the question, the second
because it evades the question entirely. I do not know which is the more nefarious: to
ignore social distress, as do the majority of those who have been favoured by fortune
and those who have risen in the social scale through their own routine labour, or the
equally supercilious and often tactless but always genteel condescension displayed by
people who make a fad of being charitable and who plume themselves on
'sympathising with the people.' Of course such persons sin more than they can imagine
from lack of instinctive understanding. And thus they are astonished to find that the
'social conscience' on which they pride themselves never produces any results, but often
causes their good intentions to be resented; and then they talk of the ingratitude of the

Such persons are slow to learn that here there is no place for merely social activities and
that there can be no expectation of gratitude; for in this connection there is no question
at all of distributing favours but essentially a matter of retributive justice. I was
protected against the temptation to study the social question in the way just mentioned,
for the simple reason that I was forced to live in the midst of poverty-stricken people.
Therefore it was not a question of studying the problem objectively, but rather one of
testing its effects on myself. Though the rabbit came through the ordeal of the
experiment, this must not be taken as evidence of its harmlessness.

When I try to-day to recall the succession of impressions received during that time I
find that I can do so only with approximate completeness. Here I shall describe only the
more essential impressions and those which personally affected me and often staggered
me. And I shall mention the few lessons I then learned from this experience.

At that time it was for the most part not very difficult to find work, because I had to
seek work not as a skilled tradesman but as a so-called extra-hand ready to take any job
that turned up by chance, just for the sake of earning my daily bread.

Thus I found myself in the same situation as all those emigrants who shake the dust of
Europe from their feet, with the cast-iron determination to lay the foundations of a new
existence in the New World and acquire for themselves a new home. Liberated from all
the paralysing prejudices of class and calling, environment and tradition, they enter any
service that opens its doors to them, accepting any work that comes their way, filled
more and more with the idea that honest work never disgraced anybody, no matter
what kind it may be. And so I was resolved to set both feet in what was for me a new
world and push forward on my own road.

I soon found out that there was some kind of work always to be got, but I also learned
that it could just as quickly and easily be lost. The uncertainty of being able to earn a

regular daily livelihood soon appeared to me as the gloomiest feature in this new life
that I had entered.

Although the skilled worker was not so frequently thrown idle on the streets as the
unskilled worker, yet the former was by no means protected against the same fate;
because though he may not have to face hunger as a result of unemployment due to the
lack of demand in the labour market, the lock-out and the strike deprived the skilled
worker of the chance to earn his bread. Here the element of uncertainty in steadily
earning one's daily bread was the bitterest feature of the whole social-economic system

The country lad who migrates to the big city feels attracted by what has been described
as easy work--which it may be in reality--and few working hours. He is especially
entranced by the magic glimmer spread over the big cities. Accustomed in the country
to earn a steady wage, he has been taught not to quit his former post until a new one is
at least in sight. As there is a great scarcity of agricultural labour, the probability of long
unemployment in the country has been very small. It is a mistake to presume that the
lad who leaves the countryside for the town is not made of such sound material as those
who remain at home to work on the land. On the contrary, experience shows that it is
the more healthy and more vigorous that emigrate, and not the reverse. Among these
emigrants I include not merely those who emigrate to America, but also the servant boy
in the country who decides to leave his native village and migrate to the big city where
he will be a stranger. He is ready to take the risk of an uncertain fate. In most cases he
comes to town with a little money in his pocket and for the first few days he is not
discouraged if he should not have the good fortune to find work. But if he finds a job
and then loses it in a little while, the case is much worse. To find work anew, especially
in winter, is often difficult and indeed sometimes impossible. For the first few weeks
life is still bearable He receives his out-of-work money from his trade union and is thus
enabled to carry on. But when the last of his own money is gone and his trade union
ceases to pay out because of the prolonged unemployment, then comes the real distress.
He now loiters about and is hungry. Often he pawns or sells the last of his belongings.
His clothes begin to get shabby and with the increasing poverty of his outward
appearance he descends to a lower social level and mixes up with a class of human
beings through whom his mind is now poisoned, in addition to his physical misery.
Then he has nowhere to sleep and if that happens in winter, which is very often the
case, he is in dire distress. Finally he gets work. But the old story repeats itself. A second
time the same thing happens. Then a third time; and now it is probably much worse.
Little by little he becomes indifferent to this everlasting insecurity. Finally he grows
used to the repetition. Thus even a man who is normally of industrious habits grows
careless in his whole attitude towards life and gradually becomes an instrument in the
hands of unscrupulous people who exploit him for the sake of their own ignoble aims.
He has been so often thrown out of employment through no fault of his own that he is
now more or less indifferent whether the strike in which he takes part be for the

purpose of securing his economic rights or be aimed at the destruction of the State, the
whole social order and even civilization itself. Though the idea of going on strike may
not be to his natural liking, yet he joins in it out of sheer indifference.

I saw this process exemplified before my eyes in thousands of cases. And the longer I
observed it the greater became my dislike for that mammoth city which greedily
attracts men to its bosom, in order to break them mercilessly in the end. When they
came they still felt themselves in communion with their own people at home; if they
remained that tie was broken.

I was thrown about so much in the life of the metropolis that I experienced the
workings of this fate in my own person and felt the effects of it in my own soul. One
thing stood out clearly before my eyes: It was the sudden changes from work to
idleness and vice versa; so that the constant fluctuations thus caused by earnings and
expenditure finally destroyed the 'sense of thrift for many people and also the habit of
regulating expenditure in an intelligent way. The body appeared to grow accustomed to
the vicissitudes of food and hunger, eating heartily in good times and going hungry in
bad. Indeed hunger shatters all plans for rationing expenditure on a regular scale in
better times when employment is again found. The reason for this is that the
deprivations which the unemployed worker has to endure must be compensated for
psychologically by a persistent mental mirage in which he imagines himself eating
heartily once again. And this dream develops into such a longing that it turns into a
morbid impulse to cast off all self-restraint when work and wages turn up again.
Therefore the moment work is found anew he forgets to regulate the expenditure of his
earnings but spends them to the full without thinking of to-morrow. This leads to
confusion in the little weekly housekeeping budget, because the expenditure is not
rationally planned. When the phenomenon which I have mentioned first happens, the
earnings will last perhaps for five days instead of seven; on subsequent occasions they
will last only for three days; as the habit recurs, the earnings will last scarcely for a day;
and finally they will disappear in one night of feasting.

Often there are wife and children at home. And in many cases it happens that these
become infected by such a way of living, especially if the husband is good to them and
wants to do the best he can for them and loves them in his own way and according to
his own lights. Then the week's earnings are spent in common at home within two or
three days. The family eat and drink together as long as the money lasts and at the end
of the week they hunger together. Then the wife wanders about furtively in the
neighbourhood, borrows a little, and runs up small debts with the shopkeepers in an
effort to pull through the lean days towards the end of the week. They sit down
together to the midday meal with only meagre fare on the table, and often even nothing
to eat. They wait for the coming payday, talking of it and making plans; and while they
are thus hungry they dream of the plenty that is to come. And so the little children
become acquainted with misery in their early years.

But the evil culminates when the husband goes his own way from the beginning of the
week and the wife protests, simply out of love for the children. Then there are quarrels
and bad feeling and the husband takes to drink according as he becomes estranged
from his wife. He now becomes drunk every Saturday. Fighting for her own existence
and that of the children, the wife has to hound him along the road from the factory to
the tavern in order to get a few shillings from him on payday. Then when he finally
comes home, maybe on the Sunday or the Monday, having parted with his last shillings
and pence, pitiable scenes follow, scenes that cry out for God's mercy.

I have had actual experience of all this in hundreds of cases. At first I was disgusted and
indignant; but later on I came to recognize the whole tragedy of their misfortune and to
understand the profound causes of it. They were the unhappy victims of evil

Housing conditions were very bad at that time. The Vienna manual labourers lived in
surroundings of appalling misery. I shudder even to-day when I think of the woeful
dens in which people dwelt, the night shelters and the slums, and all the tenebrous
spectacles of ordure, loathsome filth and wickedness.

What will happen one day when hordes of emancipated slaves come forth from these
dens of misery to swoop down on their unsuspecting fellow men? For this other world
does not think about such a possibility. They have allowed these things to go on
without caring and even without suspecting--in their total lack of instinctive
understanding--that sooner or later destiny will take its vengeance unless it will have
been appeased in time.

To-day I fervidly thank Providence for having sent me to such a school. There I could
not refuse to take an interest in matters that did not please me. This school soon taught
me a profound lesson.

In order not to despair completely of the people among whom I then lived I had to set
on one side the outward appearances of their lives and on the other the reasons why
they had developed in that way. Then I could hear everything without discouragement;
for those who emerged from all this misfortune and misery, from this filth and outward
degradation, were not human beings as such but rather lamentable results of
lamentable laws. In my own life similar hardships prevented me from giving way to a
pitying sentimentality at the sight of these degraded products which had finally
resulted from the pressure of circumstances. No, the sentimental attitude would be the
wrong one to adopt.

Even in those days I already saw that there was a two-fold method by which alone it
would be possible to bring about an amelioration of these conditions. This method is:

first, to create better fundamental conditions of social development by establishing a
profound feeling for social responsibilities among the public; second, to combine this
feeling for social responsibilities with a ruthless determination to prune away all
excrescences which are incapable of being improved.

Just as Nature concentrates its greatest attention, not to the maintenance of what
already exists but on the selective breeding of offspring in order to carry on the species,
so in human life also it is less a matter of artificially improving the existing generation--
which, owing to human characteristics, is impossible in ninety-nine cases out of a
hundred--and more a matter of securing from the very start a better road for future

During my struggle for existence in Vienna I perceived very clearly that the aim of all
social activity must never be merely charitable relief, which is ridiculous and useless,
but it must rather be a means to find a way of eliminating the fundamental deficiencies
in our economic and cultural life--deficiencies which necessarily bring about the
degradation of the individual or at least lead him towards such degradation. The
difficulty of employing every means, even the most drastic, to eradicate the hostility
prevailing among the working classes towards the State is largely due to an attitude of
uncertainty in deciding upon the inner motives and causes of this contemporary
phenomenon. The grounds of this uncertainty are to be found exclusively in the sense
of guilt which each individual feels for having permitted this tragedy of degradation.
For that feeling paralyses every effort at making a serious and firm decision to act. And
thus because the people whom it concerns are vacillating they are timid and half-
hearted in putting into effect even the measures which are indispensable for self-
preservation. When the individual is no longer burdened with his own consciousness of
blame in this regard, then and only then will he have that inner tranquillity and outer
force to cut off drastically and ruthlessly all the parasite growth and root out the weeds.

But because the Austrian State had almost no sense of social rights or social legislation
its inability to abolish those evil excrescences was manifest.

I do not know what it was that appalled me most at that time: the economic misery of
those who were then my companions, their crude customs and morals, or the low level
of their intellectual culture.

How often our bourgeoisie rises up in moral indignation on hearing from the mouth of
some pitiable tramp that it is all the same to him whether he be a German or not and
that he will find himself at home wherever he can get enough to keep body and soul
together. They protest sternly against such a lack of 'national pride' and strongly
express their horror at such sentiments.

But how many people really ask themselves why it is that their own sentiments are
better? How many of them understand that their natural pride in being members of so
favoured a nation arises from the innumerable succession of instances they have
encountered which remind them of the greatness of the Fatherland and the Nation in all
spheres of artistic and cultural life? How many of them realize that pride in the
Fatherland is largely dependent on knowledge of its greatness in all those spheres? Do
our bourgeois circles ever think what a ridiculously meagre share the people have in
that knowledge which is a necessary prerequisite for the feeling of pride in one's

It cannot be objected here that in other countries similar conditions exist and that
nevertheless the working classes in those countries have remained patriotic. Even if that
were so, it would be no excuse for our negligent attitude. But it is not so. What we call
chauvinistic education--in the case of the French people, for example--is only the
excessive exaltation of the greatness of France in all spheres of culture or, as the French
say, civilization. The French boy is not educated on purely objective principles.
Wherever the importance of the political and cultural greatness of his country is
concerned he is taught in the most subjective way that one can imagine.

This education will always have to be confined to general ideas in a large perspective
and these ought to be deeply engraven, by constant repetition if necessary, on the
memories and feelings of the people.

In our case, however, we are not merely guilty of negative sins of omission but also of
positively perverting the little which some individuals had the luck to learn at school.
The rats that poison our body-politic gnaw from the hearts and memories of the broad
masses even that little which distress and misery have left.

Let the reader try to picture the following:

There is a lodging in a cellar and this lodging consists of two damp rooms. In these
rooms a workman and his family live--seven people in all. Let us assume that one of the
children is a boy of three years. That is the age at which children first become conscious
of the impressions which they receive. In the case of highly gifted people traces of the
impressions received in those early years last in the memory up to an advanced age.
Now the narrowness and congestion of those living quarters do not conduce to pleasant
inter-relations. Thus quarrels and fits of mutual anger arise. These people can hardly be
said to live with one another, but rather down on top of one another. The small
misunderstandings which disappear of themselves in a home where there is enough
space for people to go apart from one another for a while, here become the source of
chronic disputes. As far as the children are concerned the situation is tolerable from this
point of view. In such conditions they are constantly quarrelling with one another, but
the quarrels are quickly and entirely forgotten. But when the parents fall out with one

another these daily bickerings often descend to rudeness such as cannot be adequately
imagined. The results of such experiences must become apparent later on in the
children. One must have practical experience of such a MILIEU so as to be able to
picture the state of affairs that arises from these mutual recriminations when the father
physically assaults the mother and maltreats her in a fit of drunken rage. At the age of
six the child can no longer ignore those sordid details which even an adult would find
revolting. Infected with moral poison, bodily undernourished, and the poor little head
filled with vermin, the young 'citizen' goes to the primary school. With difficulty he
barely learns to read and write. There is no possibility of learning any lessons at home.
Quite the contrary. The father and mother themselves talk before the children in the
most disparaging way about the teacher and the school and they are much more
inclined to insult the teachers than to put their offspring across the knee and knock
sound reason into him. What the little fellow hears at home does not tend to increase
respect for his human surroundings. Here nothing good is said of human nature as a
whole and every institution, from the school to the government, is reviled. Whether
religion and morals are concerned or the State and the social order, it is all the same;
they are all scoffed at. When the young lad leaves school, at the age of fourteen, it
would be difficult to say what are the most striking features of his character, incredible
ignorance in so far as real knowledge is concerned or cynical impudence combined with
an attitude towards morality which is really startling at so young an age.

What station in life can such a person fill, to whom nothing is sacred, who has never
experienced anything noble but, on the contrary, has been intimately acquainted with
the lowest kind of human existence? This child of three has got into the habit of reviling
all authority by the time he is fifteen. He has been acquainted only with moral filth and
vileness, everything being excluded that might stimulate his thought towards higher
things. And now this young specimen of humanity enters the school of life.

He leads the same kind of life which was exemplified for him by his father during his
childhood. He loiters about and comes home at all hours. He now even black-guards
that broken-hearted being who gave him birth. He curses God and the world and
finally ends up in a House of Correction for young people. There he gets the final

And his bourgeois contemporaries are astonished at the lack of 'patriotic enthusiasm'
which this young 'citizen' manifests.

Day after day the bourgeois world are witnesses to the phenomenon of spreading
poison among the people through the instrumentality of the theatre and the cinema,
gutter journalism and obscene books; and yet they are astonished at the deplorable
'moral standards' and 'national indifference' of the masses. As if the cinema bilge and
the gutter press and suchlike could inculcate knowledge of the greatness of one's
country, apart entirely from the earlier education of the individual.

I then came to understand, quickly and thoroughly, what I had never been aware of
before. It was the following:

The question of 'nationalizing' a people is first and foremost one of establishing healthy
social conditions which will furnish the grounds that are necessary for the education of
the individual. For only when family upbringing and school education have inculcated
in the individual a knowledge of the cultural and economic and, above all, the political
greatness of his own country--then, and then only, will it be possible for him to feel
proud of being a citizen of such a country. I can fight only for something that I love. I
can love only what I respect. And in order to respect a thing I must at least have some
knowledge of it.

As soon as my interest in social questions was once awakened I began to study them in
a fundamental way. A new and hitherto unknown world was thus revealed to me.

In the years 1909-10 I had so far improved my, position that I no longer had to earn my
daily bread as a manual labourer. I was now working independently as draughtsman,
and painter in water colours. This MÉTIER was a poor one indeed as far as earnings
were concerned; for these were only sufficient to meet the bare exigencies of life. Yet it
had an interest for me in view of the profession to which I aspired. Moreover, when I
came home in the evenings I was now no longer dead-tired as formerly, when I used to
be unable to look into a book without falling asleep almost immediately. My present
occupation therefore was in line with the profession I aimed at for the future. Moreover,
I was master of my own time and could distribute my working-hours now better than
formerly. I painted in order to earn my bread, and I studied because I liked it.

Thus I was able to acquire that theoretical knowledge of the social problem which was a
necessary complement to what I was learning through actual experience. I studied all
the books which I could find that dealt with this question and I thought deeply on what
I read. I think that the MILIEU in which I then lived considered me an eccentric person.

Besides my interest in the social question I naturally devoted myself with enthusiasm to
the study of architecture. Side by side with music, I considered it queen of the arts. To
study it was for me not work but pleasure. I could read or draw until the small hours of
the morning without ever getting tired. And I became more and more confident that my
dream of a brilliant future would become true, even though I should have to wait long
years for its fulfilment. I was firmly convinced that one day I should make a name for
myself as an architect.

The fact that, side by side with my professional studies, I took the greatest interest in
everything that had to do with politics did not seem to me to signify anything of great
importance. On the contrary: I looked upon this practical interest in politics merely as

part of an elementary obligation that devolves on every thinking man. Those who have
no understanding of the political world around them have no right to criticize or
complain. On political questions therefore I still continued to read and study a great
deal. But reading had probably a different significance for me from that which it has for
the average run of our so-called 'intellectuals'.

I know people who read interminably, book after book, from page to page, and yet I
should not call them 'well-read people'. Of course they 'know' an immense amount; but
their brain seems incapable of assorting and classifying the material which they have
gathered from books. They have not the faculty of distinguishing between what is
useful and useless in a book; so that they may retain the former in their minds and if
possible skip over the latter while reading it, if that be not possible, then--when once
read--throw it overboard as useless ballast. Reading is not an end in itself, but a means
to an end. Its chief purpose is to help towards filling in the framework which is made
up of the talents and capabilities that each individual possesses. Thus each one procures
for himself the implements and materials necessary for the fulfilment of his calling in
life, no matter whether this be the elementary task of earning one's daily bread or a
calling that responds to higher human aspirations. Such is the first purpose of reading.
And the second purpose is to give a general knowledge of the world in which we live.
In both cases, however, the material which one has acquired through reading must not
be stored up in the memory on a plan that corresponds to the successive chapters of the
book; but each little piece of knowledge thus gained must be treated as if it were a little
stone to be inserted into a mosaic, so that it finds its proper place among all the other
pieces and particles that help to form a general world-picture in the brain of the reader.
Otherwise only a confused jumble of chaotic notions will result from all this reading.
That jumble is not merely useless, but it also tends to make the unfortunate possessor of
it conceited. For he seriously considers himself a well-educated person and thinks that
he understands something of life. He believes that he has acquired knowledge, whereas
the truth is that every increase in such 'knowledge' draws him more and more away
from real life, until he finally ends up in some sanatorium or takes to politics and
becomes a parliamentary deputy.

Such a person never succeeds in turning his knowledge to practical account when the
opportune moment arrives; for his mental equipment is not ordered with a view to
meeting the demands of everyday life. His knowledge is stored in his brain as a literal
transcript of the books he has read and the order of succession in which he has read
them. And if Fate should one day call upon him to use some of his book-knowledge for
certain practical ends in life that very call will have to name the book and give the
number of the page; for the poor noodle himself would never be able to find the spot
where he gathered the information now called for. But if the page is not mentioned at
the critical moment the widely-read intellectual will find himself in a state of hopeless
embarrassment. In a high state of agitation he searches for analogous cases and it is
almost a dead certainty that he will finally deliver the wrong prescription.

If that is not a correct description, then how can we explain the political achievements
of our Parliamentary heroes who hold the highest positions in the government of the
country? Otherwise we should have to attribute the doings of such political leaders, not
to pathological conditions but simply to malice and chicanery.

On the other hand, one who has cultivated the art of reading will instantly discern, in a
book or journal or pamphlet, what ought to be remembered because it meets one's
personal needs or is of value as general knowledge. What he thus learns is incorporated
in his mental analogue of this or that problem or thing, further correcting the mental
picture or enlarging it so that it becomes more exact and precise. Should some practical
problem suddenly demand examination or solution, memory will immediately select
the opportune information from the mass that has been acquired through years of
reading and will place this information at the service of one's powers of judgment so as
to get a new and clearer view of the problem in question or produce a definitive

Only thus can reading have any meaning or be worth while.

The speaker, for example, who has not the sources of information ready to hand which
are necessary to a proper treatment of his subject is unable to defend his opinions
against an opponent, even though those opinions be perfectly sound and true. In every
discussion his memory will leave him shamefully in the lurch. He cannot summon up
arguments to support his statements or to refute his opponent. So long as the speaker
has only to defend himself on his own personal account, the situation is not serious; but
the evil comes when Chance places at the head of public affairs such a soi-disant know-
it-all, who in reality knows nothing.

From early youth I endeavoured to read books in the right way and I was fortunate in
having a good memory and intelligence to assist me. From that point of view my
sojourn in Vienna was particularly useful and profitable. My experiences of everyday
life there were a constant stimulus to study the most diverse problems from new angles.
Inasmuch as I was in a position to put theory to the test of reality and reality to the test
of theory, I was safe from the danger of pedantic theorizing on the one hand and, on the
other, from being too impressed by the superficial aspects of reality.

The experience of everyday life at that time determined me to make a fundamental
theoretical study of two most important questions outside of the social question.

It is impossible to say when I might have started to make a thorough study of the
doctrine and characteristics of Marxism were it not for the fact that I then literally ran
head foremost into the problem.

What I knew of Social Democracy in my youth was precious little and that little was for
the most part wrong. The fact that it led the struggle for universal suffrage and the
secret ballot gave me an inner satisfaction; for my reason then told me that this would
weaken the Habsburg regime, which I so thoroughly detested. I was convinced that
even if it should sacrifice the German element the Danubian State could not continue to
exist. Even at the price of a long and slow Slaviz-ation of the Austrian Germans the
State would secure no guarantee of a really durable Empire; because it was very
questionable if and how far the Slavs possessed the necessary capacity for constructive
politics. Therefore I welcomed every movement that might lead towards the final
disruption of that impossible State which had decreed that it would stamp out the
German character in ten millions of people. The more this babel of tongues wrought
discord and disruption, even in the Parliament, the nearer the hour approached for the
dissolution of this Babylonian Empire. That would mean the liberation of my German
Austrian people, and only then would it become possible for them to be re-united to the

Accordingly I had no feelings of antipathy towards the actual policy of the Social
Democrats. That its avowed purpose was to raise the level of the working classes--
which in my ignorance I then foolishly believed--was a further reason why I should
speak in favour of Social Democracy rather than against it. But the features that
contributed most to estrange me from the Social Democratic movement was its hostile
attitude towards the struggle for the conservation of Germanism in Austria, its
lamentable cocotting with the Slav 'comrades', who received these approaches
favourably as long as any practical advantages were forthcoming but otherwise
maintained a haughty reserve, thus giving the importunate mendicants the sort of
answer their behaviour deserved.

And so at the age of seventeen the word 'Marxism' was very little known to me, while I
looked on 'Social Democracy' and 'Socialism' as synonymous expressions. It was only as
the result of a sudden blow from the rough hand of Fate that my eyes were opened to
the nature of this unparalleled system for duping the public.

Hitherto my acquaintance with the Social Democratic Party was only that of a mere
spectator at some of their mass meetings. I had not the slightest idea of the social-
democratic teaching or the mentality of its partisans. All of a sudden I was brought face
to face with the products of their teaching and what they called their
WELTANSCHAUUNG. In this way a few months sufficed for me to learn something
which under other circumstances might have necessitated decades of study--namely,
that under the cloak of social virtue and love of one's neighbour a veritable pestilence
was spreading abroad and that if this pestilence be not stamped out of the world
without delay it may eventually succeed in exterminating the human race.

I first came into contact with the Social Democrats while working in the building trade.

From the very time that I started work the situation was not very pleasant for me. My
clothes were still rather decent. I was careful of my speech and I was reserved in
manner. I was so occupied with thinking of my own present lot and future possibilities
that I did not take much of an interest in my immediate surroundings. I had sought
work so that I shouldn't starve and at the same time so as to be able to make further
headway with my studies, though this headway might be slow. Possibly I should not
have bothered to be interested in my companions were it not that on the third or fourth
day an event occurred which forced me to take a definite stand. I was ordered to join
the trade union.

At that time I knew nothing about the trades unions. I had had no opportunity of
forming an opinion on their utility or inutility, as the case might be. But when I was told
that I must join the union I refused. The grounds which I gave for my refusal were
simply that I knew nothing about the matter and that anyhow I would not allow myself
to be forced into anything. Probably the former reason saved me from being thrown out
right away. They probably thought that within a few days I might be converted' and
become more docile. But if they thought that they were profoundly mistaken. After two
weeks I found it utterly impossible for me to take such a step, even if I had been willing
to take it at first. During those fourteen days I came to know my fellow workmen better,
and no power in the world could have moved me to join an organization whose
representatives had meanwhile shown themselves in a light which I found so

During the first days my resentment was aroused.

At midday some of my fellow workers used to adjourn to the nearest tavern, while the
others remained on the building premises and there ate their midday meal, which in
most cases was a very scanty one. These were married men. Their wives brought them
the midday soup in dilapidated vessels. Towards the end of the week there was a
gradual increase in the number of those who remained to eat their midday meal on the
building premises. I understood the reason for this afterwards. They now talked

I drank my bottle of milk and ate my morsel of bread somewhere on the outskirts, while
I circumspectly studied my environment or else fell to meditating on my own harsh lot.
Yet I heard more than enough. And I often thought that some of what they said was
meant for my ears, in the hope of bringing me to a decision. But all that I heard had the
effect of arousing the strongest antagonism in me. Everything was disparaged--the
nation, because it was held to be an invention of the 'capitalist' class (how often I had to
listen to that phrase!); the Fatherland, because it was held to be an instrument in the
hands of the bourgeoisie for the exploitation of' the working masses; the authority of the
law, because that was a means of holding down the proletariat; religion, as a means of

doping the people, so as to exploit them afterwards; morality, as a badge of stupid and
sheepish docility. There was nothing that they did not drag in the mud.

At first I remained silent; but that could not last very long. Then I began to take part in
the discussion and to reply to their statements. I had to recognize, however, that this
was bound to be entirely fruitless, as long as I did not have at least a certain amount of
definite information about the questions that were discussed. So I decided to consult the
source from which my interlocutors claimed to have drawn their so-called wisdom. I
devoured book after book, pamphlet after pamphlet.

Meanwhile, we argued with one another on the building premises. From day to day I
was becoming better informed than my companions in the subjects on which they
claimed to be experts. Then a day came when the more redoubtable of my adversaries
resorted to the most effective weapon they had to replace the force of reason. This was
intimidation and physical force. Some of the leaders among my adversaries ordered me
to leave the building or else get flung down from the scaffolding. As I was quite alone I
could not put up any physical resistance; so I chose the first alternative and departed,
richer however by an experience.

I went away full of disgust; but at the same time so deeply moved that it was quite
impossible for me to turn my back on the whole situation and think no more about it.
When my anger began to calm down the spirit of obstinacy got the upper hand and I
decided that at all costs I would get back to work again in the building trade. This
decision became all the stronger a few weeks later, when my little savings had entirely
run out and hunger clutched me once again in its merciless arms. No alternative was
left to me. I got work again and had to leave it for the same reasons as before.

Then I asked myself: Are these men worthy of belonging to a great people? The
question was profoundly disturbing; for if the answer were 'Yes', then the struggle to
defend one's nationality is no longer worth all the trouble and sacrifice we demand of
our best elements if it be in the interests of such a rabble. On the other hand, if the
answer had to be 'No--these men are not worthy of the nation', then our nation is poor
indeed in men. During those days of mental anguish and deep meditation I saw before
my mind the ever-increasing and menacing army of people who could no longer be
reckoned as belonging to their own nation.

It was with quite a different feeling, some days later, that I gazed on the interminable
ranks, four abreast, of Viennese workmen parading at a mass demonstration. I stood
dumbfounded for almost two hours, watching that enormous human dragon which
slowly uncoiled itself there before me. When I finally left the square and wandered in
the direction of my lodgings I felt dismayed and depressed. On my way I noticed the
ARBEITERZEITUNG (The Workman's Journal) in a tobacco shop. This was the chief
press-organ of the old Austrian Social Democracy. In a cheap café, where the common

people used to foregather and where I often went to read the papers, the
ARBEITERZEITUNG was also displayed. But hitherto I could not bring myself to do
more than glance at the wretched thing for a couple of minutes: for its whole tone was a
sort of mental vitriol to me. Under the depressing influence of the demonstration I had
witnessed, some interior voice urged me to buy the paper in that tobacco shop and read
it through. So I brought it home with me and spent the whole evening reading it,
despite the steadily mounting rage provoked by this ceaseless outpouring of

I now found that in the social democratic daily papers I could study the inner character
of this politico-philosophic system much better than in all their theoretical literature.

For there was a striking discrepancy between the two. In the literary effusions which
dealt with the theory of Social Democracy there was a display of high-sounding
phraseology about liberty and human dignity and beauty, all promulgated with an air
of profound wisdom and serene prophetic assurance; a meticulously-woven glitter of
words to dazzle and mislead the reader. On the other hand, the daily Press inculcated
this new doctrine of human redemption in the most brutal fashion. No means were too
base, provided they could be exploited in the campaign of slander. These journalists
were real virtuosos in the art of twisting facts and presenting them in a deceptive form.
The theoretical literature was intended for the simpletons of the soi-disant intellectuals
belonging to the middle and, naturally, the upper classes. The newspaper propaganda
was intended for the masses.

This probing into books and newspapers and studying the teachings of Social
Democracy reawakened my love for my own people. And thus what at first seemed an
impassable chasm became the occasion of a closer affection.

Having once understood the working of the colossal system for poisoning the popular
mind, only a fool could blame the victims of it. During the years that followed I became
more independent and, as I did so, I became better able to understand the inner cause of
the success achieved by this Social Democratic gospel. I now realized the meaning and
purpose of those brutal orders which prohibited the reading of all books and
newspapers that were not 'red' and at the same time demanded that only the 'red'
meetings should be attended. In the clear light of brutal reality I was able to see what
must have been the inevitable consequences of that intolerant teaching.

The PSYCHE of the broad masses is accessible only to what is strong and
uncompromising. Like a woman whose inner sensibilities are not so much under the
sway of abstract reasoning but are always subject to the influence of a vague emotional
longing for the strength that completes her being, and who would rather bow to the
strong man than dominate the weakling--in like manner the masses of the people prefer
the ruler to the suppliant and are filled with a stronger sense of mental security by a

teaching that brooks no rival than by a teaching which offers them a liberal choice. They
have very little idea of how to make such a choice and thus they are prone to feel that
they have been abandoned. They feel very little shame at being terrorized intellectually
and they are scarcely conscious of the fact that their freedom as human beings is
impudently abused; and thus they have not the slightest suspicion of the intrinsic
fallacy of the whole doctrine. They see only the ruthless force and brutality of its
determined utterances, to which they always submit.


Within less than two years I had gained a clear understanding of Social Democracy, in
its teaching and the technique of its operations.

I recognized the infamy of that technique whereby the movement carried on a
campaign of mental terrorism against the bourgeoisie, who are neither morally nor
spiritually equipped to withstand such attacks. The tactics of Social Democracy
consisted in opening, at a given signal, a veritable drum-fire of lies and calumnies
against the man whom they believed to be the most redoubtable of their adversaries,
until the nerves of the latter gave way and they sacrificed the man who was attacked,
simply in the hope of being allowed to live in peace. But the hope proved always to be a
foolish one, for they were never left in peace.

The same tactics are repeated again and again, until fear of these mad dogs exercises,
through suggestion, a paralysing effect on their Victims.

Through its own experience Social Democracy learned the value of strength, and for
that reason it attacks mostly those in whom it scents stuff of the more stalwart kind,
which is indeed a very rare possession. On the other hand it praises every weakling
among its adversaries, more or less cautiously, according to the measure of his mental
qualities known or presumed. They have less fear of a man of genius who lacks will-
power than of a vigorous character with mediocre intelligence and at the same time
they highly commend those who are devoid of intelligence and will-power.

The Social Democrats know how to create the impression that they alone are the
protectors of peace. In this way, acting very circumspectly but never losing sight of their
ultimate goal, they conquer one position after another, at one time by methods of quiet
intimidation and at another time by sheer daylight robbery, employing these latter
tactics at those moments when public attention is turned towards other matters from
which it does not wish to be diverted, or when the public considers an incident too
trivial to create a scandal about it and thus provoke the anger of a malignant opponent.

These tactics are based on an accurate estimation of human frailties and must lead to
success, with almost mathematical certainty, unless the other side also learns how to
fight poison gas with poison gas. The weaker natures must be told that here it is a case
of to be or not to be.

I also came to understand that physical intimidation has its significance for the mass as
well as for the individual. Here again the Socialists had calculated accurately on the
psychological effect.

Intimidation in workshops and in factories, in assembly halls and at mass
demonstrations, will always meet with success as long as it does not have to encounter
the same kind of terror in a stronger form.

Then of course the Party will raise a horrified outcry, yelling blue murder and
appealing to the authority of the State, which they have just repudiated. In doing this
their aim generally is to add to the general confusion, so that they may have a better
opportunity of reaching their own goal unobserved. Their idea is to find among the
higher government officials some bovine creature who, in the stupid hope that he may
win the good graces of these awe-inspiring opponents so that they may remember him
in case of future eventualities, will help them now to break all those who may oppose
this world pest.

The impression which such successful tactics make on the minds of the broad masses,
whether they be adherents or opponents, can be estimated only by one who knows the
popular mind, not from books but from practical life. For the successes which are thus
obtained are taken by the adherents of Social Democracy as a triumphant symbol of the
righteousness of their own cause; on the other hand the beaten opponent very often
loses faith in the effectiveness of any further resistance.

The more I understood the methods of physical intimidation that were employed, the
more sympathy I had for the multitude that had succumbed to it.

I am thankful now for the ordeal which I had to go through at that time; for it was the
means of bringing me to think kindly again of my own people, inasmuch as the
experience enabled me to distinguish between the false leaders and the victims who
have been led astray.

We must look upon the latter simply as victims. I have just now tried to depict a few
traits which express the mentality of those on the lowest rung of the social ladder; but
my picture would be disproportionate if I do not add that amid the social depths I still
found light; for I experienced a rare spirit of self-sacrifice and loyal comradeship among
those men, who demanded little from life and were content amid their modest

surroundings. This was true especially of the older generation of workmen. And
although these qualities were disappearing more and more in the younger generation,
owing to the all-pervading influence of the big city, yet among the younger generation
also there were many who were sound at the core and who were able to maintain
themselves uncontaminated amid the sordid surroundings of their everyday existence.
If these men, who in many cases meant well and were upright in themselves, gave the
support to the political activities carried on by the common enemies of our people, that
was because those decent workpeople did not and could not grasp the downright
infamy of the doctrine taught by the socialist agitators. Furthermore, it was because no
other section of the community bothered itself about the lot of the working classes.
Finally, the social conditions became such that men who otherwise would have acted
differently were forced to submit to them, even though unwillingly at first. A day came
when poverty gained the upper hand and drove those workmen into the Social
Democratic ranks.

On innumerable occasions the bourgeoisie took a definite stand against even the most
legitimate human demands of the working classes. That conduct was ill-judged and
indeed immoral and could bring no gain whatsoever to the bourgeois class. The result
was that the honest workman abandoned the original concept of the trades union
organization and was dragged into politics.

There were millions and millions of workmen who began by being hostile to the Social
Democratic Party; but their defences were repeatedly stormed and finally they had to
surrender. Yet this defeat was due to the stupidity of the bourgeois parties, who had
opposed every social demand put forward by the working class. The short-sighted
refusal to make an effort towards improving labour conditions, the refusal to adopt
measures which would insure the workman in case of accidents in the factories, the
refusal to forbid child labour, the refusal to consider protective measures for female
workers, especially expectant mothers--all this was of assistance to the Social
Democratic leaders, who were thankful for every opportunity which they could exploit
for forcing the masses into their net. Our bourgeois parties can never repair the damage
that resulted from the mistake they then made. For they sowed the seeds of hatred
when they opposed all efforts at social reform. And thus they gave, at least, apparent
grounds to justify the claim put forward by the Social Democrats--namely, that they
alone stand up for the interests of the working class.

And this became the principal ground for the moral justification of the actual existence
of the Trades Unions, so that the labour organization became from that time onwards
the chief political recruiting ground to swell the ranks of the Social Democratic Party.

While thus studying the social conditions around me I was forced, whether I liked it or
not, to decide on the attitude I should take towards the Trades Unions. Because I looked
upon them as inseparable from the Social Democratic Party, my decision was hasty--

and mistaken. I repudiated them as a matter of course. But on this essential question
also Fate intervened and gave me a lesson, with the result that I changed the opinion
which I had first formed.

When I was twenty years old I had learned to distinguish between the Trades Union as
a means of defending the social rights of the employees and fighting for better living
conditions for them and, on the other hand, the Trades Union as a political instrument
used by the Party in the class struggle.

The Social Democrats understood the enormous importance of the Trades Union
movement. They appropriated it as an instrument and used it with success, while the
bourgeois parties failed to understand it and thus lost their political prestige. They
thought that their own arrogant VETO would arrest the logical development of the
movement and force it into an illogical position. But it is absurd and also untrue to say
that the Trades Union movement is in itself hostile to the nation. The opposite is the
more correct view. If the activities of the Trades Union are directed towards improving
the condition of a class, and succeed in doing so, such activities are not against the
Fatherland or the State but are, in the truest sense of the word, national. In that way the
trades union organization helps to create the social conditions which are indispensable
in a general system of national education. It deserves high recognition when it destroys
the psychological and physical germs of social disease and thus fosters the general
welfare of the nation.

It is superfluous to ask whether the Trades Union is indispensable.

So long as there are employers who attack social understanding and have wrong ideas
of justice and fair play it is not only the right but also the duty of their employees--who
are, after all, an integral part of our people--to protect the general interests against the
greed and unreason of the individual. For to safeguard the loyalty and confidence of the
people is as much in the interests of the nation as to safeguard public health.

Both are seriously menaced by dishonourable employers who are not conscious of their
duty as members of the national community. Their personal avidity or irresponsibility
sows the seeds of future trouble. To eliminate the causes of such a development is an
action that surely deserves well of the country.

It must not be answered here that the individual workman is free at any time to escape
from the consequences of an injustice which he has actually suffered at the hands of an
employer, or which he thinks he has suffered--in other words, he can leave. No. That
argument is only a ruse to detract attention from the question at issue. Is it, or is it not,
in the interests of the nation to remove the causes of social unrest? If it is, then the fight
must be carried on with the only weapons that promise success. But the individual
workman is never in a position to stand up against the might of the big employer; for

the question here is not one that concerns the triumph of right. If in such a relation right
had been recognized as the guiding principle, then the conflict could not have arisen at
all. But here it is a question of who is the stronger. If the case were otherwise, the
sentiment of justice alone would solve the dispute in an honourable way; or, to put the
case more correctly, matters would not have come to such a dispute at all.

No. If unsocial and dishonourable treatment of men provokes resistance, then the
stronger party can impose its decision in the conflict until the constitutional legislative
authorities do away with the evil through legislation. Therefore it is evident that if the
individual workman is to have any chance at all of winning through in the struggle he
must be grouped with his fellow workmen and present a united front before the
individual employer, who incorporates in his own person the massed strength of the
vested interests in the industrial or commercial undertaking which he conducts.

Thus the trades unions can hope to inculcate and strengthen a sense of social
responsibility in workaday life and open the road to practical results. In doing this they
tend to remove those causes of friction which are a continual source of discontent and

Blame for the fact that the trades unions do not fulfil this much-desired function must
be laid at the doors of those who barred the road to legislative social reform, or
rendered such a reform ineffective by sabotaging it through their political influence.

The political bourgeoisie failed to understand--or, rather, they did not wish to
understand--the importance of the trades union movement. The Social Democrats
accordingly seized the advantage offered them by this mistaken policy and took the
labour movement under their exclusive protection, without any protest from the other
side. In this way they established for themselves a solid bulwark behind which they
could safely retire whenever the struggle assumed a critical aspect. Thus the genuine
purpose of the movement gradually fell into oblivion, and was replaced by new
objectives. For the Social Democrats never troubled themselves to respect and uphold
the original purpose for which the trade unionist movement was founded. They simply
took over the Movement, lock, stock and barrel, to serve their own political ends.

Within a few decades the Trades Union Movement was transformed, by the expert
hand of Social Democracy, from an instrument which had been originally fashioned for
the defence of human rights into an instrument for the destruction of the national
economic structure. The interests of the working class were not allowed for a moment
to cross the path of this purpose; for in politics the application of economic pressure is
always possible if the one side be sufficiently unscrupulous and the other sufficiently
inert and docile. In this case both conditions were fulfilled.

By the beginning of the present century the Trades Unionist Movement had already
ceased to recognize the purpose for which it had been founded. From year to year it fell
more and more under the political control of the Social Democrats, until it finally came
to be used as a battering-ram in the class struggle. The plan was to shatter, by means of
constantly repeated blows, the economic edifice in the building of which so much time
and care had been expended. Once this objective had been reached, the destruction of
the State would become a matter of course, because the State would already have been
deprived of its economic foundations. Attention to the real interests of the working-
classes, on the part of the Social Democrats, steadily decreased until the cunning leaders
saw that it would be in their immediate political interests if the social and cultural
demands of the broad masses remained unheeded; for there was a danger that if these
masses once felt content they could no longer be employed as mere passive material in
the political struggle.

The gloomy prospect which presented itself to the eyes of the CONDOTTIERI of the
class warfare, if the discontent of the masses were no longer available as a war weapon,
created so much anxiety among them that they suppressed and opposed even the most
elementary measures of social reform. And conditions were such that those leaders did
not have to trouble about attempting to justify such an illogical policy.

As the masses were taught to increase and heighten their demands the possibility of
satisfying them dwindled and whatever ameliorative measures were taken became less
and less significant; so that it was at that time possible to persuade the masses that this
ridiculous measure in which the most sacred claims of the working-classes were being
granted represented a diabolical plan to weaken their fighting power in this easy way
and, if possible, to paralyse it. One will not be astonished at the success of these
allegations if one remembers what a small measure of thinking power the broad masses

In the bourgeois camp there was high indignation over the bad faith of the Social
Democratic tactics; but nothing was done to draw a practical conclusion and organize a
counter attack from the bourgeois side. The fear of the Social Democrats, to improve the
miserable conditions of the working-classes ought to have induced the bourgeois
parties to make the most energetic efforts in this direction and thus snatch from the
hands of the class-warfare leaders their most important weapon; but nothing of this
kind happened.

Instead of attacking the position of their adversaries the bourgeoisie allowed itself to be
pressed and harried. Finally it adopted means that were so tardy and so insignificant
that they were ineffective and were repudiated. So the whole situation remained just as
it had been before the bourgeois intervention; but the discontent had thereby become
more serious.

Like a threatening storm, the 'Free Trades Union' hovered above the political horizon
and above the life of each individual. It was one of the most frightful instruments of
terror that threatened the security and independence of the national economic structure,
the foundations of the State and the liberty of the individual. Above all, it was the 'Free
Trades Union' that turned democracy into a ridiculous and scorned phrase, insulted the
ideal of liberty and stigmatized that of fraternity with the slogan 'If you will not become
our comrade we shall crack your skull'.

It was thus that I then came to know this friend of humanity. During the years that
followed my knowledge of it became wider and deeper; but I have never changed
anything in that regard.

The more I became acquainted with the external forms of Social Democracy, the greater
became my desire to understand the inner nature of its doctrines.

For this purpose the official literature of the Party could not help very much. In
discussing economic questions its statements were false and its proofs unsound. In
treating of political aims its attitude was insincere. Furthermore, its modern methods of
chicanery in the presentation of its arguments were profoundly repugnant to me. Its
flamboyant sentences, its obscure and incomprehensible phrases, pretended to contain
great thoughts, but they were devoid of thought, and meaningless. One would have to
be a decadent Bohemian in one of our modern cities in order to feel at home in that
labyrinth of mental aberration, so that he might discover 'intimate experiences' amid the
stinking fumes of this literary Dadism. These writers were obviously counting on the
proverbial humility of a certain section of our people, who believe that a person who is
incomprehensible must be profoundly wise.

In confronting the theoretical falsity and absurdity of that doctrine with the reality of its
external manifestations, I gradually came to have a clear idea of the ends at which it

During such moments I had dark presentiments and feared something evil. I had before
me a teaching inspired by egoism and hatred, mathematically calculated to win its
victory, but the triumph of which would be a mortal blow to humanity.

Meanwhile I had discovered the relations existing between this destructive teaching
and the specific character of a people, who up to that time had been to me almost

Knowledge of the Jews is the only key whereby one may understand the inner nature
and therefore the real aims of Social Democracy.

The man who has come to know this race has succeeded in removing from his eyes the
veil through which he had seen the aims and meaning of his Party in a false light; and
then, out of the murk and fog of social phrases rises the grimacing figure of Marxism.

To-day it is hard and almost impossible for me to say when the word 'Jew' first began to
raise any particular thought in my mind. I do not remember even having heard the
word at home during my father's lifetime. If this name were mentioned in a derogatory
sense I think the old gentleman would just have considered those who used it in this
way as being uneducated reactionaries. In the course of his career he had come to be
more or less a cosmopolitan, with strong views on nationalism, which had its effect on
me as well. In school, too, I found no reason to alter the picture of things I had formed
at home.

At the REALSCHULE I knew one Jewish boy. We were all on our guard in our relations
with him, but only because his reticence and certain actions of his warned us to be
discreet. Beyond that my companions and myself formed no particular opinions in
regard to him.

It was not until I was fourteen or fifteen years old that I frequently ran up against the
word 'Jew', partly in connection with political controversies. These references aroused a
slight aversion in me, and I could not avoid an uncomfortable feeling which always
came over me when I had to listen to religious disputes. But at that time I had no other
feelings about the Jewish question.

There were very few Jews in Linz. In the course of centuries the Jews who lived there
had become Europeanized in external appearance and were so much like other human
beings that I even looked upon them as Germans. The reason why I did not then
perceive the absurdity of such an illusion was that the only external mark which I
recognized as distinguishing them from us was the practice of their strange religion. As
I thought that they were persecuted on account of their Faith my aversion to hearing
remarks against them grew almost into a feeling of abhorrence. I did not in the least
suspect that there could be such a thing as a systematic anti-Semitism.

Then I came to Vienna.

Confused by the mass of impressions I received from the architectural surroundings
and depressed by my own troubles, I did not at first distinguish between the different
social strata of which the population of that mammoth city was composed. Although
Vienna then had about two hundred thousand Jews among its population of two
millions, I did not notice them. During the first weeks of my sojourn my eyes and my
mind were unable to cope with the onrush of new ideas and values. Not until I
gradually settled down to my surroundings, and the confused picture began to grow

clearer, did I acquire a more discriminating view of my new world. And with that I
came up against the Jewish problem.

I will not say that the manner in which I first became acquainted with it was
particularly unpleasant for me. In the Jew I still saw only a man who was of a different
religion, and therefore, on grounds of human tolerance, I was against the idea that he
should be attacked because he had a different faith. And so I considered that the tone
adopted by the anti-Semitic Press in Vienna was unworthy of the cultural traditions of a
great people. The memory of certain events which happened in the middle ages came
into my mind, and I felt that I should not like to see them repeated. Generally speaking,
these anti-Semitic newspapers did not belong to the first rank--but I did not then
understand the reason of this--and so I regarded them more as the products of jealousy
and envy rather than the expression of a sincere, though wrong-headed, feeling.

My own opinions were confirmed by what I considered to be the infinitely more
dignified manner in which the really great Press replied to those attacks or simply
ignored them, which latter seemed to me the most respectable way.

I diligently read what was generally called the World Press--NEUE FREIE PRESSE,
WIENER TAGEBLATT, etc.--and I was astonished by the abundance of information
they gave their readers and the impartial way in which they presented particular
problems. I appreciated their dignified tone; but sometimes the flamboyancy of the style
was unconvincing, and I did not like it. But I attributed all this to the overpowering
influence of the world metropolis.

Since I considered Vienna at that time as such a world metropolis, I thought this
constituted sufficient grounds to excuse these shortcomings of the Press. But I was
frequently disgusted by the grovelling way in which the Vienna Press played lackey to
the Court. Scarcely a move took place at the Hofburg which was not presented in
glorified colours to the readers. It was a foolish practice, which, especially when it had
to do with 'The Wisest Monarch of all Times', reminded one almost of the dance which
the mountain cock performs at pairing time to woo his mate. It was all empty nonsense.
And I thought that such a policy was a stain on the ideal of liberal democracy. I thought
that this way of currying favour at the Court was unworthy of the people. And that was
the first blot that fell on my appreciation of the great Vienna Press.

While in Vienna I continued to follow with a vivid interest all the events that were
taking place in Germany, whether connected with political or cultural question. I had a
feeling of pride and admiration when I compared the rise of the young German Empire
with the decline of the Austrian State. But, although the foreign policy of that Empire
was a source of real pleasure on the whole, the internal political happenings were not
always so satisfactory. I did not approve of the campaign which at that time was being
carried on against William II. I looked upon him not only as the German Emperor but,

above all, as the creator of the German Navy. The fact that the Emperor was prohibited
from speaking in the Reichstag made me very angry, because the prohibition came from
a side which in my eyes had no authority to make it. For at a single sitting those same
parliamentary ganders did more cackling together than the whole dynasty of Emperors,
comprising even the weakest, had done in the course of centuries.

It annoyed me to have to acknowledge that in a nation where any half-witted fellow
could claim for himself the right to criticize and might even be let loose on the people as
a 'Legislator' in the Reichstag, the bearer of the Imperial Crown could be the subject of a
'reprimand' on the part of the most miserable assembly of drivellers that had ever

I was even more disgusted at the way in which this same Vienna Press salaamed
obsequiously before the meanest steed belonging to the Habsburg royal equipage and
went off into wild ecstacies of delight if the nag wagged its tail in response. And at the
same time these newspapers took up an attitude of anxiety in matters that concerned
the German Emperor, trying to cloak their enmity by the serious air they gave
themselves. But in my eyes that enmity appeared to be only poorly cloaked. Naturally
they protested that they had no intention of mixing in Germany's internal affairs--God
forbid! They pretended that by touching a delicate spot in such a friendly way they
were fulfilling a duty that devolved upon them by reason of the mutual alliance
between the two countries and at the same time discharging their obligations of
journalistic truthfulness. Having thus excused themselves about tenderly touching a
sore spot, they bored with the finger ruthlessly into the wound.

That sort of thing made my blood boil. And now I began to be more and more on my
guard when reading the great Vienna Press.

I had to acknowledge, however, that on such subjects one of the anti-Semitic papers--
the DEUTSCHE VOLKSBLATT--acted more decently.

What got still more on my nerves was the repugnant manner in which the big
newspapers cultivated admiration for France. One really had to feel ashamed of being a
German when confronted by those mellifluous hymns of praise for 'the great culture-
nation'. This wretched Gallomania more often than once made me throw away one of
those 'world newspapers'. I now often turned to the VOLKSBLATT, which was much
smaller in size but which treated such subjects more decently. I was not in accord with
its sharp anti-Semitic tone; but again and again I found that its arguments gave me
grounds for serious thought.

Anyhow, it was as a result of such reading that I came to know the man and the
movement which then determined the fate of Vienna. These were Dr. Karl Lueger and

the Christian Socialist Movement. At the time I came to Vienna I felt opposed to both. I
looked on the man and the movement as 'reactionary'.

But even an elementary sense of justice enforced me to change my opinion when I had
the opportunity of knowing the man and his work, and slowly that opinion grew into
outspoken admiration when I had better grounds for forming a judgment. To-day, as
well as then, I hold Dr. Karl Lueger as the most eminent type of German Burgermeister.
How many prejudices were thrown over through such a change in my attitude towards
the Christian-Socialist Movement!

My ideas about anti-Semitism changed also in the course of time, but that was the
change which I found most difficult. It cost me a greater internal conflict with myself,
and it was only after a struggle between reason and sentiment that victory began to be
decided in favour of the former. Two years later sentiment rallied to the side of reasons
and became a faithful guardian and counsellor.

At the time of this bitter struggle, between calm reason and the sentiments in which I
had been brought up, the lessons that I learned on the streets of Vienna rendered me
invaluable assistance. A time came when I no longer passed blindly along the street of
the mighty city, as I had done in the early days, but now with my eyes open not only to
study the buildings but also the human beings.

Once, when passing through the inner City, I suddenly encountered a phenomenon in a
long caftan and wearing black side-locks. My first thought was: Is this a Jew? They
certainly did not have this appearance in Linz. I watched the man stealthily and
cautiously; but the longer I gazed at the strange countenance and examined it feature by
feature, the more the question shaped itself in my brain: Is this a German?

As was always my habit with such experiences, I turned to books for help in removing
my doubts. For the first time in my life I bought myself some anti-Semitic pamphlets for
a few pence. But unfortunately they all began with the assumption that in principle the
reader had at least a certain degree of information on the Jewish question or was even
familiar with it. Moreover, the tone of most of these pamphlets was such that I became
doubtful again, because the statements made were partly superficial and the proofs
extraordinarily unscientific. For weeks, and indeed for months, I returned to my old
way of thinking. The subject appeared so enormous and the accusations were so far-
reaching that I was afraid of dealing with it unjustly and so I became again anxious and

Naturally I could no longer doubt that here there was not a question of Germans who
happened to be of a different religion but rather that there was question of an entirely
different people. For as soon as I began to investigate the matter and observe the Jews,
then Vienna appeared to me in a different light. Wherever I now went I saw Jews, and

the more I saw of them the more strikingly and clearly they stood out as a different
people from the other citizens. Especially the Inner City and the district northwards
from the Danube Canal swarmed with a people who, even in outer appearance, bore no
similarity to the Germans.

But any indecision which I may still have felt about that point was finally removed by
the activities of a certain section of the Jews themselves. A great movement, called
Zionism, arose among them. Its aim was to assert the national character of Judaism, and
the movement was strongly represented in Vienna.

To outward appearances it seemed as if only one group of Jews championed this
movement, while the great majority disapproved of it, or even repudiated it. But an
investigation of the situation showed that those outward appearances were purposely
misleading. These outward appearances emerged from a mist of theories which had
been produced for reasons of expediency, if not for purposes of downright deception.
For that part of Jewry which was styled Liberal did not disown the Zionists as if they
were not members of their race but rather as brother Jews who publicly professed their
faith in an unpractical way, so as to create a danger for Jewry itself.

Thus there was no real rift in their internal solidarity.

This fictitious conflict between the Zionists and the Liberal Jews soon disgusted me; for
it was false through and through and in direct contradiction to the moral dignity and
immaculate character on which that race had always prided itself.

Cleanliness, whether moral or of another kind, had its own peculiar meaning for these
people. That they were water-shy was obvious on looking at them and, unfortunately,
very often also when not looking at them at all. The odour of those people in caftans
often used to make me feel ill. Beyond that there were the unkempt clothes and the
ignoble exterior.

All these details were certainly not attractive; but the revolting feature was that beneath
their unclean exterior one suddenly perceived the moral mildew of the chosen race.

What soon gave me cause for very serious consideration were the activities of the Jews
in certain branches of life, into the mystery of which I penetrated little by little. Was
there any shady undertaking, any form of foulness, especially in cultural life, in which
at least one Jew did not participate? On putting the probing knife carefully to that kind
of abscess one immediately discovered, like a maggot in a putrescent body, a little Jew
who was often blinded by the sudden light.

In my eyes the charge against Judaism became a grave one the moment I discovered the
Jewish activities in the Press, in art, in literature and the theatre. All unctuous protests

were now more or less futile. One needed only to look at the posters announcing the
hideous productions of the cinema and theatre, and study the names of the authors who
were highly lauded there in order to become permanently adamant on Jewish
questions. Here was a pestilence, a moral pestilence, with which the public was being
infected. It was worse than the Black Plague of long ago. And in what mighty doses this
poison was manufactured and distributed. Naturally, the lower the moral and
intellectual level of such an author of artistic products the more inexhaustible his
fecundity. Sometimes it went so far that one of these fellows, acting like a sewage
pump, would shoot his filth directly in the face of other members of the human race. In
this connection we must remember there is no limit to the number of such people. One
ought to realize that for one, Goethe, Nature may bring into existence ten thousand
such despoilers who act as the worst kind of germ-carriers in poisoning human souls. It
was a terrible thought, and yet it could not be avoided, that the greater number of the
Jews seemed specially destined by Nature to play this shameful part.

And is it for this reason that they can be called the chosen people?

I began then to investigate carefully the names of all the fabricators of these unclean
products in public cultural life. The result of that inquiry was still more disfavourable to
the attitude which I had hitherto held in regard to the Jews. Though my feelings might
rebel a thousand time, reason now had to draw its own conclusions.

The fact that nine-tenths of all the smutty literature, artistic tripe and theatrical
banalities, had to be charged to the account of people who formed scarcely one per cent.
of the nation--that fact could not be gainsaid. It was there, and had to be admitted. Then
I began to examine my favourite 'World Press', with that fact before my mind.

The deeper my soundings went the lesser grew my respect for that Press which I
formerly admired. Its style became still more repellent and I was forced to reject its
ideas as entirely shallow and superficial. To claim that in the presentation of facts and
views its attitude was impartial seemed to me to contain more falsehood than truth. The
writers were--Jews.

Thousands of details that I had scarcely noticed before seemed to me now to deserve
attention. I began to grasp and understand things which I had formerly looked at in a
different light.

I saw the Liberal policy of that Press in another light. Its dignified tone in replying to
the attacks of its adversaries and its dead silence in other cases now became clear to me
as part of a cunning and despicable way of deceiving the readers. Its brilliant theatrical
criticisms always praised the Jewish authors and its adverse, criticism was reserved
exclusively for the Germans.

The light pin-pricks against William II showed the persistency of its policy, just as did
its systematic commendation of French culture and civilization. The subject matter of
the feuilletons was trivial and often pornographic. The language of this Press as a whole
had the accent of a foreign people. The general tone was openly derogatory to the
Germans and this must have been definitely intentional.

What were the interests that urged the Vienna Press to adopt such a policy? Or did they
do so merely by chance? In attempting to find an answer to those questions I gradually
became more and more dubious.

Then something happened which helped me to come to an early decision. I began to see
through the meaning of a whole series of events that were taking place in other
branches of Viennese life. All these were inspired by a general concept of manners and
morals which was openly put into practice by a large section of the Jews and could be
established as attributable to them. Here, again, the life which I observed on the streets
taught me what evil really is.

The part which the Jews played in the social phenomenon of prostitution, and more
especially in the white slave traffic, could be studied here better than in any other West-
European city, with the possible exception of certain ports in Southern France. Walking
by night along the streets of the Leopoldstadt, almost at every turn whether one wished
it or not, one witnessed certain happenings of whose existence the Germans knew
nothing until the War made it possible and indeed inevitable for the soldiers to see such
things on the Eastern front.

A cold shiver ran down my spine when I first ascertained that it was the same kind of
cold-blooded, thick-skinned and shameless Jew who showed his consummate skill in
conducting that revolting exploitation of the dregs of the big city. Then I became fired
with wrath.

I had now no more hesitation about bringing the Jewish problem to light in all its
details. No. Henceforth I was determined to do so. But as I learned to track down the
Jew in all the different spheres of cultural and artistic life, and in the various
manifestations of this life everywhere, I suddenly came upon him in a position where I
had least expected to find him. I now realized that the Jews were the leaders of Social
Democracy. In face of that revelation the scales fell from my eyes. My long inner
struggle was at an end.

In my relations with my fellow workmen I was often astonished to find how easily and
often they changed their opinions on the same questions, sometimes within a few days
and sometimes even within the course of a few hours. I found it difficult to understand
how men who always had reasonable ideas when they spoke as individuals with one
another suddenly lost this reasonableness the moment they acted in the mass. That

phenomenon often tempted one almost to despair. I used to dispute with them for
hours and when I succeeded in bringing them to what I considered a reasonable way of
thinking I rejoiced at my success. But next day I would find that it had been all in vain.
It was saddening to think I had to begin it all over again. Like a pendulum in its eternal
sway, they would fall back into their absurd opinions.

I was able to understand their position fully. They were dissatisfied with their lot and
cursed the fate which had hit them so hard. They hated their employers, whom they
looked upon as the heartless administrators of their cruel destiny. Often they used
abusive language against the public officials, whom they accused of having no
sympathy with the situation of the working people. They made public protests against
the cost of living and paraded through the streets in defence of their claims. At least all
this could be explained on reasonable grounds. But what was impossible to understand
was the boundless hatred they expressed against their own fellow citizens, how they
disparaged their own nation, mocked at its greatness, reviled its history and dragged
the names of its most illustrious men in the gutter.

This hostility towards their own kith and kin, their own native land and home was as
irrational as it was incomprehensible. It was against Nature.

One could cure that malady temporarily, but only for some days or at least some weeks.
But on meeting those whom one believed to have been converted one found that they
had become as they were before. That malady against Nature held them once again in
its clutches.

I gradually discovered that the Social Democratic Press was predominantly controlled
by Jews. But I did not attach special importance to this circumstance, for the same state
of affairs existed also in other newspapers. But there was one striking fact in this
connection. It was that there was not a single newspaper with which Jews were
connected that could be spoken of as National, in the meaning that my education and
convictions attached to that word.

Making an effort to overcome my natural reluctance, I tried to read articles of this
nature published in the Marxist Press; but in doing so my aversion increased all the
more. And then I set about learning something of the people who wrote and published
this mischievous stuff. From the publisher downwards, all of them were Jews. I recalled
to mind the names of the public leaders of Marxism, and then I realized that most of
them belonged to the Chosen Race--the Social Democratic representatives in the
Imperial Cabinet as well as the secretaries of the Trades Unions and the street agitators.
Everywhere the same sinister picture presented itself. I shall never forget the row of
names--Austerlitz, David, Adler, Ellenbogen, and others. One fact became quite evident
to me. It was that this alien race held in its hands the leadership of that Social

Democratic Party with whose minor representatives I had been disputing for months
past. I was happy at last to know for certain that the Jew is not a German.

Thus I finally discovered who were the evil spirits leading our people astray. The
sojourn in Vienna for one year had proved long enough to convince me that no worker
is so rooted in his preconceived notions that he will not surrender them in face of better
and clearer arguments and explanations. Gradually I became an expert in the doctrine
of the Marxists and used this knowledge as an instrument to drive home my own firm
convictions. I was successful in nearly every case. The great masses can be rescued, but
a lot of time and a large share of human patience must be devoted to such work.

But a Jew can never be rescued from his fixed notions.

It was then simple enough to attempt to show them the absurdity of their teaching.
Within my small circle I talked to them until my throat ached and my voice grew
hoarse. I believed that I could finally convince them of the danger inherent in the
Marxist follies. But I only achieved the contrary result. It seemed to me that
immediately the disastrous effects of the Marxist Theory and its application in practice
became evident, the stronger became their obstinacy.

The more I debated with them the more familiar I became with their argumentative
tactics. At the outset they counted upon the stupidity of their opponents, but when they
got so entangled that they could not find a way out they played the trick of acting as
innocent simpletons. Should they fail, in spite of their tricks of logic, they acted as if
they could not understand the counter arguments and bolted away to another field of
discussion. They would lay down truisms and platitudes; and, if you accepted these,
then they were applied to other problems and matters of an essentially different nature
from the original theme. If you faced them with this point they would escape again, and
you could not bring them to make any precise statement. Whenever one tried to get a
firm grip on any of these apostles one's hand grasped only jelly and slime which
slipped through the fingers and combined again into a solid mass a moment afterwards.
If your adversary felt forced to give in to your argument, on account of the observers
present, and if you then thought that at last you had gained ground, a surprise was in
store for you on the following day. The Jew would be utterly oblivious to what had
happened the day before, and he would start once again by repeating his former
absurdities, as if nothing had happened. Should you become indignant and remind him
of yesterday's defeat, he pretended astonishment and could not remember anything,
except that on the previous day he had proved that his statements were correct.
Sometimes I was dumbfounded. I do not know what amazed me the more--the
abundance of their verbiage or the artful way in which they dressed up their
falsehoods. I gradually came to hate them.

Yet all this had its good side; because the more I came to know the individual leaders,
or at least the propagandists, of Social Democracy, my love for my own people
increased correspondingly. Considering the Satanic skill which these evil counsellors
displayed, how could their unfortunate victims be blamed? Indeed, I found it extremely
difficult myself to be a match for the dialectical perfidy of that race. How futile it was to
try to win over such people with argument, seeing that their very mouths distorted the
truth, disowning the very words they had just used and adopting them again a few
moments afterwards to serve their own ends in the argument! No. The more I came to
know the Jew, the easier it was to excuse the workers.

In my opinion the most culpable were not to be found among the workers but rather
among those who did not think it worth while to take the trouble to sympathize with
their own kinsfolk and give to the hard-working son of the national family what was his
by the iron logic of justice, while at the same time placing his seducer and corrupter
against the wall.

Urged by my own daily experiences, I now began to investigate more thoroughly the
sources of the Marxist teaching itself. Its effects were well known to me in detail. As a
result of careful observation, its daily progress had become obvious to me. And one
needed only a little imagination in order to be able to forecast the consequences which
must result from it. The only question now was: Did the founders foresee the effects of
their work in the form which those effects have shown themselves to-day, or were the
founders themselves the victims of an error? To my mind both alternatives were

If the second question must be answered in the affirmative, then it was the duty of
every thinking person to oppose this sinister movement with a view to preventing it
from producing its worst results. But if the first question must be answered in the
affirmative, then it must be admitted that the original authors of this evil which has
infected the nations were devils incarnate. For only in the brain of a monster, and not
that of a man, could the plan of this organization take shape whose workings must
finally bring about the collapse of human civilization and turn this world into a desert

Such being the case the only alternative left was to fight, and in that fight to employ all
the weapons which the human spirit and intellect and will could furnish leaving it to
Fate to decide in whose favour the balance should fall.

And so I began to gather information about the authors of this teaching, with a view to
studying the principles of the movement. The fact that I attained my object sooner than
I could have anticipated was due to the deeper insight into the Jewish question which I
then gained, my knowledge of this question being hitherto rather superficial. This
newly acquired knowledge alone enabled me to make a practical comparison between

the real content and the theoretical pretentiousness of the teaching laid down by the
apostolic founders of Social Democracy; because I now understood the language of the
Jew. I realized that the Jew uses language for the purpose of dissimulating his thought
or at least veiling it, so that his real aim cannot be discovered by what he says but rather
by reading between the lines. This knowledge was the occasion of the greatest inner
revolution that I had yet experienced. From being a soft-hearted cosmopolitan I became
an out-and-out anti-Semite.

Only on one further occasion, and that for the last time, did I give way to oppressing
thoughts which caused me some moments of profound anxiety.

As I critically reviewed the activities of the Jewish people throughout long periods of
history I became anxious and asked myself whether for some inscrutable reasons
beyond the comprehension of poor mortals such as ourselves, Destiny may not have
irrevocably decreed that the final victory must go to this small nation? May it not be
that this people which has lived only for the earth has been promised the earth as a
recompense? is our right to struggle for our own self-preservation based on reality, or is
it a merely subjective thing? Fate answered the question for me inasmuch as it led me to
make a detached and exhaustive inquiry into the Marxist teaching and the activities of
the Jewish people in connection with it.

The Jewish doctrine of Marxism repudiates the aristocratic principle of Nature and
substitutes for it the eternal privilege of force and energy, numerical mass and its dead
weight. Thus it denies the individual worth of the human personality, impugns the
teaching that nationhood and race have a primary significance, and by doing this it
takes away the very foundations of human existence and human civilization. If the
Marxist teaching were to be accepted as the foundation of the life of the universe, it
would lead to the disappearance of all order that is conceivable to the human mind.
And thus the adoption of such a law would provoke chaos in the structure of the
greatest organism that we know, with the result that the inhabitants of this earthly
planet would finally disappear.

Should the Jew, with the aid of his Marxist creed, triumph over the people of this world,
his Crown will be the funeral wreath of mankind, and this planet will once again follow
its orbit through ether, without any human life on its surface, as it did millions of years

And so I believe to-day that my conduct is in accordance with the will of the Almighty
Creator. In standing guard against the Jew I am defending the handiwork of the Lord.

[Note 5. The Phaecians were a legendary people, mentioned in Homer's Odyssey. They
were supposed to live on some unknown island in the Eastern Mediterranean,
sometimes suggested to be Corcyra, the modern Corfu. They loved good living more
than work, and so the name Phaecian has come to be a synonym for parasite.]

Chapter 3

Political Reflections Arising Out Of My Sojourn In Vienna

GENERALLY SPEAKING a man should not publicly take part in politics before he has
reached the age of thirty, though, of course, exceptions must be made in the case of
those who are naturally gifted with extraordinary political abilities. That at least is my
opinion to-day. And the reason for it is that until he reaches his thirtieth year or
thereabouts a man's mental development will mostly consist in acquiring and sifting
such knowledge as is necessary for the groundwork of a general platform from which
he can examine the different political problems that arise from day to day and be able to
adopt a definite attitude towards each. A man must first acquire a fund of general ideas
and fit them together so as to form an organic structure of personal thought or outlook
on life--a WELTANSCHAUUNG. Then he will have that mental equipment without
which he cannot form his own judgments on particular questions of the day, and he will
have acquired those qualities that are necessary for consistency and steadfastness in the
formation of political opinions. Such a man is now qualified, at least subjectively, to
take his part in the political conduct of public affairs.

If these pre-requisite conditions are not fulfilled, and if a man should enter political life
without this equipment, he will run a twofold risk. In the first place, he may find during
the course of events that the stand which he originally took in regard to some essential
question was wrong. He will now have to abandon his former position or else stick to it
against his better knowledge and riper wisdom and after his reason and convictions
have already proved it untenable. If he adopt the former line of action he will find
himself in a difficult personal situation; because in giving up a position hitherto
maintained he will appear inconsistent and will have no right to expect his followers to
remain as loyal to his leadership as they were before. And, as regards the followers
themselves, they may easily look upon their leader's change of policy as showing a lack
of judgment inherent in his character. Moreover, the change must cause in them a
certain feeling of discomfiture VIS-À-VIS those whom the leader formerly opposed.

If he adopts the second alternative--which so very frequently happens to-day--then
public pronouncements of the leader have no longer his personal persuasion to support
them. And the more that is the case the defence of his cause will be all the more hollow
and superficial. He now descends to the adoption of vulgar means in his defence. While
he himself no longer dreams seriously of standing by his political protestations to the

last--for no man will die in defence of something in which he does not believe--he
makes increasing demands on his followers. Indeed, the greater be the measure of his
own insincerity, the more unfortunate and inconsiderate become his claims on his party
adherents. Finally, he throws aside the last vestiges of true leadership and begins to
play politics. This means that he becomes one of those whose only consistency is their
inconsistency, associated with overbearing insolence and oftentimes an artful
mendacity developed to a shamelessly high degree.

Should such a person, to the misfortune of all decent people, succeed in becoming a
parliamentary deputy it will be clear from the outset that for him the essence of political
activity consists in a heroic struggle to keep permanent hold on this milk-bottle as a
source of livelihood for himself and his family. The more his wife and children are
dependent on him, the more stubbornly will he fight to maintain for himself the
representation of his parliamentary constituency. For that reason any other person who
gives evidence of political capacity is his personal enemy. In every new movement he
will apprehend the possible beginning of his own downfall. And everyone who is a
better man than himself will appear to him in the light of a menace.

I shall subsequently deal more fully with the problem to which this kind of
parliamentary vermin give rise.

When a man has reached his thirtieth year he has still a great deal to learn. That is
obvious. But henceforward what he learns will principally be an amplification of his
basic ideas; it will be fitted in with them organically so as to fill up the framework of the
fundamental WELTANSCHAUUNG which he already possesses. What he learns anew
will not imply the abandonment of principles already held, but rather a deeper
knowledge of those principles. And thus his colleagues will never have the
discomforting feeling that they have been hitherto falsely led by him. On the contrary,
their confidence is increased when they perceive that their leader's qualities are steadily
developing along the lines of an organic growth which results from the constant
assimilation of new ideas; so that the followers look upon this process as signifying an
enrichment of the doctrines in which they themselves believe, in their eyes every such
development is a new witness to the correctness of that whole body of opinion which
has hitherto been held.

A leader who has to abandon the platform founded on his general principles, because
he recognizes the foundation as false, can act with honour only when he declares his
readiness to accept the final consequences of his erroneous views. In such a case he
ought to refrain from taking public part in any further political activity. Having once
gone astray on essential things he may possibly go astray a second time. But, anyhow,
he has no right whatsoever to expect or demand that his fellow citizens should continue
to give him their support.

How little such a line of conduct commends itself to our public leaders nowadays is
proved by the general corruption prevalent among the cabal which at the present
moment feels itself called to political leadership. In the whole cabal there is scarcely one
who is properly equipped for this task.

Although in those days I used to give more time than most others to the consideration
of political question, yet I carefully refrained from taking an open part in politics. Only
to a small circle did I speak of those things which agitated my mind or were the cause of
constant preoccupation for me. The habit of discussing matters within such a restricted
group had many advantages in itself. Rather than talk at them, I learned to feel my way
into the modes of thought and views of those men around me. Oftentimes such ways of
thinking and such views were quite primitive. Thus I took every possible occasion to
increase my knowledge of men.

Nowhere among the German people was the opportunity for making such a study so
favourable as in Vienna.

In the old Danubian Monarchy political thought was wider in its range and had a richer
variety of interests than in the Germany of that epoch--excepting certain parts of
Prussia, Hamburg and the districts bordering on the North Sea. When I speak of
Austria here I mean that part of the great Habsburg Empire which, by reason of its
German population, furnished not only the historic basis for the formation of this State
but whose population was for several centuries also the exclusive source of cultural life
in that political system whose structure was so artificial. As time went on the stability of
the Austrian State and the guarantee of its continued existence depended more and
more on the maintenance of this germ-cell of that Habsburg Empire.

The hereditary imperial provinces constituted the heart of the Empire. And it was this
heart that constantly sent the blood of life pulsating through the whole political and
cultural system. Corresponding to the heart of the Empire, Vienna signified the brain
and the will. At that time Vienna presented an appearance which made one think of her
as an enthroned queen whose authoritative sway united the conglomeration of
heterogenous nationalities that lived under the Habsburg sceptre. The radiant beauty of
the capital city made one forget the sad symptoms of senile decay which the State
manifested as a whole.

Though the Empire was internally rickety because of the terrific conflict going on
between the various nationalities, the outside world--and Germany in particular--saw
only that lovely picture of the city. The illusion was all the greater because at that time
Vienna seemed to have risen to its highest pitch of splendour. Under a Mayor, who had
the true stamp of administrative genius, the venerable residential City of the Emperors
of the old Empire seemed to have the glory of its youth renewed. The last great German
who sprang from the ranks of the people that had colonized the East Mark was not a

'statesman', in the official sense. This Dr. Luegar, however, in his rôle as Mayor of 'the
Imperial Capital and Residential City', had achieved so much in almost all spheres of
municipal activity, whether economic or cultural, that the heart of the whole Empire
throbbed with renewed vigour. He thus proved himself a much greater statesman than
the so-called 'diplomats' of that period.

The fact that this political system of heterogeneous races called AUSTRIA, finally broke
down is no evidence whatsoever of political incapacity on the part of the German
element in the old East Mark. The collapse was the inevitable result of an impossible
situation. Ten million people cannot permanently hold together a State of fifty millions,
composed of different and convicting nationalities, unless certain definite pre-requisite
conditions are at hand while there is still time to avail of them.

The German-Austrian had very big ways of thinking. Accustomed to live in a great
Empire, he had a keen sense of the obligations incumbent on him in such a situation. He
was the only member of the Austrian State who looked beyond the borders of the
narrow lands belonging to the Crown and took in all the frontiers of the Empire in the
sweep of his mind. Indeed when destiny severed him from the common Fatherland he
tried to master the tremendous task which was set before him as a consequence. This
task was to maintain for the German-Austrians that patrimony which, through
innumerable struggles, their ancestors had originally wrested from the East. It must be
remembered that the German-Austrians could not put their undivided strength into this
effort, because the hearts and minds of the best among them were constantly turning
back towards their kinsfolk in the Motherland, so that only a fraction of their energy
remained to be employed at home.

The mental horizon of the German-Austrian was comparatively broad. His commercial
interests comprised almost every section of the heterogeneous Empire. The conduct of
almost all important undertakings was in his hands. He provided the State, for the most
part, with its leading technical experts and civil servants. He was responsible for
carrying on the foreign trade of the country, as far as that sphere of activity was not
under Jewish control, The German-Austrian exclusively represented the political
cement that held the State together. His military duties carried him far beyond the
narrow frontiers of his homeland. Though the recruit might join a regiment made up of
the German element, the regiment itself might be stationed in Herzegovina as well as in
Vienna or Galicia. The officers in the Habsburg armies were still Germans and so was
the predominating element in the higher branches of the civil service. Art and science
were in German hands. Apart from the new artistic trash, which might easily have been
produced by a negro tribe, all genuine artistic inspiration came from the German
section of the population. In music, architecture, sculpture and painting, Vienna
abundantly supplied the entire Dual Monarchy. And the source never seemed to show
signs of a possible exhaustion. Finally, it was the German element that determined the

conduct of foreign policy, though a small number of Hungarians were also active in that

All efforts, however, to save the unity of the State were doomed to end in failure,
because the essential pre-requisites were missing.

There was only one possible way to control and hold in check the centrifugal forces of
the different and differing nationalities. This way was: to govern the Austrian State and
organize it internally on the principle of centralization. In no other way imaginable
could the existence of that State be assured.

Now and again there were lucid intervals in the higher ruling quarters when this truth
was recognized. But it was soon forgotten again, or else deliberately ignored, because of
the difficulties to be overcome in putting it into practice. Every project which aimed at
giving the Empire a more federal shape was bound to be ineffective because there was
no strong central authority which could exercise sufficient power within the State to
hold the federal elements together. It must be remembered in this connection that
conditions in Austria were quite different from those which characterized the German
State as founded by Bismarck. Germany was faced with only one difficulty, which was
that of transforming the purely political traditions, because throughout the whole of
Bismarck's Germany there was a common cultural basis. The German Empire contained
only members of one and the same racial or national stock, with the exception of a few
minor foreign fragments.

Demographic conditions in Austria were quite the reverse. With the exception of
Hungary there was no political tradition, coming down from a great past, in any of the
various affiliated countries. If there had been, time had either wiped out all traces of it,
or at least, rendered them obscure. Moreover, this was the epoch when the principle of
nationality began to be in ascendant; and that phenomenon awakened the national
instincts in the various countries affiliated under the Habsburg sceptre. It was difficult
to control the action of these newly awakened national forces; because, adjacent to the
frontiers of the Dual Monarchy, new national States were springing up whose people
were of the same or kindred racial stock as the respective nationalities that constituted
the Habsburg Empire. These new States were able to exercise a greater influence than
the German element.

Even Vienna could not hold out for a lengthy period in this conflict. When Budapest
had developed into a metropolis a rival had grown up whose mission was, not to help
in holding together the various divergent parts of the Empire, but rather to strengthen
one part. Within a short time Prague followed the example of Budapest; and later on
came Lemberg, Laibach and others. By raising these places which had formerly been
provincial towns to the rank of national cities, rallying centres were provided for an
independent cultural life. Through this the local national instincts acquired a spiritual

foundation and therewith gained a more profound hold on the people. The time was
bound to come when the particularist interests of those various countries would
become stronger than their common imperial interests. Once that stage had been
reached, Austria's doom was sealed.

The course of this development was clearly perceptible since the death of Joseph II. Its
rapidity depended on a number of factors, some of which had their source in the
Monarchy itself; while others resulted from the position which the Empire had taken in
foreign politics.

It was impossible to make anything like a successful effort for the permanent
consolidation of the Austrian State unless a firm and persistent policy of centralization
were put into force. Before everything else the principle should have been adopted that
only one common language could be used as the official language of the State. Thus it
would be possible to emphasize the formal unity of that imperial commonwealth. And
thus the administration would have in its hands a technical instrument without which
the State could not endure as a political unity. In the same way the school and other
forms of education should have been used to inculcate a feeling of common citizenship.
Such an objective could not be reached within ten or twenty years. The effort would
have to be envisaged in terms of centuries; just as in all problems of colonization, steady
perseverance is a far more important element than the output of energetic effort at the

It goes without saying that in such circumstances the country must be governed and
administered by strictly adhering to the principle of uniformity.

For me it was quite instructive to discover why this did not take place, or rather why it
was not done. Those who were guilty of the omission must be held responsible for the
break-up of the Habsburg Empire.

More than any other State, the existence of the old Austria depended on a strong and
capable Government. The Habsburg Empire lacked ethnical uniformity, which
constitutes the fundamental basis of a national State and will preserve the existence of
such a State even though the ruling power should be grossly inefficient. When a State is
composed of a homogeneous population, the natural inertia of such a population will
hold the Stage together and maintain its existence through astonishingly long periods of
misgovernment and maladministration. It may often seem as if the principle of life had
died out in such a body-politic; but a time comes when the apparent corpse rises up and
displays before the world an astonishing manifestation of its indestructible vitality.

But the situation is utterly different in a country where the population is not
homogeneous, where there is no bond of common blood but only that of one ruling
hand. Should the ruling hand show signs of weakness in such a State the result will not

be to cause a kind of hibernation of the State but rather to awaken the individualist
instincts which are slumbering in the ethnological groups. These instincts do not make
themselves felt as long as these groups are dominated by a strong central will-to-
govern. The danger which exists in these slumbering separatist instincts can be
rendered more or less innocuous only through centuries of common education,
common traditions and common interests. The younger such States are, the more their
existence will depend on the ability and strength of the central government. If their
foundation was due only to the work of a strong personality or a leader who is a man of
genius, in many cases they will break up as soon as the founder disappears; because,
though great, he stood alone. But even after centuries of a common education and
experiences these separatist instincts I have spoken of are not always completely
overcome. They may be only dormant and may suddenly awaken when the central
government shows weakness and the force of a common education as well as the
prestige of a common tradition prove unable to withstand the vital energies of
separatist nationalities forging ahead towards the shaping of their own individual

The failure to see the truth of all this constituted what may be called the tragic crime of
the Habsburg rulers.

Only before the eyes of one Habsburg ruler, and that for the last time, did the hand of
Destiny hold aloft the torch that threw light on the future of his country. But the torch
was then extinguished for ever.

Joseph II, Roman Emperor of the German nation, was filled with a growing anxiety
when he realized the fact that his House was removed to an outlying frontier of his
Empire and that the time would soon be at hand when it would be overturned and
engulfed in the whirlpool caused by that Babylon of nationalities, unless something was
done at the eleventh hour to overcome the dire consequences resulting from the
negligence of his ancestors. With superhuman energy this 'Friend of Mankind' made
every possible effort to counteract the effects of the carelessness and thoughtlessness of
his predecessors. Within one decade he strove to repair the damage that had been done
through centuries. If Destiny had only granted him forty years for his labours, and if
only two generations had carried on the work which he had started, the miracle might
have been performed. But when he died, broken in body and spirit after ten years of
rulership, his work sank with him into the grave and rests with him there in the
Capucin Crypt, sleeping its eternal sleep, having never again showed signs of

His successors had neither the ability nor the will-power necessary for the task they had
to face.

When the first signs of a new revolutionary epoch appeared in Europe they gradually
scattered the fire throughout Austria. And when the fire began to glow steadily it was
fed and fanned not by the social or political conditions but by forces that had their
origin in the nationalist yearnings of the various ethnic groups.

The European revolutionary movement of 1848 primarily took the form of a class
conflict in almost every other country, but in Austria it took the form of a new racial
struggle. In so far as the German-Austrians there forgot the origins of the movement, or
perhaps had failed to recognize them at the start and consequently took part in the
revolutionary uprising, they sealed their own fate. For they thus helped to awaken the
spirit of Western Democracy which, within a short while, shattered the foundations of
their own existence.

The setting up of a representative parliamentary body, without insisting on the
preliminary that only one language should be used in all public intercourse under the
State, was the first great blow to the predominance of the German element in the Dual
Monarchy. From that moment the State was also doomed to collapse sooner or later. All
that followed was nothing but the historical liquidation of an Empire.

To watch that process of progressive disintegration was a tragic and at the same time an
instructive experience. The execution of history's decree was carried out in thousands of
details. The fact that great numbers of people went about blindfolded amid the manifest
signs of dissolution only proves that the gods had decreed the destruction of Austria.

I do not wish to dwell on details because that would lie outside the scope of this book. I
want to treat in detail only those events which are typical among the causes that lead to
the decline of nations and States and which are therefore of importance to our present
age. Moreover, the study of these events helped to furnish the basis of my own political

Among the institutions which most clearly manifested unmistakable signs of decay,
even to the weak-sighted Philistine, was that which, of all the institutions of State, ought
to have been the most firmly founded--I mean the Parliament, or the Reichsrat (Imperial
Council) as it was called in Austria.

The pattern for this corporate body was obviously that which existed in England, the
land of classic democracy. The whole of that excellent organization was bodily
transferred to Austria with as little alteration as possible.

As the Austrian counterpart to the British two-chamber system a Chamber of Deputies
and a House of Lords (HERRENHAUS) were established in Vienna. The Houses
themselves, considered as buildings were somewhat different. When Barry built his
palaces, or, as we say the Houses of Parliament, on the shore of the Thames, he could

look to the history of the British Empire for the inspiration of his work. In that history
he found sufficient material to fill and decorate the 1,200 niches, brackets, and pillars of
his magnificent edifice. His statues and paintings made the House of Lords and the
House of Commons temples dedicated to the glory of the nation.

There it was that Vienna encountered the first difficulty. When Hansen, the Danish
architect, had completed the last gable of the marble palace in which the new body of
popular representatives was to be housed he had to turn to the ancient classical world
for subjects to fill out his decorative plan. This theatrical shrine of 'Western Democracy'
was adorned with the statues and portraits of Greek and Roman statesmen and
philosophers. As if it were meant for a symbol of irony, the horses of the quadriga that
surmounts the two Houses are pulling apart from one another towards all four quarters
of the globe. There could be no better symbol for the kind of activity going on within
the walls of that same building.

The 'nationalities' were opposed to any kind of glorification of Austrian history in the
decoration of this building, insisting that such would constitute an offence to them and
a provocation. Much the same happened in Germany, where the Reich-stag, built by
Wallot, was not dedicated to the German people until the cannons were thundering in
the World War. And then it was dedicated by an inscription.

I was not yet twenty years of age when I first entered the Palace on the Franzens-ring to
watch and listen in the Chamber of Deputies. That first experience aroused in me a
profound feeling of repugnance.

I had always hated the Parliament, but not as an institution in itself. Quite the contrary.
As one who cherished ideals of political freedom I could not even imagine any other
form of government. In the light of my attitude towards the House of Habsburg I
should then have considered it a crime against liberty and reason to think of any kind of
dictatorship as a possible form of government.

A certain admiration which I had for the British Parliament contributed towards the
formation of this opinion. I became imbued with that feeling of admiration almost
without my being conscious of the effect of it through so much reading of newspapers
while I was yet quite young. I could not discard that admiration all in a moment. The
dignified way in which the British House of Commons fulfilled its function impressed
me greatly, thanks largely to the glowing terms in which the Austrian Press reported
these events. I used to ask myself whether there could be any nobler form of
government than self-government by the people.

But these considerations furnished the very motives of my hostility to the Austrian
Parliament. The form in which parliamentary government was here represented

seemed unworthy of its great prototype. The following considerations also influenced
my attitude:

The fate of the German element in the Austrian State depended on its position in
Parliament. Up to the time that universal suffrage by secret ballot was introduced the
German representatives had a majority in the Parliament, though that majority was not
a very substantial one. This situation gave cause for anxiety because the Social-
Democratic fraction of the German element could not be relied upon when national
questions were at stake. In matters that were of critical concern for the German element,
the Social-Democrats always took up an anti-German stand because they were afraid of
losing their followers among the other national groups. Already at that time--before the
introduction of universal suffrage--the Social-Democratic Party could no longer be
considered as a German Party. The introduction of universal suffrage put an end even
to the purely numerical predominance of the German element. The way was now clear
for the further 'de-Germanization' of the Austrian State.

The national instinct of self-preservation made it impossible for me to welcome a
representative system in which the German element was not really represented as such,
but always betrayed by the Social-Democratic fraction. Yet all these, and many others,
were defects which could not be attributed to the parliamentary system as such, but
rather to the Austrian State in particular. I still believed that if the German majority
could be restored in the representative body there would be no occasion to oppose such
a system as long as the old Austrian State continued to exist.

Such was my general attitude at the time when I first entered those sacred and
contentious halls. For me they were sacred only because of the radiant beauty of that
majestic edifice. A Greek wonder on German soil.

But I soon became enraged by the hideous spectacle that met my eyes. Several hundred
representatives were there to discuss a problem of great economical importance and
each representative had the right to have his say.

That experience of a day was enough to supply me with food for thought during
several weeks afterwards.

The intellectual level of the debate was quite low. Some times the debaters did not make
themselves intelligible at all. Several of those present did not speak German but only
their Slav vernaculars or dialects. Thus I had the opportunity of hearing with my own
ears what I had been hitherto acquainted with only through reading the newspapers. A
turbulent mass of people, all gesticulating and bawling against one another, with a
pathetic old man shaking his bell and making frantic efforts to call the House to a sense
of its dignity by friendly appeals, exhortations, and grave warnings.

I could not refrain from laughing.

Several weeks later I paid a second visit. This time the House presented an entirely
different picture, so much so that one could hardly recognize it as the same place. The
hall was practically empty. They were sleeping in the other rooms below. Only a few
deputies were in their places, yawning in each other's faces. One was speechifying. A
deputy speaker was in the chair. When he looked round it was quite plain that he felt

Then I began to reflect seriously on the whole thing. I went to the Parliament whenever
I had any time to spare and watched the spectacle silently but attentively. I listened to
the debates, as far as they could be understood, and I studied the more or less
intelligent features of those 'elect' representatives of the various nationalities which
composed that motley State. Gradually I formed my own ideas about what I saw.

A year of such quiet observation was sufficient to transform or completely destroy my
former convictions as to the character of this parliamentary institution. I no longer
opposed merely the perverted form which the principle of parliamentary representation
had assumed in Austria. No. It had become impossible for me to accept the system in
itself. Up to that time I had believed that the disastrous deficiencies of the Austrian
Parliament were due to the lack of a German majority, but now I recognized that the
institution itself was wrong in its very essence and form.

A number of problems presented themselves before my mind. I studied more closely
the democratic principle of 'decision by the majority vote', and I scrutinized no less
carefully the intellectual and moral worth of the gentlemen who, as the chosen
representatives of the nation, were entrusted with the task of making this institution

Thus it happened that at one and the same time I came to know the institution itself and
those of whom it was composed. And it was thus that, within the course of a few years,
I came to form a clear and vivid picture of the average type of that most lightly
worshipped phenomenon of our time--the parliamentary deputy. The picture of him
which I then formed became deeply engraved on my mind and I have never altered it
since, at least as far as essentials go.

Once again these object-lessons taken from real life saved me from getting firmly
entangled by a theory which at first sight seems so alluring to many people, though that
theory itself is a symptom of human decadence.

Democracy, as practised in Western Europe to-day, is the fore-runner of Marxism. In
fact, the latter would not be conceivable without the former. Democracy is the breeding-
ground in which the bacilli of the Marxist world pest can grow and spread. By the

introduction of parliamentarianism, democracy produced an abortion of filth and fire
(Note 6), the creative fire of which, however, seems to have died out.

I am more than grateful to Fate that this problem came to my notice when I was still in
Vienna; for if I had been in Germany at that time I might easily have found only a
superficial solution. If I had been in Berlin when I first discovered what an illogical
thing this institution is which we call Parliament, I might easily have gone to the other
extreme and believed--as many people believed, and apparently not without good
reason--that the salvation of the people and the Empire could be secured only by
restrengthening the principle of imperial authority. Those who had this belief did not
discern the tendencies of their time and were blind to the aspirations of the people.

In Austria one could not be so easily misled. There it was impossible to fall from one
error into another. If the Parliament were worthless, the Habsburgs were worse; or at
least not in the slightest degree better. The problem was not solved by rejecting the
parliamentary system. Immediately the question arose: What then? To repudiate and
abolish the Vienna Parliament would have resulted in leaving all power in the hands of
the Habsburgs. For me, especially, that idea was impossible.

Since this problem was specially difficult in regard to Austria, I was forced while still
quite young to go into the essentials of the whole question more thoroughly than I
otherwise should have done.

The aspect of the situation that first made the most striking impression on me and gave
me grounds for serious reflection was the manifest lack of any individual responsibility
in the representative body.

The parliament passes some acts or decree which may have the most devastating
consequences, yet nobody bears the responsibility for it. Nobody can be called to
account. For surely one cannot say that a Cabinet discharges its responsibility when it
retires after having brought about a catastrophe. Or can we say that the responsibility is
fully discharged when a new coalition is formed or parliament dissolved? Can the
principle of responsibility mean anything else than the responsibility of a definite

Is it at all possible actually to call to account the leaders of a parliamentary government
for any kind of action which originated in the wishes of the whole multitude of deputies
and was carried out under their orders or sanction? Instead of developing constructive
ideas and plans, does the business of a statesman consist in the art of making a whole
pack of blockheads understand his projects? Is it his business to entreat and coach them
so that they will grant him their generous consent?

Is it an indispensable quality in a statesman that he should possess a gift of persuasion
commensurate with the statesman's ability to conceive great political measures and
carry them through into practice?

Does it really prove that a statesman is incompetent if he should fail to win over a
majority of votes to support his policy in an assembly which has been called together as
the chance result of an electoral system that is not always honestly administered.

Has there ever been a case where such an assembly has worthily appraised a great
political concept before that concept was put into practice and its greatness openly
demonstrated through its success?

In this world is not the creative act of the genius always a protest against the inertia of
the mass?

What shall the statesman do if he does not succeed in coaxing the parliamentary
multitude to give its consent to his policy? Shall he purchase that consent for some sort
of consideration?

Or, when confronted with the obstinate stupidity of his fellow citizens, should he then
refrain from pushing forward the measures which he deems to be of vital necessity to
the life of the nation? Should he retire or remain in power?

In such circumstances does not a man of character find himself face to face with an
insoluble contradiction between his own political insight on the one hand and, on the
other, his moral integrity, or, better still, his sense of honesty?

Where can we draw the line between public duty and personal honour?

Must not every genuine leader renounce the idea of degrading himself to the level of a
political jobber?

And, on the other hand, does not every jobber feel the itch to 'play politics', seeing that
the final responsibility will never rest with him personally but with an anonymous
mass which can never be called to account for their deeds?

Must not our parliamentary principle of government by numerical majority necessarily
lead to the destruction of the principle of leadership?

Does anybody honestly believe that human progress originates in the composite brain
of the majority and not in the brain of the individual personality?

Or may it be presumed that for the future human civilization will be able to dispense
with this as a condition of its existence?

But may it not be that, to-day, more than ever before, the creative brain of the
individual is indispensable?

The parliamentary principle of vesting legislative power in the decision of the majority
rejects the authority of the individual and puts a numerical quota of anonymous heads
in its place. In doing so it contradicts the aristrocratic principle, which is a fundamental
law of nature; but, of course, we must remember that in this decadent era of ours the
aristrocratic principle need not be thought of as incorporated in the upper ten thousand.

The devastating influence of this parliamentary institution might not easily be
recognized by those who read the Jewish Press, unless the reader has learned how to
think independently and examine the facts for himself. This institution is primarily
responsible for the crowded inrush of mediocre people into the field of politics.
Confronted with such a phenomenon, a man who is endowed with real qualities of
leadership will be tempted to refrain from taking part in political life; because under
these circumstances the situation does not call for a man who has a capacity for
constructive statesmanship but rather for a man who is capable of bargaining for the
favour of the majority. Thus the situation will appeal to small minds and will attract
them accordingly.

The narrower the mental outlook and the more meagre the amount of knowledge in a
political jobber, the more accurate is his estimate of his own political stock, and thus he
will be all the more inclined to appreciate a system which does not demand creative
genius or even high-class talent; but rather that crafty kind of sagacity which makes an
efficient town clerk. Indeed, he values this kind of small craftiness more than the
political genius of a Pericles. Such a mediocrity does not even have to worry about
responsibility for what he does. From the beginning he knows that whatever be the
results of his 'statesmanship' his end is already prescribed by the stars; he will one day
have to clear out and make room for another who is of similar mental calibre. For it is
another sign of our decadent times that the number of eminent statesmen grows
according as the calibre of individual personality dwindles. That calibre will become
smaller and smaller the more the individual politician has to depend upon
parliamentary majorities. A man of real political ability will refuse to be the beadle for a
bevy of footling cacklers; and they in their turn, being the representatives of the
majority--which means the dunder-headed multitude--hate nothing so much as a
superior brain.

For footling deputies it is always quite a consolation to be led by a person whose
intellectual stature is on a level with their own. Thus each one may have the

opportunity to shine in debate among such compeers and, above all, each one feels that
he may one day rise to the top. If Peter be boss to-day, then why not Paul tomorrow?

This new invention of democracy is very closely connected with a peculiar
phenomenon which has recently spread to a pernicious extent, namely the cowardice of
a large section of our so-called political leaders. Whenever important decisions have to
be made they always find themselves fortunate in being able to hide behind the backs of
what they call the majority.

In observing one of these political manipulators one notices how he wheedles the
majority in order to get their sanction for whatever action he takes. He has to have
accomplices in order to be able to shift responsibility to other shoulders whenever it is
opportune to do so. That is the main reason why this kind of political activity is
abhorrent to men of character and courage, while at the same time it attracts inferior
types; for a person who is not willing to accept responsibility for his own actions, but is
always seeking to be covered by something, must be classed among the knaves and the
rascals. If a national leader should come from that lower class of politicians the evil
consequences will soon manifest themselves. Nobody will then have the courage to take
a decisive step. They will submit to abuse and defamation rather than pluck up courage
to take a definite stand. And thus nobody is left who is willing to risk his position and
his career, if needs be, in support of a determined line of policy.

One truth which must always be borne in mind is that the majority can never replace
the man. The majority represents not only ignorance but also cowardice. And just as a
hundred blockheads do not equal one man of wisdom, so a hundred poltroons are
incapable of any political line of action that requires moral strength and fortitude.

The lighter the burden of responsibility on each individual leader, the greater will be
the number of those who, in spite of their sorry mediocrity, will feel the call to place
their immortal energies at the disposal of the nation. They are so much on the tip-toe of
expectation that they find it hard to wait their turn. They stand in a long queue,
painfully and sadly counting the number of those ahead of them and calculating the
hours until they may eventually come forward. They watch every change that takes
place in the personnel of the office towards which their hopes are directed, and they are
grateful for every scandal which removes one of the aspirants waiting ahead of them in
the queue. If somebody sticks too long to his office stool they consider this as almost a
breach of a sacred understanding based on their mutual solidarity. They grow furious
and give no peace until that inconsiderate person is finally driven out and forced to
hand over his cosy berth for public disposal. After that he will have little chance of
getting another opportunity. Usually those placemen who have been forced to give up
their posts push themselves again into the waiting queue unless they are hounded away
by the protestations of the other aspirants.

The result of all this is that, in such a State, the succession of sudden changes in public
positions and public offices has a very disquieting effect in general, which may easily
lead to disaster when an adverse crisis arises. It is not only the ignorant and the
incompetent person who may fall victim to those parliamentary conditions, for the
genuine leader may be affected just as much as the others, if not more so, whenever Fate
has chanced to place a capable man in the position of leader. Let the superior quality of
such a leader be once recognized and the result will be that a joint front will be
organized against him, particularly if that leader, though not coming from their ranks,
should fall into the habit of intermingling with these illustrious nincompoops on their
own level. They want to have only their own company and will quickly take a hostile
attitude towards any man who might show himself obviously above and beyond them
when he mingles in their ranks. Their instinct, which is so blind in other directions, is
very sharp in this particular.

The inevitable result is that the intellectual level of the ruling class sinks steadily. One
can easily forecast how much the nation and State are bound to suffer from such a
condition of affairs, provided one does not belong to that same class of 'leaders'.

The parliamentary régime in the old Austria was the very archetype of the institution as
I have described it.

Though the Austrian Prime Minister was appointed by the King-Emperor, this act of
appointment merely gave practical effect to the will of the parliament. The huckstering
and bargaining that went on in regard to every ministerial position showed all the
typical marks of Western Democracy. The results that followed were in keeping with
the principles applied. The intervals between the replacement of one person by another
gradually became shorter, finally ending up in a wild relay chase. With each change the
quality of the 'statesman' in question deteriorated, until finally only the petty type of
political huckster remained. In such people the qualities of statesmanship were
measured and valued according to the adroitness with which they pieced together one
coalition after another; in other words, their craftiness in manipulating the pettiest
political transactions, which is the only kind of practical activity suited to the aptitudes
of these representatives.

In this sphere Vienna was the school which offered the most impressive examples.

Another feature that engaged my attention quite as much as the features I have already
spoken of was the contrast between the talents and knowledge of these representatives
of the people on the one hand and, on the other, the nature of the tasks they had to face.
Willingly or unwillingly, one could not help thinking seriously of the narrow
intellectual outlook of these chosen representatives of the various constituent
nationalities, and one could not avoid pondering on the methods through which these
noble figures in our public life were first discovered.

It was worth while to make a thorough study and examination of the way in which the
real talents of these gentlemen were devoted to the service of their country; in other
words, to analyse thoroughly the technical procedure of their activities.

The whole spectacle of parliamentary life became more and more desolate the more one
penetrated into its intimate structure and studied the persons and principles of the
system in a spirit of ruthless objectivity. Indeed, it is very necessary to be strictly
objective in the study of the institution whose sponsors talk of 'objectivity' in every
other sentence as the only fair basis of examination and judgment. If one studied these
gentlemen and the laws of their strenuous existence the results were surprising.

There is no other principle which turns out to be quite so ill-conceived as the
parliamentary principle, if we examine it objectively.

In our examination of it we may pass over the methods according to which the election
of the representatives takes place, as well as the ways which bring them into office and
bestow new titles on them. It is quite evident that only to a tiny degree are public
wishes or public necessities satisfied by the manner in which an election takes place; for
everybody who properly estimates the political intelligence of the masses can easily see
that this is not sufficiently developed to enable them to form general political
judgments on their own account, or to select the men who might be competent to carry
out their ideas in practice.

Whatever definition we may give of the term 'public opinion', only a very small part of
it originates from personal experience or individual insight. The greater portion of it
results from the manner in which public matters have been presented to the people
through an overwhelmingly impressive and persistent system of 'information'.

In the religious sphere the profession of a denominational belief is largely the result of
education, while the religious yearning itself slumbers in the soul; so too the political
opinions of the masses are the final result of influences systematically operating on
human sentiment and intelligence in virtue of a method which is applied sometimes
with almost-incredible thoroughness and perseverance.

By far the most effective branch of political education, which in this connection is best
expressed by the word 'propaganda', is carried on by the Press. The Press is the chief
means employed in the process of political 'enlightenment'. It represents a kind of
school for adults. This educational activity, however, is not in the hands of the State but
in the clutches of powers which are partly of a very inferior character. While still a
young man in Vienna I had excellent opportunities for coming to know the men who
owned this machine for mass instruction, as well as those who supplied it with the
ideas it distributed. At first I was quite surprised when I realized how little time was

necessary for this dangerous Great Power within the State to produce a certain belief
among the public; and in doing so the genuine will and convictions of the public were
often completely misconstrued. It took the Press only a few days to transform some
ridiculously trivial matter into an issue of national importance, while vital problems
were completely ignored or filched and hidden away from public attention.

The Press succeeded in the magical art of producing names from nowhere within the
course of a few weeks. They made it appear that the great hopes of the masses were
bound up with those names. And so they made those names more popular than any
man of real ability could ever hope to be in a long lifetime. All this was done, despite
the fact that such names were utterly unknown and indeed had never been heard of
even up to a month before the Press publicly emblazoned them. At the same time old
and tried figures in the political and other spheres of life quickly faded from the public
memory and were forgotten as if they were dead, though still healthy and in the
enjoyment of their full viguour. Or sometimes such men were so vilely abused that it
looked as if their names would soon stand as permanent symbols of the worst kind of
baseness. In order to estimate properly the really pernicious influence which the Press
can exercise one had to study this infamous Jewish method whereby honourable and
decent people were besmirched with mud and filth, in the form of low abuse and
slander, from hundreds and hundreds of quarters simultaneously, as if commanded by
some magic formula.

These highway robbers would grab at anything which might serve their evil ends.

They would poke their noses into the most intimate family affairs and would not rest
until they had sniffed out some petty item which could be used to destroy the
reputation of their victim. But if the result of all this sniffing should be that nothing
derogatory was discovered in the private or public life of the victim, they continued to
hurl abuse at him, in the belief that some of their animadversions would stick even
though refuted a thousand times. In most cases it finally turned out impossible for the
victim to continue his defence, because the accuser worked together with so many
accomplices that his slanders were re-echoed interminably. But these slanderers would
never own that they were acting from motives which influence the common run of
humanity or are understood by them. Oh, no. The scoundrel who defamed his
contemporaries in this villainous way would crown himself with a halo of heroic
probity fashioned of unctuous phraseology and twaddle about his 'duties as a
journalist' and other mouldy nonsense of that kind. When these cuttle-fishes gathered
together in large shoals at meetings and congresses they would give out a lot of slimy
talk about a special kind of honour which they called the professional honour of the
journalist. Then the assembled species would bow their respects to one another.

These are the kind of beings that fabricate more than two-thirds of what is called public
opinion, from the foam of which the parliamentary Aphrodite eventually arises.

Several volumes would be needed if one were to give an adequate account of the whole
procedure and fully describe all its hollow fallacies. But if we pass over the details and
look at the product itself while it is in operation I think this alone will be sufficient to
open the eyes of even the most innocent and credulous person, so that he may
recognize the absurdity of this institution by looking at it objectively.

In order to realize how this human aberration is as harmful as it is absurd, the test and
easiest method is to compare democratic parliamentarianism with a genuine German

The remarkable characteristic of the parliamentary form of democracy is the fact that a
number of persons, let us say five hundred--including, in recent time, women also--are
elected to parliament and invested with authority to give final judgment on anything
and everything. In practice they alone are the governing body; for although they may
appoint a Cabinet, which seems outwardly to direct the affairs of state, this Cabinet has
not a real existence of its own. In reality the so-called Government cannot do anything
against the will of the assembly. It can never be called to account for anything, since the
right of decision is not vested in the Cabinet but in the parliamentary majority. The
Cabinet always functions only as the executor of the will of the majority. Its political
ability can be judged only according to how far it succeeds in adjusting itself to the will
of the majority or in persuading the majority to agree to its proposals. But this means
that it must descend from the level of a real governing power to that of a mendicant
who has to beg the approval of a majority that may be got together for the time being.
Indeed, the chief preoccupation of the Cabinet must be to secure for itself, in the case of'
each individual measure, the favour of the majority then in power or, failing that, to
form a new majority that will be more favourably disposed. If it should succeed in
either of these efforts it may go on 'governing' for a little while. If it should fail to win or
form a majority it must retire. The question whether its policy as such has been right or
wrong does not matter at all.

Thereby all responsibility is abolished in practice. To what consequences such a state of
affairs can lead may easily be understood from the following simple considerations:

Those five hundred deputies who have been elected by the people come from various
dissimilar callings in life and show very varying degrees of political capacity, with the
result that the whole combination is disjointed and sometimes presents quite a sorry
picture. Surely nobody believes that these chosen representatives of the nation are the
choice spirits or first-class intellects. Nobody, I hope, is foolish enough to pretend that
hundreds of statesmen can emerge from papers placed in the ballot box by electors who
are anything else but averagely intelligent. The absurd notion that men of genius are
born out of universal suffrage cannot be too strongly repudiated. In the first place, those
times may be really called blessed when one genuine statesman makes his appearance

among a people. Such statesmen do not appear all at once in hundreds or more.
Secondly, among the broad masses there is instinctively a definite antipathy towards
every outstanding genius. There is a better chance of seeing a camel pass through the
eye of a needle than of seeing a really great man 'discovered' through an election.

Whatever has happened in history above the level of the average of the broad public
has mostly been due to the driving force of an individual personality.

But here five hundred persons of less than modest intellectual qualities pass judgment
on the most important problems affecting the nation. They form governments which in
turn learn to win the approval of the illustrious assembly for every legislative step that
may be taken, which means that the policy to be carried out is actually the policy of the
five hundred.

And indeed, generally speaking, the policy bears the stamp of its origin.

But let us pass over the intellectual qualities of these representatives and ask what is the
nature of the task set before them. If we consider the fact that the problems which have
to be discussed and solved belong to the most varied and diverse fields we can very
well realize how inefficient a governing system must be which entrusts the right of
decision to a mass assembly in which only very few possess the knowledge and
experience such as would qualify them to deal with the matters that have to be settled.
The most important economic measures are submitted to a tribunal in which not more
than one-tenth of the members have studied the elements of economics. This means that
final authority is vested in men who are utterly devoid of any preparatory training
which might make them competent to decide on the questions at issue.

The same holds true of every other problem. It is always a majority of ignorant and
incompetent people who decide on each measure; for the composition of the institution
does not vary, while the problems to be dealt with come from the most varied spheres
of public life. An intelligent judgment would be possible only if different deputies had
the authority to deal with different issues. It is out of the question to think that the same
people are fitted to decide on transport questions as well as, let us say, on questions of
foreign policy, unless each of them be a universal genius. But scarcely more than one
genius appears in a century. Here we are scarcely ever dealing with real brains, but only
with dilettanti who are as narrow-minded as they are conceited and arrogant,
intellectual DEMI-MONDES of the worst kind. This is why these honourable gentlemen
show such astonishing levity in discussing and deciding on matters that would demand
the most painstaking consideration even from great minds. Measures of momentous
importance for the future existence of the State are framed and discussed in an
atmosphere more suited to the card-table. Indeed the latter suggests a much more
fitting occupation for these gentlemen than that of deciding the destinies of a people.

Of course it would be unfair to assume that each member in such a parliament was
endowed by nature with such a small sense of responsibility. That is out of the question.

But this system, by forcing the individual to pass judgment on questions for which he is
not competent gradually debases his moral character. Nobody will have the courage to
say: "Gentlemen, I am afraid we know nothing about what we are talking about. I for
one have no competency in the matter at all." Anyhow if such a declaration were made
it would not change matters very much; for such outspoken honesty would not be
understood. The person who made the declaration would be deemed an honourable ass
who ought not to be allowed to spoil the game. Those who have a knowledge of human
nature know that nobody likes to be considered a fool among his associates; and in
certain circles honesty is taken as an index of stupidity.

Thus it happens that a naturally upright man, once he finds himself elected to
parliament, may eventually be induced by the force of circumstances to acquiesce in a
general line of conduct which is base in itself and amounts to a betrayal of the public
trust. That feeling that if the individual refrained from taking part in a certain decision
his attitude would not alter the situation in the least, destroys every real sense of
honour which might occasionally arouse the conscience of one person or another.
Finally, the otherwise upright deputy will succeed in persuading himself that he is by
no means the worst of the lot and that by taking part in a certain line of action he may
prevent something worse from happening.

A counter argument may be put forward here. It may be said that of course the
individual member may not have the knowledge which is requisite for the treatment of
this or that question, yet his attitude towards it is taken on the advice of his Party as the
guiding authority in each political matter; and it may further be said that the Party sets
up special committees of experts who have even more than the requisite knowledge for
dealing with the questions placed before them.

At first sight, that argument seems sound. But then another question arises--namely,
why are five hundred persons elected if only a few have the wisdom which is required
to deal with the more important problems?

It is not the aim of our modern democratic parliamentary system to bring together an
assembly of intelligent and well-informed deputies. Not at all. The aim rather is to bring
together a group of nonentities who are dependent on others for their views and who
can be all the more easily led, the narrower the mental outlook of each individual is.
That is the only way in which a party policy, according to the evil meaning it has to-
day, can be put into effect. And by this method alone it is possible for the wirepuller,
who exercises the real control, to remain in the dark, so that personally he can never be
brought to account for his actions. For under such circumstances none of the decisions
taken, no matter how disastrous they may turn out for the nation as a whole, can be laid

at the door of the individual whom everybody knows to be the evil genius responsible
for the whole affair. All responsibility is shifted to the shoulders of the Party as a whole.

In practice no actual responsibility remains. For responsibility arises only from personal
duty and not from the obligations that rest with a parliamentary assembly of empty

The parliamentary institution attracts people of the badger type, who do not like the
open light. No upright man, who is ready to accept personal responsibility for his acts,
will be attracted to such an institution.

That is the reason why this brand of democracy has become a tool in the hand of that
race which, because of the inner purposes it wishes to attain, must shun the open light,
as it has always done and always will do. Only a Jew can praise an institution which is
as corrupt and false as himself.

As a contrast to this kind of democracy we have the German democracy, which is a true
democracy; for here the leader is freely chosen and is obliged to accept full
responsibility for all his actions and omissions. The problems to be dealt with are not
put to the vote of the majority; but they are decided upon by the individual, and as a
guarantee of responsibility for those decisions he pledges all he has in the world and
even his life.

The objection may be raised here that under such conditions it would be very difficult
to find a man who would be ready to devote himself to so fateful a task. The answer to
that objection is as follows:

We thank God that the inner spirit of our German democracy will of itself prevent the
chance careerist, who may be intellectually worthless and a moral twister, from coming
by devious ways to a position in which he may govern his fellow-citizens. The fear of
undertaking such far-reaching responsibilities, under German democracy, will scare off
the ignorant and the feckless.

But should it happen that such a person might creep in surreptitiously it will be easy
enough to identify him and apostrophize him ruthlessly. somewhat thus: "Be off, you
scoundrel. Don't soil these steps with your feet; because these are the steps that lead to
the portals of the Pantheon of History, and they are not meant for place-hunters but for
men of noble character."

Such were the views I formed after two years of attendance at the sessions of the
Viennese Parliament. Then I went there no more.

The parliamentary regime became one of the causes why the strength of the Habsburg
State steadily declined during the last years of its existence. The more the predominance
of the German element was whittled away through parliamentary procedure, the more
prominent became the system of playing off one of the various constituent nationalities
against the other. In the Imperial Parliament it was always the German element that
suffered through the system, which meant that the results were detrimental to the
Empire as a whole; for at the close of the century even the most simple-minded people
could recognize that the cohesive forces within the Dual Monarchy no longer sufficed to
counterbalance the separatist tendencies of the provincial nationalities. On the contrary!

The measures which the State adopted for its own maintenance became more and more
mean spirited and in a like degree the general disrespect for the State increased. Not
only Hungary but also the various Slav provinces gradually ceased to identify
themselves with the monarchy which embraced them all, and accordingly they did not
feel its weakness as in any way detrimental to themselves. They rather welcomed those
manifestations of senile decay. They looked forward to the final dissolution of the State,
and not to its recovery.

The complete collapse was still forestalled in Parliament by the humiliating concessions
that were made to every kind of importunate demands, at the cost of the German
element. Throughout the country the defence of the State rested on playing off the
various nationalities against one another. But the general trend of this development was
directed against the Germans. Especially since the right of succession to the throne
conferred certain influence on the Archduke Franz Ferdinand, the policy of increasing
the power of the Czechs was carried out systematically from the upper grades of the
administration down to the lower. With all the means at his command the heir to the
Dual Monarchy personally furthered the policy that aimed at eliminating the influence
of the German element, or at least he acted as protector of that policy. By the use of
State officials as tools, purely German districts were gradually but decisively brought
within the danger zone of the mixed languages. Even in Lower Austria this process
began to make headway with a constantly increasing tempo and Vienna was looked
upon by the Czechs as their biggest city.

In the family circle of this new Habsburger the Czech language was favoured. The wife
of the Archduke had formerly been a Czech Countess and was wedded to the Prince by
a morganatic marriage. She came from an environment where hostility to the Germans
had been traditional. The leading idea in the mind of the Archduke was to establish a
Slav State in Central Europe, which was to be constructed on a purely Catholic basis, so
as to serve as a bulwark against Orthodox Russia.

As had happened often in Habsburg history, religion was thus exploited to serve a
purely political policy, and in this case a fatal policy, at least as far as German interests
were concerned. The result was lamentable in many respects.

Neither the House of Habsburg nor the Catholic Church received the reward which
they expected. Habsburg lost the throne and the Church lost a great State. By
employing religious motives in the service of politics, a spirit was aroused which the
instigators of that policy had never thought possible.

From the attempt to exterminate Germanism in the old monarchy by every available
means arose the Pan-German Movement in Austria, as a response.

In the 'eighties of the last century Manchester Liberalism, which was Jewish in its
fundamental ideas, had reached the zenith of its influence in the Dual Monarchy, or had
already passed that point. The reaction which set in did not arise from social but from
nationalistic tendencies, as was always the case in the old Austria. The instinct of self-
preservation drove the German element to defend itself energetically. Economic
considerations only slowly began to gain an important influence; but they were of
secondary concern. But of the general political chaos two party organizations emerged.
The one was more of a national, and the other more of a social, character; but both were
highly interesting and instructive for the future.

After the war of 1866, which had resulted in the humiliation of Austria, the House of
Habsburg contemplated a REVANCHE on the battlefield. Only the tragic end of the
Emperor Maximilian of Mexico prevented a still closer collaboration with France. The
chief blame for Maximilian's disastrous expedition was attributed to Napoleon III and
the fact that the Frenchman left him in the lurch aroused a general feeling of
indignation. Yet the Habsburgs were still lying in wait for their opportunity. If the war
of 1870-71 had not been such a singular triumph, the Viennese Court might have
chanced the game of blood in order to get its revenge for Sadowa. But when the first
reports arrived from the Franco-German battlefield, which, though true, seemed
miraculous and almost incredible, the 'most wise' of all monarchs recognized that the
moment was inopportune and tried to accept the unfavourable situation with as good a
grace as possible.

The heroic conflict of those two years (1870-71) produced a still greater miracle; for with
the Habsburgs the change of attitude never came from an inner heartfelt urge but only
from the pressure of circumstances. The German people of the East Mark, however,
were entranced by the triumphant glory of the newly established German Empire and
were profoundly moved when they saw the dream of their fathers resurgent in a
magnificent reality.

For--let us make no mistake about it--the true German-Austrian realized from this time
onward, that Königgrätz was the tragic, though necessary, pre-condition for the re-
establishment of an Empire which should no longer be burdened with the palsy of the
old alliance and which indeed had no share in that morbid decay. Above all, the

German-Austrian had come to feel in the very depths of his own being that the
historical mission of the House of Habsburg had come to an end and that the new
Empire could choose only an Emperor who was of heroic mould and was therefore
worthy to wear the 'Crown of the Rhine'. It was right and just that Destiny should be
praised for having chosen a scion of that House of which Frederick the Great had in
past times given the nation an elevated and resplendent symbol for all time to come.

After the great war of 1870-71 the House of Habsburg set to work with all its
determination to exterminate the dangerous German element--about whose inner
feelings and attitude there could be no doubt--slowly but deliberately. I use the word
exterminate, because that alone expresses what must have been the final result of the
Slavophile policy. Then it was that the fire of rebellion blazed up among the people
whose extermination had been decreed. That fire was such as had never been witnessed
in modern German history.

For the first time nationalists and patriots were transformed into rebels.

Not rebels against the nation or the State as such but rebels against that form of
government which they were convinced, would inevitably bring about the ruin of their
own people. For the first time in modern history the traditional dynastic patriotism and
national love of fatherland and people were in open conflict.

It was to the merit of the Pan-German movement in Austria during the closing decade
of the last century that it pointed out clearly and unequivocally that a State is entitled to
demand respect and protection for its authority only when such authority is
administered in accordance with the interests of the nation, or at least not in a manner
detrimental to those interests.

The authority of the State can never be an end in itself; for, if that were so, any kind of
tyranny would be inviolable and sacred.

If a government uses the instruments of power in its hands for the purpose of leading a
people to ruin, then rebellion is not only the right but also the duty of every individual

The question of whether and when such a situation exists cannot be answered by
theoretical dissertations but only by the exercise of force, and it is success that decides
the issue.

Every government, even though it may be the worst possible and even though it may
have betrayed the nation's trust in thousands of ways, will claim that its duty is to
uphold the authority of the State. Its adversaries, who are fighting for national self-
preservation, must use the same weapons which the government uses if they are to

prevail against such a rule and secure their own freedom and independence. Therefore
the conflict will be fought out with 'legal' means as long as the power which is to be
overthrown uses them; but the insurgents will not hesitate to apply illegal means if the
oppressor himself employs them.

Generally speaking, we must not forget that the highest aim of human existence is not
the maintenance of a State of Government but rather the conservation of the race.

If the race is in danger of being oppressed or even exterminated the question of legality
is only of secondary importance. The established power may in such a case employ only
those means which are recognized as 'legal'. yet the instinct of self-preservation on the
part of the oppressed will always justify, to the highest degree, the employment of all
possible resources.

Only on the recognition of this principle was it possible for those struggles to be carried
through, of which history furnishes magnificent examples in abundance, against foreign
bondage or oppression at home.

Human rights are above the rights of the State. But if a people be defeated in the
struggle for its human rights this means that its weight has proved too light in the scale
of Destiny to have the luck of being able to endure in this terrestrial world.

The world is not there to be possessed by the faint-hearted races. Austria affords a
very clear and striking example of how easy it is for tyranny to hide its head under the
cloak of what is called 'legality'.

The legal exercise of power in the Habsburg State was then based on the anti-German
attitude of the parliament, with its non-German majorities, and on the dynastic House,
which was also hostile to the German element. The whole authority of the State was
incorporated in these two factors. To attempt to alter the lot of the German element
through these two factors would have been senseless. Those who advised the 'legal'
way as the only possible way, and also obedience to the State authority, could offer no
resistance; because a policy of resistance could not have been put into effect through
legal measures. To follow the advice of the legalist counsellors would have meant the
inevitable ruin of the German element within the Monarchy, and this disaster would
not have taken long to come. The German element has actually been saved only because
the State as such collapsed.

The spectacled theorist would have given his life for his doctrine rather than for his

Because man has made laws he subsequently comes to think that he exists for the sake
of the laws.

A great service rendered by the pan-German movement then was that it abolished all
such nonsense, though the doctrinaire theorists and other fetish worshippers were

When the Habsburgs attempted to come to close quarters with the German element, by
the employment of all the means of attack which they had at their command, the Pan-
German Party hit out ruthlessly against the 'illustrious' dynasty. This Party was the first
to probe into and expose the corrupt condition of the State; and in doing so they opened
the eyes of hundreds of thousands. To have liberated the high ideal of love for one's
country from the embrace of this deplorable dynasty was one of the great services
rendered by the Pan-German movement.

When that Party first made its appearance it secured a large following--indeed, the
movement threatened to become almost an avalanche. But the first successes were not
maintained. At the time I came to Vienna the pan-German Party had been eclipsed by
the Christian-Socialist Party, which had come into power in the meantime. Indeed, the
Pan-German Party had sunk to a level of almost complete insignificance.

The rise and decline of the Pan-German movement on the one hand and the marvellous
progress of the Christian-Socialist Party on the other, became a classic object of study
for me, and as such they played an important part in the development of my own

When I came to Vienna all my sympathies were exclusively with the Pan-German

I was just as much impressed by the fact that they had the courage to shout HEIL
HOHENZOLLERN as I rejoiced at their determination to consider themselves an
integral part of the German Empire, from which they were separated only
provisionally. They never missed an opportunity to explain their attitude in public,
which raised my enthusiasm and confidence. To avow one's principles publicly on
every problem that concerned Germanism, and never to make any compromises,
seemed to me the only way of saving our people. What I could not understand was how
this movement broke down so soon after such a magnificent start; and it was no less
incomprehensible that the Christian-Socialists should gain such tremendous power
within such a short time. They had just reached the pinnacle of their popularity.

When I began to compare those two movements Fate placed before me the best means
of understanding the causes of this puzzling problem. The action of Fate in this case
was hastened by my own straitened circumstances.

I shall begin my analysis with an account of the two men who must be regarded as the
founders and leaders of the two movements. These were George von Schönerer and Dr.
Karl Lueger.

As far as personality goes, both were far above the level and stature of the so-called
parliamentary figures. They lived lives of immaculate and irreproachable probity
amidst the miasma of all-round political corruption. Personally I first liked the Pan-
German representative, Schönerer, and it was only afterwards and gradually that I felt
an equal liking for the Christian-Socialist leader.

When I compared their respective abilities Schönerer seemed to me a better and more
profound thinker on fundamental problems. He foresaw the inevitable downfall of the
Austrian State more clearly and accurately than anyone else. If this warning in regard to
the Habsburg Empire had been heeded in Germany the disastrous world war, which
involved Germany against the whole of Europe, would never have taken place.

But though Schönerer succeeded in penetrating to the essentials of a problem he was
very often much mistaken in his judgment of men.

And herein lay Dr. Lueger's special talent. He had a rare gift of insight into human
nature and he was very careful not to take men as something better than they were in
reality. He based his plans on the practical possibilities which human life offered him,
whereas Schönerer had only little discrimination in that respect. All ideas that this Pan-
German had were right in the abstract, but he did not have the forcefulness or
understanding necessary to put his ideas across to the broad masses. He was not able to
formulate them so that they could be easily grasped by the masses, whose powers of
comprehension are limited and will always remain so. Therefore all Schönerer's
knowledge was only the wisdom of a prophet and he never could succeed in having it
put into practice.

This lack of insight into human nature led him to form a wrong estimate of the forces
behind certain movements and the inherent strength of old institutions.

Schönerer indeed realized that the problems he had to deal with were in the nature of a
WELTANSCHAUUNG; but he did not understand that only the broad masses of a
nation can make such convictions prevail, which are almost of a religious nature.

Unfortunately he understood only very imperfectly how feeble is the fighting spirit of
the so-called bourgeoisie. That weakness is due to their business interests, which
individuals are too much afraid of risking and which therefore deter them from taking
action. And, generally speaking, a WELTANSCHAUUNG can have no prospect of
success unless the broad masses declare themselves ready to act as its standard-bearers
and to fight on its behalf wherever and to whatever extent that may be necessary.

This failure to understand the importance of the lower strata of the population resulted
in a very inadequate concept of the social problem.

In all this Dr. Lueger was the opposite of Schönerer. His profound knowledge of human
nature enabled him to form a correct estimate of the various social forces and it saved
him from under-rating the power of existing institutions. And it was perhaps this very
quality which enabled him to utilize those institutions as a means to serve the purposes
of his policy.

He saw only too clearly that, in our epoch, the political fighting power of the upper
classes is quite insignificant and not at all capable of fighting for a great new movement
until the triumph of that movement be secured. Thus he devoted the greatest part of his
political activity to the task of winning over those sections of the population whose
existence was in danger and fostering the militant spirit in them rather than attempting
to paralyse it. He was also quick to adopt all available means for winning the support of
long-established institutions, so as to be able to derive the greatest possible advantage
for his movement from those old sources of power.

Thus it was that, first of all, he chose as the social basis of his new Party that middle
class which was threatened with extinction. In this way he secured a solid following
which was willing to make great sacrifices and had good fighting stamina. His
extremely wise attitude towards the Catholic Church rapidly won over the younger
clergy in such large numbers that the old Clerical Party was forced to retire from the
field of action or else, which was the wiser course, join the new Party, in the hope of
gradually winning back one position after another.

But it would be a serious injustice to the man if we were to regard this as his essential
characteristic. For he possessed the qualities of an able tactician, and had the true genius
of a great reformer; but all these were limited by his exact perception of the possibilities
at hand and also of his own capabilities.

The aims which this really eminent man decided to pursue were intensely practical. He
wished to conquer Vienna, the heart of the Monarchy. It was from Vienna that the last
pulses of life beat through the diseased and worn-out body of the decrepit Empire. If
the heart could be made healthier the others parts of the body were bound to revive.
That idea was correct in principle; but the time within which it could be applied in
practice was strictly limited. And that was the man's weak point.

His achievements as Burgomaster of the City of Vienna are immortal, in the best sense
of the word. But all that could not save the Monarchy. It came too late.

His rival, Schönerer, saw this more clearly. What Dr. Lueger undertook to put into
practice turned out marvellously successful. But the results which he expected to follow
these achievements did not come. Schönerer did not attain the ends he had proposed to
himself; but his fears were realized, alas, in a terrible fashion. Thus both these men
failed to attain their further objectives. Lueger could not save Austria and Schönerer
could not prevent the downfall of the German people in Austria.

To study the causes of failure in the case of these two parties is to learn a lesson that is
highly instructive for our own epoch. This is specially useful for my friends, because in
many points the circumstances of our own day are similar to those of that time.
Therefore such a lesson may help us to guard against the mistakes which brought one
of those movements to an end and rendered the other barren of results.

In my opinion, the wreck of the Pan-German Movement in Austria must be attributed
to three causes.

The first of these consisted in the fact that the leaders did not have a clear concept of the
importance of the social problem, particularly for a new movement which had an
essentially revolutionary character. Schönerer and his followers directed their attention
principally to the bourgeois classes. For that reason their movement was bound to turn
out mediocre and tame. The German bourgeoisie, especially in its upper circles, is
pacifist even to the point of complete self-abnegation--though the individual may not be
aware of this--wherever the internal affairs of the nation or State are concerned. In good
times, which in this case means times of good government, such a psychological
attitude makes this social layer extraordinarily valuable to the State. But when there is a
bad government, such a quality has a destructive effect. In order to assure the
possibility of carrying through a really strenuous struggle, the Pan-German Movement
should have devoted its efforts to winning over the masses. The failure to do this left
the movement from the very beginning without the elementary impulse which such a
wave needs if it is not to ebb within a short while.

In failing to see the truth of this principle clearly at the very outset of the movement and
in neglecting to put it into practice the new Party made an initial mistake which could
not possibly be rectified afterwards. For the numerous moderate bourgeois elements
admitted into the movements increasingly determined its internal orientation and thus
forestalled all further prospects of gaining any appreciable support among the masses
of the people. Under such conditions such a movement could not get beyond mere
discussion and criticism. Quasi-religious faith and the spirit of sacrifice were not to be
found in the movement any more. Their place was taken by the effort towards 'positive'
collaboration, which in this case meant the acknowledgment of the existing state of
affairs, gradually whittling away the rough corners of the questions in dispute, and
ending up with the making of a dishonourable peace.

Such was the fate of the Pan-German Movement, because at the start the leaders did not
realize that the most important condition of success was that they should recruit their
following from the broad masses of the people. The Movement thus became bourgeois
and respectable and radical only in moderation.

From this failure resulted the second cause of its rapid decline.

The position of the Germans in Austria was already desperate when Pan-Germanism
arose. Year after year Parliament was being used more and more as an instrument for
the gradual extinction of the German-Austrian population. The only hope for any
eleventh-hour effort to save it lay in the overthrow of the parliamentary system; but
there was very little prospect of this happening.

Therewith the Pan-German Movement was confronted with a question of primary

To overthrow the Parliament, should the Pan-Germanists have entered it 'to undermine
it from within', as the current phrase was? Or should they have assailed the institution
as such from the outside?

They entered the Parliament and came out defeated. But they had found themselves
obliged to enter.

For in order to wage an effective war against such a power from the outside,
indomitable courage and a ready spirit of sacrifice were necessary weapons. In such
cases the bull must be seized by the horns. Furious drives may bring the assailant to the
ground again and again; but if he has a stout heart he will stand up, even though some
bones may be broken, and only after a long and tough struggle will he achieve his
triumph. New champions are attracted to a cause by the appeal of great sacrifices made
for its sake, until that indomitable spirit is finally crowned with success.

For such a result, however, the children of the people from the great masses are
necessary. They alone have the requisite determination and tenacity to fight a
sanguinary issue through to the end. But the Pan-German Movement did not have these
broad masses as its champions, and so no other means of solution could be tried out
except that of entering Parliamcnt.

It would be a mistake to think that this decision resulted from a long series of internal
hesitations of a moral kind, or that it was the outcome of careful calculation. No. They
did not even think of another solution. Those who participated in this blunder were
actuated by general considerations and vague notions as to what would be the
significance and effect of taking part in such a special way in that institution which they
had condemned on principle. In general they hoped that they would thus have the

means of expounding their cause to the great masses of the people, because they would
be able to speak before 'the forum of the whole nation'. Also, it seemed reasonable to
believe that by attacking the evil in the root they would be more effective than if the
attack came from outside. They believed that, if protected by the immunity of
Parliament, the position of the individual protagonists would be strengthened and that
thus the force of their attacks would be enhanced.

In reality everything turned out quite otherwise.

The Forum before which the Pan-German representatives spoke had not grown greater,
but had actually become smaller; for each spoke only to the circle that was ready to
listen to him or could read the report of his speech in the newspapers.

But the greater forum of immediate listeners is not the parliamentary auditorium: it is
the large public meeting. For here alone will there be thousands of men who have come
simply to hear what a speaker has to say, whereas in the parliamentary sittings only a
few hundred are present; and for the most part these are there only to earn their daily
allowance for attendance and not to be enlightened by the wisdom of one or other of the
'representatives of the people'.

The most important consideration is that the same public is always present and that this
public does not wish to learn anything new; because, setting aside the question of its
intelligence, it lacks even that modest quantum of will-power which is necessary for the
effort of learning.

Not one of the representatives of the people will pay homage to a superior truth and
devote himself to its service. No. Not one of these gentry will act thus, except he has
grounds for hoping that by such a conversion he may be able to retain the
representation of his constituency in the coming legislature. Therefore, only when it
becomes quite clear that the old party is likely to have a bad time of it at the
forthcoming elections--only then will those models of manly virtue set out in search of a
new party or a new policy which may have better electoral prospects; but of course this
change of position will be accompanied by a veritable deluge of high moral motives to
justify it. And thus it always happens that when an existing Party has incurred such
general disfavour among the public that it is threatened with the probability of a
crushing defeat, then a great migration commences. The parliamentary rats leave the
Party ship.

All this happens not because the individuals in the case have become better informed
on the questions at issue and have resolved to act accordingly. These changes of front
are evidence only of that gift of clairvoyance which warns the parliamentary flea at the
right moment and enables him to hop into another warm Party bed.

To speak before such a forum signifies casting pearls before certain animals.

Verily it does not repay the pains taken; for the result must always be negative.

And that is actually what happened. The Pan-German representatives might have
talked themselves hoarse, but to no effect whatsoever.

The Press either ignored them totally or so mutilated their speeches that the logical
consistency was destroyed or the meaning twisted round in such a way that the public
got only a very wrong impression regarding the aims of the new movement. What the
individual members said was not of importance. The important matter was what people
read as coming from them. This consisted of mere extracts which had been torn out of
the context of the speeches and gave an impression of incoherent nonsense, which
indeed was purposely meant. Thus the only public before which they really spoke
consisted merely of five hundred parliamentarians; and that says enough.

The worst was the following:

The Pan-German Movement could hope for success only if the leaders realized from the
very first moment that here there was no question so much of a new Party as of a new
WELTANSCHAUUNG. This alone could arouse the inner moral forces that were
necessary for such a gigantic struggle. And for this struggle the leaders must be men of
first-class brains and indomitable courage. If the struggle on behalf of a
WELTANSCHAUUNG is not conducted by men of heroic spirit who are ready to
sacrifice, everything, within a short while it will become impossible to find real fighting
followers who are ready to lay down their lives for the cause. A man who fights only
for his own existence has not much left over for the service of the community.

In order to secure the conditions that are necessary for success, everybody concerned
must be made to understand that the new movement looks to posterity for its honour
and glory but that it has no recompense to offer to the present-day members. If a
movement should offer a large number of positions and offices that are easily accessible
the number of unworthy candidates admitted to membership will be constantly on the
increase and eventually a day will come when there will be such a preponderance of
political profiteers among the membership of a successful Party that the combatants
who bore the brunt of the battle in the earlier stages of the movement can now scarcely
recognize their own Party and may be ejected by the later arrivals as unwanted ballast.
Therewith the movement will no longer have a mission to fulfil.

Once the Pan-Germanists decided to collaborate with Parliament they were no longer
leaders and combatants in a popular movement, but merely parliamentarians. Thus the
Movement sank to the common political party level of the day and no longer had the
strength to face a hostile fate and defy the risk of martyrdom. Instead of fighting, the

Pan-German leaders fell into the habit of talking and negotiating. The new
parliamentarians soon found that it was a more satisfactory, because less risky, way of
fulfilling their task if they would defend the new WELTANSCHAUUNG with the
spiritual weapon of parliamentary rhetoric rather than take up a fight in which they
placed their lives in danger, the outcome of which also was uncertain and even at the
best could offer no prospect of personal gain for themselves.

When they had taken their seats in Parliament their adherents outside hoped and
waited for miracles to happen. Naturally no such miracles happened or could happen.
Whereupon the adherents of the movement soon grew impatient, because reports they
read about their own deputies did not in the least come up to what had been expected
when they voted for these deputies at the elections. The reason for this was not far to
seek. It was due to the fact that an unfriendly Press refrained from giving a true account
of what the Pan-German representatives of the people were actually doing.

According as the new deputies got to like this mild form of 'revolutionary' struggle in
Parliament and in the provincial diets they gradually became reluctant to resume the
more hazardous work of expounding the principles of the movement before the broad
masses of the people.

Mass meetings in public became more and more rare, though these are the only means
of exercising a really effective influence on the people; because here the influence comes
from direct personal contact and in this way the support of large sections of the people
can be obtained.

When the tables on which the speakers used to stand in the great beer-halls, addressing
an assembly of thousands, were deserted for the parliamentary tribune and the
speeches were no longer addressed to the people directly but to the so-called 'chosen'
representatives, the Pan-German Movement lost its popular character and in a little
while degenerated to the level of a more or less serious club where problems of the day
are discussed academically.

The wrong impression created by the Press was no longer corrected by personal contact
with the people through public meetings, whereby the individual representatives might
have given a true account of their activities. The final result of this neglect was that the
word 'Pan-German' came to have an unpleasant sound in the ears of the masses.

The knights of the pen and the literary snobs of to-day should be made to realize that
the great transformations which have taken place in this world were never conducted
by a goosequill. No. The task of the pen must always be that of presenting the
theoretical concepts which motivate such changes. The force which has ever and always
set in motion great historical avalanches of religious and political movements is the
magic power of the spoken word.

The broad masses of a population are more amenable to the appeal of rhetoric than to
any other force. All great movements are popular movements. They are the volcanic
eruptions of human passions and emotions, stirred into activity by the ruthless Goddess
of Distress or by the torch of the spoken word cast into the midst of the people. In no
case have great movements been set afoot by the syrupy effusions of aesthetic
littérateurs and drawing-room heroes.

The doom of a nation can be averted only by a storm of glowing passion; but only those
who are passionate themselves can arouse passion in others. It is only through the
capacity for passionate feeling that chosen leaders can wield the power of the word
which, like hammer blows, will open the door to the hearts of the people.

He who is not capable of passionate feeling and speech was never chosen by Providence
to be the herald of its will. Therefore a writer should stick to his ink-bottle and busy
himself with theoretical questions if he has the requisite ability and knowledge. He has
not been born or chosen to be a leader.

A movement which has great ends to achieve must carefully guard against the danger
of losing contact with the masses of the people. Every problem encountered must be
examined from this viewpoint first of all and the decision to be made must always be in
harmony with this principle.

The movement must avoid everything which might lessen or weaken its power of
influencing the masses; not from demagogical motives but because of the simple fact
that no great idea, no matter how sublime and exalted it may appear, can be realized in
practice without the effective power which resides in the popular masses. Stern reality
alone must mark the way to the goal. To be unwilling to walk the road of hardship
means, only too often in this world, the total renunciation of our aims and purposes,
whether that renunciation be consciously willed or not.

The moment the Pan-German leaders, in virtue of their acceptance of the parliamentary
principle, moved the centre of their activities away from the people and into
Parliament, in that moment they sacrificed the future for the sake of a cheap momentary
success. They chose the easier way in the struggle and in doing so rendered themselves
unworthy of the final victory.

While in Vienna I used to ponder seriously over these two questions, and I saw that the
main reason for the collapse of the Pan-German Movement lay in the fact that these
very questions were not rightly appreciated. To my mind at that time the Movement
seemed chosen to take in its hands the leadership of the German element in Austria.

These first two blunders which led to the downfall of the Pan-German Movement were
very closely connected with one another. Faulty recognition of the inner driving forces
that urge great movements forward led to an inadequate appreciation of the part which
the broad masses play in bringing about such changes. The result was that too little
attention was given to the social problem and that the attempts made by the movement
to capture the minds of the lower classes were too few and too weak. Another result
was the acceptance of the parliamentary policy, which had a similar effect in regard to
the importance of the masses.

If there had been a proper appreciation of the tremendous powers of endurance always
shown by the masses in revolutionary movements a different attitude towards the
social problem would have been taken, and also a different policy in the matter of
propaganda. Then the centre of gravity of the movement would not have been
transferred to the Parliament but would have remained in the workshops and in the

There was a third mistake, which also had its roots in the failure to understand the
worth of the masses. The masses are first set in motion, along a definite direction, by
men of superior talents; but then these masses once in motion are like a flywheel
inasmuch as they sustain the momentum and steady balance of the offensive.

The policy of the Pan-German leaders in deciding to carry through a difficult fight
against the Catholic Church can be explained only by attributing it to an inadequate
understanding of the spiritual character of the people.

The reasons why the new Party engaged in a violent campaign against Rome were as

As soon as the House of Habsburg had definitely decided to transform Austria into a
Slav State all sorts of means were adopted which seemed in any way serviceable for that
purpose. The Habsburg rulers had no scruples of conscience about exploiting even
religious institutions in the service of this new 'State Idea'. One of the many methods
thus employed was the use of Czech parishes and their clergy as instruments for
spreading Slav hegemony throughout Austria. This proceeding was carried out as

Parish priests of Czech nationality were appointed in purely German districts.
Gradually but steadily pushing forward the interests of the Czech people before those
of the Church, the parishes and their priests became generative cells in the process of

Unfortunately the German-Austrian clergy completely failed to counter this procedure.
Not only were they incapable of taking a similar initiative on the German side, but they

showed themselves unable to meet the Czech offensive with adequate resistance. The
German element was accordingly pushed backwards, slowly but steadily, through the
perversion of religious belief for political ends on the one side, and the Jack of proper
resistance on the other side. Such were the tactics used in dealing with the smaller
problems; but those used in dealing with the larger problems were not very different.

The anti-German aims pursued by the Habsburgs, especially through the
instrumentality of the higher clergy, did not meet with any vigorous resistance, while
the clerical representatives of the German interests withdrew completely to the rear.
The general impression created could not be other than that the Catholic clergy as such
were grossly neglecting the rights of the German population.

Therefore it looked as if the Catholic Church was not in sympathy with the German
people but that it unjustly supported their adversaries. The root of the whole evil,
especially according to Schönerer's opinion, lay in the fact that the leadership of the
Catholic Church was not in Germany, and that this fact alone was sufficient reason for
the hostile attitude of the Church towards the demands of our people.

The so-called cultural problem receded almost completely into the background, as was
generally the case everywhere throughout Austria at that time. In assuming a hostile
attitude towards the Catholic Church, the Pan-German leaders were influenced not so
much by the Church's position in questions of science but principally by the fact that the
Church did not defend German rights, as it should have done, but always supported
those who encroached on these rights, especially then Slavs.

George Schönerer was not a man who did things by halves. He went into battle against
the Church because he was convinced that this was the only way in which the German
people could be saved. The LOS-VON-ROM (Away from Rome) Movement seemed the
most formidable, but at the same time most difficult, method of attacking and
destroying the adversary's citadel. Schönerer believed that if this movement could be
carried through successfully the unfortunate division between the two great religious
denominations in Germany would be wiped out and that the inner forces of the
German Empire and Nation would be enormously enhanced by such a victory.

But the premises as well as the conclusions in this case were both erroneous.

It was undoubtedly true that the national powers of resistance, in everything
concerning Germanism as such, were much weaker among the German Catholic clergy
than among their non-German confrères, especially the Czechs. And only an ignorant
person could be unaware of the fact that it scarcely ever entered the mind of the
German clergy to take the offensive on behalf of German interests.

But at the same time everybody who is not blind to facts must admit that all this should
be attributed to a characteristic under which we Germans have all been doomed to
suffer. This characteristic shows itself in our objective way of regarding our own
nationality, as if it were something that lay outside of us.

While the Czech priest adopted a subjective attitude towards his own people and only
an objective attitude towards the Church, the German parish priest showed a subjective
devotion to his Church and remained objective in regard to his nation. It is a
phenomenon which, unfortunately for us, can be observed occurring in exactly the
same way in thousands of other cases.

It is by no means a peculiar inheritance from Catholicism; but it is something in us
which does not take long to gnaw the vitals of almost every institution, especially
institutions of State and those which have ideal aims. Take, for example, the attitude of
our State officials in regard to the efforts made for bringing about a national resurgence
and compare that attitude with the stand which the public officials of any other nation
would have taken in such a case. Or is it to be believed that the military officers of any
other country in the world would refuse to come forward on behalf of the national
aspirations, but would rather hide behind the phrase 'Authority of the State', as has
been the case in our country during the last five years and has even been deemed a
meritorious attitude? Or let us take another example. In regard to the Jewish problem,
do not the two Christian denominations take up a standpoint to-day which does not
respond to the national exigencies or even the interests of religion? Consider the
attitude of a Jewish Rabbi towards any question, even one of quite insignificant
importance, concerning the Jews as a race, and compare his attitude with that of the
majority of our clergy, whether Catholic or Protestant.

We observe the same phenomenon wherever it is a matter of standing up for some
abstract idea.

'Authority of the State', 'Democracy', 'Pacifism', 'International Solidarity', etc., all such
notions become rigid, dogmatic concepts with us; and the more vital the general
necessities of the nation, the more will they be judged exclusively in the light of those

This unfortunate habit of looking at all national demands from the viewpoint of a pre-
conceived notion makes it impossible for us to see the subjective side of a thing which
objectively contradicts one's own doctrine. It finally leads to a complete reversion in the
relation of means to an end. Any attempt at a national revival will be opposed if the
preliminary condition of such a revival be that a bad and pernicious regime must first of
all be overthrown; because such an action will be considered as a violation of the
'Authority of the State'. In the eyes of those who take that standpoint, the 'Authority of
the State' is not a means which is there to serve an end but rather, to the mind of the

dogmatic believer in objectivity, it is an end in itself; and he looks upon that as sufficient
apology for his own miserable existence. Such people would raise an outcry, if, for
instance, anyone should attempt to set up a dictatorship, even though the man
responsible for it were Frederick the Great and even though the politicians for the time
being, who constituted the parliamentary majority, were small and incompetent men or
maybe even on a lower grade of inferiority; because to such sticklers for abstract
principles the law of democracy is more sacred than the welfare of the nation. In
accordance with his principles, one of these gentry will defend the worst kind of
tyranny, though it may be leading a people to ruin, because it is the fleeting
embodiment of the 'Authority of the State', and another will reject even a highly
beneficent government if it should happen not to be in accord with his notion of

In the same way our German pacifist will remain silent while the nation is groaning
under an oppression which is being exercised by a sanguinary military power, when
this state of affairs gives rise to active resistance; because such resistance means the
employment of physical force, which is against the spirit of the pacifist associations. The
German International Socialist may be rooked and plundered by his comrades in all the
other countries of the world in the name of 'solidarity', but he responds with fraternal
kindness and never thinks of trying to get his own back, or even of defending himself.
And why? Because he is a--German.

It may be unpleasant to dwell on such truths, but if something is to be changed we must
start by diagnosing the disease.

The phenomenon which I have just described also accounts for the feeble manner in
which German interests are promoted and defended by a section of the clergy.

Such conduct is not the manifestation of a malicious intent, nor is it the outcome of
orders given from 'above', as we say; but such a lack of national grit and determination
is due to defects in our educational system. For, instead of inculcating in the youth a
lively sense of their German nationality, the aim of the educational system is to make
the youth prostrate themselves in homage to the idea, as if the idea were an idol.

The education which makes them the devotees of such abstract notions as 'Democracy',
'International Socialism', 'Pacifism', etc., is so hard-and-fast and exclusive and,
operating as it does from within outwards, is so purely subjective that in forming their
general picture of outside life as a whole they are fundamentally influenced by these A
PRIORI notions. But, on the other hand, the attitude towards their own German
nationality has been very objective from youth upwards. The Pacifist--in so far as he is a
German--who surrenders himself subjectively, body and soul, to the dictates of his
dogmatic principles, will always first consider the objective right or wrong of a situation
when danger threatens his own people, even though that danger be grave and unjustly

wrought from outside. But he will never take his stand in the ranks of his own people
and fight for and with them from the sheer instinct of self-preservation.

Another example may further illustrate how far this applies to the different religious
denominations. In so far as its origin and tradition are based on German ideals,
Protestantism of itself defends those ideals better. But it fails the moment it is called
upon to defend national interests which do not belong to the sphere of its ideals and
traditional development, or which, for some reason or other, may be rejected by that

Therefore Protestantism will always take its part in promoting German ideals as far as
concerns moral integrity or national education, when the German spiritual being or
language or spiritual freedom are to be defended: because these represent the principles
on which Protestantism itself is grounded. But this same Protestantism violently
opposes every attempt to rescue the nation from the clutches of its mortal enemy;
because the Protestant attitude towards the Jews is more or less rigidly and
dogmatically fixed. And yet this is the first problem which has to be solved, unless all
attempts to bring about a German resurgence or to raise the level of the nation's
standing are doomed to turn out nonsensical and impossible.

During my sojourn in Vienna I had ample leisure and opportunity to study this
problem without allowing any prejudices to intervene; and in my daily intercourse with
people I was able to establish the correctness of the opinion I formed by the test of
thousands of instances.

In this focus where the greatest varieties of nationality had converged it was quite clear
and open to everybody to see that the German pacifist was always and exclusively the
one who tried to consider the interests of his own nation objectively; but you could
never find a Jew who took a similar attitude towards his own race. Furthermore, I
found that only the German Socialist is 'international' in the sense that he feels himself
obliged not to demand justice for his own people in any other manner than by whining
and wailing to his international comrades. Nobody could ever reproach Czechs or Poles
or other nations with such conduct. In short, even at that time, already I recognized that
this evil is only partly a result of the doctrines taught by Socialism, Pacifism, etc., but
mainly the result of our totally inadequate system of education, the defects of which are
responsible for the lack of devotion to our own national ideals.

Therefore the first theoretical argument advanced by the Pan-German leaders as the
basis of their offensive against Catholicism was quite entenable.

The only way to remedy the evil I have been speaking of is to train the Germans from
youth upwards to an absolute recognition of the rights of their own people, instead of
poisoning their minds, while they are still only children, with the virus of this curbed

'objectivity', even in matters concerning the very maintenance of our own existence. The
result of this would be that the Catholic in Germany, just as in Ireland, Poland or
France, will be a German first and foremost. But all this presupposes a radical change in
the national government.

The strongest proof in support of my contention is furnished by what took place at that
historical juncture when our people were called for the last time before the tribunal of
History to defend their own existence, in a life-or-death struggle.

As long as there was no lack of leadership in the higher circles, the people fulfilled their
duty and obligations to an overwhelming extent. Whether Protestant pastor or Catholic
priest, each did his very utmost in helping our powers of resistance to hold out, not
only in the trenches but also, and even more so, at home. During those years, and
especially during the first outburst of enthusiasm, in both religious camps there was
one undivided and sacred German Empire for whose preservation and future existence
they all prayed to Heaven.

The Pan-German Movement in Austria ought to have asked itself this one question: Is
the maintenance of the German element in Austria possible or not, as long as that
element remains within the fold of the Catholic Faith? If that question should have been
answered in the affirmative, then the political Party should not have meddled in
religious and denominational questions. But if the question had to be answered in the
negative, then a religious reformation should have been started and not a political party

Anyone who believes that a religious reformation can be achieved through the agency
of a political organization shows that he has no idea of the development of religious
conceptions and doctrines of faith and how these are given practical effect by the

No man can serve two masters. And I hold that the foundation or overthrow of a
religion has far greater consequences than the foundation or overthrow of a State, to say
nothing of a Party.

It is no argument to the contrary to say that the attacks were only defensive measures
against attacks from the other side.

Undoubtedly there have always been unscrupulous rogues who did not hesitate to
degrade religion to the base uses of politics. Nearly always such a people had nothing
else in their minds except to make a business of religions and politics. But on the other
hand it would be wrong to hold religion itself, or a religious denomination, responsible
for a number of rascals who exploit the Church for their own base interests just as they
would exploit anything else in which they had a part.

Nothing could be more to the taste of one of these parliamentary loungers and tricksters
than to be able to find a scapegoat for his political sharp-practice--after the event, of
course. The moment religion or a religious denomination is attacked and made
responsible for his personal misdeeds this shrewd fellow will raise a row at once and
call the world to witness how justified he was in acting as he did, proclaiming that he
and his eloquence alone have saved religion and the Church. The public, which is
mostly stupid and has a very short memory, is not capable of recognizing the real
instigator of the quarrel in the midst of the turmoil that has been raised. Frequently it
does not remember the beginning of the fight and so the rogue gets by with his stunt.

A cunning fellow of that sort is quite well aware that his misdeeds have nothing to do
with religion. And so he will laugh up his sleeve all the more heartily when his honest
but artless adversary loses the game and, one day losing all faith in humanity, retires
from the activities of public life.

But from another viewpoint also it would be wrong to make religion, or the Church as
such, responsible for the misdeeds of individuals. If one compares the magnitude of the
organization, as it stands visible to every eye, with the average weakness of human
nature we shall have to admit that the proportion of good to bad is more favourable
here than anywhere else. Among the priests there may, of course, be some who use
their sacred calling to further their political ambitions. There are clergy who
unfortunately forget that in the political mêlée they ought to be the paladins of the more
sublime truths and not the abettors of falsehood and slander. But for each one of these
unworthy specimens we can find a thousand or more who fulfil their mission nobly as
the trustworthy guardians of souls and who tower above the level of our corrupt epoch,
as little islands above the seaswamp.

I cannot condemn the Church as such, and I should feel quite as little justified in doing
so if some depraved person in the robe of a priest commits some offence against the
moral law. Nor should I for a moment think of blaming the Church if one of its
innumerable members betrays and besmirches his compatriots, especially not in epochs
when such conduct is quite common. We must not forget, particularly in our day, that
for one such Ephialtes (Note 7) there are a thousand whose hearts bleed in sympathy
with their people during these years of misfortune and who, together with the best of
our nation, yearn for the hour when fortune will smile on us again.

If it be objected that here we are concerned not with the petty problems of everyday life
but principally with fundamental truths and questions of dogma, the only way of
answering that objection is to ask a question:

Do you feel that Providence has called you to proclaim the Truth to the world? If so,
then go and do it. But you ought to have the courage to do it directly and not use some

political party as your mouthpiece; for in this way you shirk your vocation. In the place
of something that now exists and is bad put something else that is better and will last
into the future.

If you lack the requisite courage or if you yourself do not know clearly what your better
substitute ought to be, leave the whole thing alone. But, whatever happens, do not try
to reach the goal by the roundabout way of a political party if you are not brave enough
to fight with your visor lifted.

Political parties have no right to meddle in religious questions except when these relate
to something that is alien to the national well-being and thus calculated to undermine
racial customs and morals.

If some ecclesiastical dignitaries should misuse religious ceremonies or religious
teaching to injure their own nation their opponents ought never to take the same road
and fight them with the same weapons.

To a political leader the religious teachings and practices of his people should be sacred
and inviolable. Otherwise he should not be a statesman but a reformer, if he has the
necessary qualities for such a mission.

Any other line of conduct will lead to disaster, especially in Germany.

In studying the Pan-German Movement and its conflict with Rome I was then firmly
persuaded, and especially in the course of later years, that by their failure to understand
the importance of the social problem the Pan-Germanists lost the support of the broad
masses, who are the indispensable combatants in such a movement. By entering
Parliament the Pan-German leaders deprived themselves of the great driving force
which resides in the masses and at the same time they laid on their own shoulders all
the defects of the parliamentary institution. Their struggle against the Church made
their position impossible in numerous circles of the lower and middle class, while at the
same time it robbed them of innumerable high-class elements--some of the best indeed
that the nation possessed. The practical outcome of the Austrian Kulturkampf was

Although they succeeded in winning 100,000 members away from the Church, that did
not do much harm to the latter. The Church did not really need to shed any tears over
these lost sheep, for it lost only those who had for a long time ceased to belong to it in
their inner hearts. The difference between this new reformation and the great
Reformation was that in the historic epoch of the great Reformation some of the best
members left the Church because of religious convictions, whereas in this new
reformation only those left who had been indifferent before and who were now

influenced by political considerations. From the political point of view alone the result
was as ridiculous as it was deplorable.

Once again a political movement which had promised so much for the German nation
collapsed, because it was not conducted in a spirit of unflinching adherence to naked
reality, but lost itself in fields where it was bound to get broken up.

The Pan-German Movement would never have made this mistake if it had properly
understood the PSYCHE of the broad masses. If the leaders had known that, for
psychological reasons alone, it is not expedient to place two or more sets of adversaries
before the masses--since that leads to a complete splitting up of their fighting strength--
they would have concentrated the full and undivided force of their attack against a
single adversary. Nothing in the policy of a political party is so fraught with danger as
to allow its decisions to be directed by people who want to have their fingers in every
pie though they do not know how to cook the simplest dish.

But even though there is much that can really be said against the various religious
denominations, political leaders must not forget that the experience of history teaches
us that no purely political party in similar circumstances ever succeeded in bringing
about a religious reformation. One does not study history for the purpose of forgetting
or mistrusting its lessons afterwards, when the time comes to apply these lessons in
practice. It would be a mistake to believe that in this particular case things were
different, so that the eternal truths of history were no longer applicable. One learns
history in order to be able to apply its lessons to the present time and whoever fails to
do this cannot pretend to be a political leader. In reality he is quite a superficial person
or, as is mostly the case, a conceited simpleton whose good intentions cannot make up
for his incompetence in practical affairs.

The art of leadership, as displayed by really great popular leaders in all ages, consists in
consolidating the attention of the people against a single adversary and taking care that
nothing will split up that attention into sections. The more the militant energies of the
people are directed towards one objective the more will new recruits join the
movement, attracted by the magnetism of its unified action, and thus the striking power
will be all the more enhanced. The leader of genius must have the ability to make
different opponents appear as if they belonged to the one category; for weak and
wavering natures among a leader's following may easily begin to be dubious about the
justice of their own cause if they have to face different enemies.

As soon as the vacillating masses find themselves facing an opposition that is made up
of different groups of enemies their sense of objectivity will be aroused and they will
ask how is it that all the others can be in the wrong and they themselves, and their
movement, alone in the right.

Such a feeling would be the first step towards a paralysis of their fighting vigour.
Where there are various enemies who are split up into divergent groups it will be
necessary to block them all together as forming one solid front, so that the mass of
followers in a popular movement may see only one common enemy against whom they
have to fight. Such uniformity intensifies their belief in the justice of their own cause
and strengthens their feeling of hostility towards the opponent.

The Pan-German Movement was unsuccessful because the leaders did not grasp the
significance of that truth. They saw the goal clearly and their intentions were right; but
they took the wrong road. Their action may be compared to that of an Alpine climber
who never loses sight of the peak he wants to reach, who has set out with the greatest
determination and energy, but pays no attention to the road beneath his feet. With his
eye always fixed firmly on the goal he does not think over or notice the nature of the
ascent and finally he fails.

The manner in which the great rival of the Pan-German Party set out to attain its goal
was quite different. The way it took was well and shrewdly chosen; but it did not have
a clear vision of the goal. In almost all the questions where the Pan-German Movement
failed, the policy of the Christian-Socialist Party was correct and systematic.

They assessed the importance of the masses correctly, and thus they gained the support
of large numbers of the popular masses by emphasizing the social character of the
Movement from the very start. By directing their appeal especially to the lower middle
class and the artisans, they gained adherents who were faithful, persevering and self-
sacrificing. The Christian-Socialist leaders took care to avoid all controversy with the
institutions of religion and thus they secured the support of that mighty organization,
the Catholic Church. Those leaders recognized the value of propaganda on a large scale
and they were veritable virtuosos in working up the spiritual instincts of the broad
masses of their adherents.

The failure of this Party to carry into effect the dream of saving Austria from dissolution
must be attributed to two main defects in the means they employed and also the lack of
a clear perception of the ends they wished to reach.

The anti-Semitism of the Christian-Socialists was based on religious instead of racial
principles. The reason for this mistake gave rise to the second error also.

The founders of the Christian-Socialist Party were of the opinion that they could not
base their position on the racial principle if they wished to save Austria, because they
felt that a general disintegration of the State might quickly result from the adoption of
such a policy. In the opinion of the Party chiefs the situation in Vienna demanded that
all factors which tended to estrange the nationalities from one another should be
carefully avoided and that all factors making for unity should be encouraged.

At that time Vienna was so honeycombed with foreign elements, especially the Czechs,
that the greatest amount of tolerance was necessary if these elements were to be enlisted
in the ranks of any party that was not anti-German on principle. If Austria was to be
saved those elements were indispensable. And so attempts were made to win the
support of the small traders, a great number of whom were Czechs, by combating the
liberalism of the Manchester School; and they believed that by adopting this attitude
they had found a slogan against Jewry which, because of its religious implications,
would unite all the different nationalities which made up the population of the old

It was obvious, however, that this kind of anti-Semitism did not upset the Jews very
much, simply because it had a purely religious foundation. If the worst came to the
worst a few drops of baptismal water would settle the matter, hereupon the Jew could
still carry on his business safely and at the same time retain his Jewish nationality.

On such superficial grounds it was impossible to deal with the whole problem in an
earnest and rational way. The consequence was that many people could not understand
this kind of anti-Semitism and therefore refused to take part in it.

The attractive force of the idea was thus restricted exclusively to narrow-minded circles,
because the leaders failed to go beyond the mere emotional appeal and did not ground
their position on a truly rational basis. The intellectuals were opposed to such a policy
on principle. It looked more and more as if the whole movement was a new attempt to
proselytize the Jews, or, on the other hand, as if it were merely organized from the wish
to compete with other contemporary movements. Thus the struggle lost all traces of
having been organized for a spiritual and sublime mission. Indeed, it seemed to some
people--and these were by no means worthless elements--to be immoral and
reprehensible. The movement failed to awaken a belief that here there was a problem of
vital importance for the whole of humanity and on the solution of which the destiny of
the whole Gentile world depended.

Through this shilly-shally way of dealing with the problem the anti-Semitism of the
Christian-Socialists turned out to be quite ineffective.

It was anti-Semitic only in outward appearance. And this was worse than if it had made
no pretences at all to anti-Semitism; for the pretence gave rise to a false sense of security
among people who believed that the enemy had been taken by the ears; but, as a matter
of fact, the people themselves were being led by the nose.

The Jew readily adjusted himself to this form of anti-Semitism and found its
continuance more profitable to him than its abolition would be.

This whole movement led to great sacrifices being made for the sake of that State which
was composed of many heterogeneous nationalities; but much greater sacrifices had to
be made by the trustees of the German element.

One did not dare to be 'nationalist', even in Vienna, lest the ground should fall away
from under one's feet. It was hoped that the Habsburg State might be saved by a silent
evasion of the nationalist question; but this policy led that State to ruin. The same policy
also led to the collapse of Christian Socialism, for thus the Movement was deprived of
the only source of energy from which a political party can draw the necessary driving

During those years I carefully followed the two movements and observed how they
developed, one because my heart was with it and the other because of my admiration
for that remarkable man who then appeared to me as a bitter symbol of the whole
German population in Austria.

When the imposing funeral CORTÈGE of the dead Burgomaster wound its way from
the City Hall towards the Ring Strasse I stood among the hundreds of thousands who
watched the solemn procession pass by. As I stood there I felt deeply moved, and my
instinct clearly told me that the work of this man was all in vain, because a sinister Fate
was inexorably leading this State to its downfall. If Dr. Karl Lueger had lived in
Germany he would have been ranked among the great leaders of our people. It was a
misfortune for his work and for himseif that he had to live in this impossible State.

When he died the fire had already been enkindled in the Balkans and was spreading
month by month. Fate had been merciful in sparing him the sight of what, even to the
last, he had hoped to prevent.

I endeavoured to analyse the cause which rendered one of those movements futile and
wrecked the progress of the other. The result of this investigation was the profound
conviction that, apart from the inherent impossibility of consolidating the position of
the State in the old Austria, the two parties made the following fatal mistake:

The Pan-German Party was perfectly right in its fundamental ideas regarding the aim of
the Movement, which was to bring about a German restoration, but it was unfortunate
in its choice of means. It was nationalist, but unfortunately it paid too little heed to the
social problem, and thus it failed to gain the support of the masses. Its anti-Jewish
policy, however, was grounded on a correct perception of the significance of the racial
problem and not on religious principles. But it was mistaken in its assessment of facts
and adopted the wrong tactics when it made war against one of the religious

The Christian-Socialist Movement had only a vague concept of a German revival as part
of its object, but it was intelligent and fortunate in the choice of means to carry out its
policy as a Party. The Christian-Socialists grasped the significance of the social question;
but they adopted the wrong principles in their struggle against Jewry, and they utterly
failed to appreciate the value of the national idea as a source of political energy.

If the Christian-Socialist Party, together with its shrewd judgment in regard to the
worth of the popular masses, had only judged rightly also on the importance of the
racial problem--which was properly grasped by the Pan-German Movement--and if this
party had been really nationalist; or if the Pan-German leaders, on the other hand, in
addition to their correct judgment of the Jewish problem and of the national idea, had
adopted the practical wisdom of the Christian-Socialist Party, and particularly their
attitude towards Socialism--then a movement would have developed which, in my
opinion, might at that time have successfully altered the course of German destiny.

If things did not turn out thus, the fault lay for the most part in the inherent nature of
the Austrian State.

I did not find my own convictions upheld by any party then in existence, and so I could
not bring myself to enlist as a member in any of the existing organizations or even lend
a hand in their struggle. Even at that time all those organizations seemed to me to be
already jaded in their energies and were therefore incapable of bringing about a
national revival of the German people in a really profound way, not merely outwardly.

My inner aversion to the Habsburg State was increasing daily.

The more I paid special attention to questions of foreign policy, the more the conviction
grew upon me that this phantom State would surely bring misfortune on the Germans. I
realized more and more that the destiny of the German nation could not be decisively
influenced from here but only in the German Empire itself. And this was true not only
in regard to general political questions but also--and in no less a degree--in regard to the
whole sphere of cultural life.

Here, also, in all matters affecting the national culture and art, the Austrian State
showed all the signs of senile decrepitude, or at least it was ceasing to be of any
consequence to the German nation, as far as these matters were concerned. This was
especially true of its architecture. Modern architecture could not produce any great
results in Austria because, since the building of the Ring Strasse--at least in Vienna--
architectural activities had become insignificant when compared with the progressive
plans which were being thought out in Germany.

And so I came more and more to lead what may be called a twofold existence. Reason
and reality forced me to continue my harsh apprenticeship in Austria, though I must

now say that this apprenticeship turned out fortunate in the end. But my heart was

A feeling of discontent grew upon me and made me depressed the more I came to
realize the inside hollowness of this State and the impossibility of saving it from
collapse. At the same time I felt perfectly certain that it would bring all kinds of
misfortune to the German people.

I was convinced that the Habsburg State would balk and hinder every German who
might show signs of real greatness, while at the same time it would aid and abet every
non-German activity.

This conglomerate spectacle of heterogeneous races which the capital of the Dual
Monarchy presented, this motley of Czechs, Poles, Hungarians, Ruthenians, Serbs and
Croats, etc., and always that bacillus which is the solvent of human society, the Jew,
here and there and everywhere--the whole spectacle was repugnant to me. The gigantic
city seemed to be the incarnation of mongrel depravity.

The German language, which I had spoken from the time of my boyhood, was the
vernacular idiom of Lower Bavaria. I never forgot that particular style of speech, and I
could never learn the Viennese dialect. The longer I lived in that city the stronger
became my hatred for the promiscuous swarm of foreign peoples which had begun to
batten on that old nursery ground of German culture. The idea that this State could
maintain its further existence for any considerable time was quite absurd.

Austria was then like a piece of ancient mosaic in which the cohesive cement had dried
up and become old and friable. As long as such a work of art remains untouched it may
hold together and continue to exist; but the moment some blow is struck on it then it
breaks up into thousands of fragments. Therefore it was now only a question of when
the blow would come.

Because my heart was always with the German Empire and not with the Austrian
Monarchy, the hour of Austria's dissolution as a State appeared to me only as the first
step towards the emancipation of the German nation.

All these considerations intensified my yearning to depart for that country for which
my heart had been secretly longing since the days of my youth.

I hoped that one day I might be able to make my mark as an architect and that I could
devote my talents to the service of my country on a large or small scale, according to the
will of Fate.

A final reason was that I longed to be among those who lived and worked in that land
from which the movement should be launched, the object of which would be the
fulfilment of what my heart had always longed for, namely, the union of the country in
which I was born with our common fatherland, the German Empire.

There are many who may not understand how such a yearning can be so strong; but I
appeal especially to two groups of people. The first includes all those who are still
denied the happiness I have spoken of, and the second embraces those who once
enjoyed that happiness but had it torn from them by a harsh fate. I turn to all those who
have been torn from their motherland and who have to struggle for the preservation of
their most sacred patrimony, their native language, persecuted and harried because of
their loyalty and love for the homeland, yearning sadly for the hour when they will be
allowed to return to the bosom of their father's household. To these I address my
words, and I know that they will understand.

Only he who has experienced in his own inner life what it means to be German and yet
to be denied the right of belonging to his fatherland can appreciate the profound
nostalgia which that enforced exile causes. It is a perpetual heartache, and there is no
place for joy and contentment until the doors of paternal home are thrown open and all
those through whose veins kindred blood is flowing will find peace and rest in their
common REICH.

Vienna was a hard school for me; but it taught me the most profound lessons of my life.
I was scarcely more than a boy when I came to live there, and when I left it I had grown
to be a man of a grave and pensive nature. In Vienna I acquired the foundations of a
WELTANSCHAUUNG in general and developed a faculty for analysing political
questions in particular. That WELTANSCHAUUNG and the political ideas then formed
have never been abandoned, though they were expanded later on in some directions. It
is only now that I can fully appreciate how valuable those years of apprenticeship were
for me.

That is why I have given a detailed account of this period. There, in Vienna, stark reality
taught me the truths that now form the fundamental principles of the Party which
within the course of five years has grown from modest beginnings to a great mass
movement. I do not know what my attitude towards Jewry, Social-Democracy, or rather
Marxism in general, to the social problem, etc., would be to-day if I had not acquired a
stock of personal beliefs at such an early age, by dint of hard study and under the
duress of Fate.

For, although the misfortunes of the Fatherland may have stimulated thousands and
thousands to ponder over the inner causes of the collapse, that could not lead to such a
thorough knowledge and deep insight as a man may develop who has fought a hard
struggle for many years so that he might be master of his own fate.


[Note 6. SPOTTGEBURT VON DRECK UND FEUER. This is the epithet that Faust hurls
at Mephistopheles as the latter intrudes on the conversation between Faust and Martha
in the garden:

Mephistopheles: Thou, full of sensual, super-sensual desire, girl by the nose is leading
thee. Faust: Abortion, thou of filth and fire.]

[Note 7. Herodotus (Book VII, 213-218) tells the story of how a Greek traitor, Ephialtes,
helped the Persian invaders at the Battle of Thermopylae (480 B.C.) When the Persian
King, Xerxes, had begun to despair of being able tobreak through the Greek defence,
Ephialtes came to him and, on being promiseda definite payment, told the King of a
pathway over the shoulder of the mountainto the Greek end of the Pass. The bargain
being clinched, Ephialtes led adetachment of the Persian troops under General
Hydarnes over the mountainpathway. Thus taken in the rear, the Greek defenders,
under Leonidas, King of Sparta, had to fight in two opposite directions within the
narrow pass. Terrible slaughter ensued and Leonidas fell in the thick of the fighting.

The bravery of Leonidas and the treason of Ephialtes impressed Hitler, asit does almost
every schoolboy. The incident is referred to again in MEIN KAMPF (Chap. VIII, Vol. I),
where Hitler compares the German troops thatfell in France and Flanders to the Greeks
at Thermopylae, the treachery of Ephialtes being suggested as the prototype of the
defeatist policy of the German politicians towards the end of the Great War.]

Chapter 4


AT LAST I came to Munich, in the spring of 1912.

The city itself was as familiar to me as if I had lived for years within its walls.

This was because my studies in architecture had been constantly turning my attention
to the metropolis of German art. One must know Munich if one would know Germany,
and it is impossible to acquire a knowledge of German art without seeing Munich.

All things considered, this pre-war sojourn was by far the happiest and most contented
time of my life. My earnings were very slender; but after all I did not live for the sake of
painting. I painted in order to get the bare necessities of existence while I continued my
studies. I was firmly convinced that I should finally succeed in reaching the goal I had
marked out for myself. And this conviction alone was strong enough to enable me to
bear the petty hardships of everyday life without worrying very much about them.

Moreover, almost from the very first moment of my sojourn there I came to love that
city more than any other place known to me. A German city! I said to myself. How
different to Vienna. It was with a feeling of disgust that my imagination reverted to that
Babylon of races. Another pleasant feature here was the way the people spoke German,
which was much nearer my own way of speaking than the Viennese idiom. The Munich
idiom recalled the days of my youth, especially when I spoke with those who had come
to Munich from Lower Bavaria. There were a thousand or more things which I inwardly
loved or which I came to love during the course of my stay. But what attracted me most
was the marvellous wedlock of native folk-energy with the fine artistic spirit of the city,
that unique harmony from the Hofbräuhaus to the Odeon, from the October Festival to
the PINAKOTHEK, etc. The reason why my heart's strings are entwined around this
city as around no other spot in this world is probably because Munich is and will
remain inseparably connected with the development of my own career; and the fact that
from the beginning of my visit I felt inwardly happy and contented is to be attributed to
the charm of the marvellous Wittelsbach Capital, which has attracted probably
everybody who is blessed with a feeling for beauty instead of commercial instincts.

Apart from my professional work, I was most interested in the study of current political
events, particularly those which were connected with foreign relations. I approached
these by way of the German policy of alliances which, ever since my Austrian days, I
had considered to be an utterly mistaken one. But in Vienna I had not yet seen quite
clearly how far the German Empire had gone in the process of' self-delusion. In Vienna
I was inclined to assume, or probably I persuaded myself to do so in order to excuse the
German mistake, that possibly the authorities in Berlin knew how weak and unreliable
their ally would prove to be when brought face to face with realities, but that, for more
or less mysterious reasons, they refrained from allowing their opinions on this point to
be known in public. Their idea was that they should support the policy of alliances
which Bismarck had initiated and the sudden discontinuance of which might be
undesirable, if for no other reason than that it might arouse those foreign countries
which were lying in wait for their chance or might alarm the Philistines at home.

But my contact with the people soon taught me, to my horror, that my assumptions
were wrong. I was amazed to find everywhere, even in circles otherwise well informed,
that nobody had the slightest intimation of the real character of the Habsburg
Monarchy. Among the common people in particular there was a prevalent illusion that
the Austrian ally was a Power which would have to be seriously reckoned with and
would rally its man-power in the hour of need. The mass of the people continued to
look upon the Dual Monarchy as a 'German State' and believed that it could be relied
upon. They assumed that its strength could be measured by the millions of its subjects,
as was the case in Germany. First of all, they did not realize that Austria had ceased to
be a German State and, secondly, that the conditions prevailing within the Austrian
Empire were steadily pushing it headlong to the brink of disaster.

At that time I knew the condition of affairs in the Austrian State better than the
professional diplomats. Blindfolded, as nearly always, these diplomats stumbled along
on their way to disaster. The opinions prevailing among the bulk of the people reflected
only what had been drummed into them from official quarters above. And these higher
authorities grovelled before the 'Ally', as the people of old bowed down before the
Golden Calf. They probably thought that by being polite and amiable they might
balance the lack of honesty on the other side. Thus they took every declaration at its full
face value.

Even while in Vienna I used to be annoyed again and again by the discrepancy between
the speeches of the official statesmen and the contents of the Viennese Press. And yet
Vienna was still a German city, at least as far as appearances went. But one encountered
an utterly different state of things on leaving Vienna, or rather German-Austria, and
coming into the Slav provinces. It needed only a glance at the Prague newspapers in
order to see how the whole exalted hocus-pocus of the Triple Alliance was judged from
there. In Prague there was nothing but gibes and sneers for that masterpiece of
statesmanship. Even in the piping times of peace, when the two emperors kissed each

other on the brow in token of friendship, those papers did not cloak their belief that the
alliance would be liquidated the moment a first attempt was made to bring it down
from the shimmering glory of a Nibelungen ideal to the plane of practical affairs.

Great indignation was aroused a few years later, when the alliances were put to the first
practical test. Italy not only withdrew from the Triple Alliance, leaving the other two
members to march by themselves. but she even joined their enemies. That anybody
should believe even for a moment in the possibility of such a miracle as that of Italy
fighting on the same side as Austria would be simply incredible to anyone who did not
suffer from the blindness of official diplomacy. And that was just how people felt in
Austria also.

In Austria only the Habsburgs and the German-Austrians supported the alliance. The
Habsburgs did so from shrewd calculation of their own interests and from necessity.
The Germans did it out of good faith and political ignorance. They acted in good faith
inasmuch as they believed that by establishing the Triple Alliance they were doing a
great service to the German Empire and were thus helping to strengthen it and
consolidate its defence. They showed their political ignorance, however, in holding such
ideas, because, instead of helping the German Empire they really chained it to a
moribund State which might bring its associate into the grave with itself; and, above all,
by championing this alliance they fell more and more a prey to the Habsburg policy of
de-Germanization. For the alliance gave the Habsburgs good grounds for believing that
the German Empire would not interfere in their domestic affairs and thus they were in a
position to carry into effect, with more ease and less risk, their domestic policy of
gradually eliminating the German element. Not only could the 'objectiveness' of the
German Government be counted upon, and thus there need be no fear of protest from
that quarter, but one could always remind the German-Austrians of the alliance and
thus silence them in case they should ever object to the reprehensible means that were
being employed to establish a Slav hegemony in the Dual Monarchy.

What could the German-Austrians do, when the people of the German Empire itself
had openly proclaimed their trust and confidence in the Habsburg régime?

Should they resist, and thus be branded openly before their kinsfolk in the REICH as
traitors to their own national interests? They, who for so many decades had sacrificed
so much for the sake of their German tradition!

Once the influence of the Germans in Austria had been wiped out, what then would be
the value of the alliance? If the Triple Alliance were to be advantageous to Germany,
was it not a necessary condition that the predominance of the German element in
Austria should be maintained? Or did anyone really believe that Germany could
continue to be the ally of a Habsburg Empire under the hegemony of the Slavs?

The official attitude of German diplomacy, as well as that of the general public towards
internal problems affecting the Austrian nationalities was not merely stupid, it was
insane. On the alliance, as on a solid foundation, they grounded the security and future
existence of a nation of seventy millions, while at the same time they allowed their
partner to continue his policy of undermining the sole foundation of that alliance
methodically and resolutely, from year to year. A day must come when nothing but a
formal contract with Viennese diplomats would be left. The alliance itself, as an
effective support, would be lost to Germany.

As far as concerned Italy, such had been the case from the outset.

If people in Germany had studied history and the psychology of nations a little more
carefully not one of them could have believed for a single hour that the Quirinal and the
Viennese Hofburg could ever stand shoulder to shoulder on a common battle front.
Italy would have exploded like a volcano if any Italian government had dared to send a
single Italian soldier to fight for the Habsburg State. So fanatically hated was this State
that the Italians could stand in no other relation to it on a battle front except as enemies.
More than once in Vienna I have witnessed explosions of the contempt and profound
hatred which 'allied' the Italian to the Austrian State. The crimes which the House of
Habsburg committed against Italian freedom and independence during several
centuries were too grave to be forgiven, even with the best of goodwill. But this
goodwill did not exist, either among the rank and file of the population or in the
government. Therefore for Italy there were only two ways of co-existing with Austria--
alliance or war. By choosing the first it was possible to prepare leisurely for the second.

Especially since relations between Russia and Austria tended more and more towards
the arbitrament of war, the German policy of alliances was as senseless as it was
dangerous. Here was a classical instance which demonstrated the lack of any broad or
logical lines of thought.

But what was the reason for forming the alliance at all? It could not have been other
than the wish to secure the future of the REICH better than if it were to depend
exclusively on its own resources. But the future of the REICH could not have meant
anything else than the problem of securing the means of existence for the German

The only questions therefore were the following: What form shall the life of the nation
assume in the near future--that is to say within such a period as we can forecast? And
by what means can the necessary foundation and security be guaranteed for this
development within the framework of the general distribution of power among the
European nations? A clear analysis of the principles on which the foreign policy of
German statecraft were to be based should have led to the following conclusions:

The annual increase of population in Germany amounts to almost 900,000 souls. The
difficulties of providing for this army of new citizens must grow from year to year and
must finally lead to a catastrophe, unless ways and means are found which will forestall
the danger of misery and hunger. There were four ways of providing against this
terrible calamity:

(1) It was possible to adopt the French example and artificially restrict the number of
births, thus avoiding an excess of population.

Under certain circumstances, in periods of distress or under bad climatic condition, or if
the soil yields too poor a return, Nature herself tends to check the increase of
population in some countries and among some races, but by a method which is quite as
ruthless as it is wise. It does not impede the procreative faculty as such; but it does
impede the further existence of the offspring by submitting it to such tests and
privations that everything which is less strong or less healthy is forced to retreat into
the bosom of tile unknown. Whatever survives these hardships of existence has been
tested and tried a thousandfold, hardened and renders fit to continue the process of
procreation; so that the same thorough selection will begin all over again. By thus
dealing brutally with the individual and recalling him the very moment he shows that
he is not fitted for the trials of life, Nature preserves the strength of the race and the
species and raises it to the highest degree of efficiency.

The decrease in numbers therefore implies an increase of strength, as far as the
individual is concerned, and this finally means the invigoration of the species.

But the case is different when man himself starts the process of numerical restriction.
Man is not carved from Nature's wood. He is made of 'human' material. He knows
more than the ruthless Queen of Wisdom. He does not impede the preservation of the
individual but prevents procreation itself. To the individual, who always sees only
himself and not the race, this line of action seems more humane and just than the
opposite way. But, unfortunately, the consequences are also the opposite.

By leaving the process of procreation unchecked and by submitting the individual to
the hardest preparatory tests in life, Nature selects the best from an abundance of single
elements and stamps them as fit to live and carry on the conservation of the species. But
man restricts the procreative faculty and strives obstinately to keep alive at any cost
whatever has once been born. This correction of the Divine Will seems to him to be wise
and humane, and he rejoices at having trumped Nature's card in one game at least and
thus proved that she is not entirely reliable. The dear little ape of an all-mighty father is
delighted to see and hear that he has succeeded in effecting a numerical restriction; but
he would be very displeased if told that this, his system, brings about a degeneration in
personal quality.

For as soon as the procreative faculty is thwarted and the number of births diminished,
the natural struggle for existence which allows only healthy and strong individuals to
survive is replaced by a sheer craze to 'save' feeble and even diseased creatures at any
cost. And thus the seeds are sown for a human progeny which will become more and
more miserable from one generation to another, as long as Nature's will is scorned.

But if that policy be carried out the final results must be that such a nation will
eventually terminate its own existence on this earth; for though man may defy the
eternal laws of procreation during a certain period, vengeance will follow sooner or
later. A stronger race will oust that which has grown weak; for the vital urge, in its
ultimate form, will burst asunder all the absurd chains of this so-called humane
consideration for the individual and will replace it with the humanity of Nature, which
wipes out what is weak in order to give place to the strong.

Any policy which aims at securing the existence of a nation by restricting the birth-rate
robs that nation of its future.

(2) A second solution is that of internal colonization. This is a proposal which is
frequently made in our own time and one hears it lauded a good deal. It is a suggestion
that is well-meant but it is misunderstood by most people, so that it is the source of
more mischief than can be imagined.

It is certainly true that the productivity of the soil can be increased within certain limits;
but only within defined limits and not indefinitely. By increasing the productive
powers of the soil it will be possible to balance the effect of a surplus birth-rate in
Germany for a certain period of time, without running any danger of hunger. But we
have to face the fact that the general standard of living is rising more quickly than even
the birth rate. The requirements of food and clothing are becoming greater from year to
year and are out of proportion to those of our ancestors of, let us say, a hundred years
ago. It would, therefore, be a mistaken view that every increase in the productive
powers of the soil will supply the requisite conditions for an increase in the population.
No. That is true up to a certain point only, for at least a portion of the increased produce
of the soil will be consumed by the margin of increased demands caused by the steady
rise in the standard of living. But even if these demands were to be curtailed to the
narrowest limits possible and if at the same time we were to use all our available
energies in the intenser cultivation, we should here reach a definite limit which is
conditioned by the inherent nature of the soil itself. No matter how industriously we
may labour we cannot increase agricultural production beyond this limit. Therefore,
though we may postpone the evil hour of distress for a certain time, it will arrive at last.
The first phenomenon will be the recurrence of famine periods from time to time, after
bad harvests, etc. The intervals between these famines will become shorter and shorter
the more the population increases; and, finally, the famine times will disappear only in
those rare years of plenty when the granaries are full. And a time will ultimately come

when even in those years of plenty there will not be enough to go round; so that hunger
will dog the footsteps of the nation. Nature must now step in once more and select
those who are to survive, or else man will help himself by artificially preventing his
own increase, with all the fatal consequences for the race and the species which have
been already mentioned.

It may be objected here that, in one form or another, this future is in store for all
mankind and that the individual nation or race cannot escape the general fate.

At first glance, that objection seems logical enough; but we have to take the following
into account:

The day will certainly come when the whole of mankind will be forced to check the
augmentation of the human species, because there will be no further possibility of
adjusting the productivity of the soil to the perpetual increase in the population. Nature
must then be allowed to use her own methods or man may possibly take the task of
regulation into his own hands and establish the necessary equilibrium by the
application of better means than we have at our disposal to-day. But then it will be a
problem for mankind as a whole, whereas now only those races have to suffer from
want which no longer have the strength and daring to acquire sufficient soil to fulfil
their needs. For, as things stand to-day, vast spaces still lie uncultivated all over the
surface of the globe. Those spaces are only waiting for the ploughshare. And it is quite
certain that Nature did not set those territories apart as the exclusive pastures of any
one nation or race to be held unutilized in reserve for the future. Such land awaits the
people who have the strength to acquire it and the diligence to cultivate it.

Nature knows no political frontiers. She begins by establishing life on this globe and
then watches the free play of forces. Those who show the greatest courage and industry
are the children nearest to her heart and they will be granted the sovereign right of

If a nation confines itself to 'internal colonization' while other races are perpetually
increasing their territorial annexations all over the globe, that nation will be forced to
restrict the numerical growth of its population at a time when the other nations are
increasing theirs. This situation must eventually arrive. It will arrive soon if the territory
which the nation has at its disposal be small. Now it is unfortunately true that only too
often the best nations--or, to speak more exactly, the only really cultured nations, who
at the same time are the chief bearers of human progress--have decided, in their blind
pacifism, to refrain from the acquisition of new territory and to be content with 'internal
colonization.' But at the same time nations of inferior quality succeed in getting hold of
large spaces for colonization all over the globe. The state of affairs which must result
from this contrast is the following:

Races which are culturally superior but less ruthless would be forced to restrict their
increase, because of insufficient territory to support the population, while less civilized
races could increase indefinitely, owing to the vast territories at their disposal. In other
words: should that state of affairs continue, then the world will one day be possessed by
that portion of mankind which is culturally inferior but more active and energetic.

A time will come, even though in the distant future, when there can be only two
alternatives: Either the world will be ruled according to our modern concept of
democracy, and then every decision will be in favour of the numerically stronger races;
or the world will be governed by the law of natural distribution of power, and then
those nations will be victorious who are of more brutal will and are not the nations who
have practised self-denial.

Nobody can doubt that this world will one day be the scene of dreadful struggles for
existence on the part of mankind. In the end the instinct of self-preservation alone will
triumph. Before its consuming fire this so-called humanitarianism, which connotes only
a mixture of fatuous timidity and self-conceit, will melt away as under the March
sunshine. Man has become great through perpetual struggle. In perpetual peace his
greatness must decline.

For us Germans, the slogan of 'internal colonization' is fatal, because it encourages the
belief that we have discovered a means which is in accordance with our innate pacifism
and which will enable us to work for our livelihood in a half slumbering existence. Such
a teaching, once it were taken seriously by our people, would mean the end of all effort
to acquire for ourselves that place in the world which we deserve. If. the average
German were once convinced that by this measure he has the chance of ensuring his
livelihood and guaranteeing his future, any attempt to take an active and profitable part
in sustaining the vital demands of his country would be out of the question. Should the
nation agree to such an attitude then any really useful foreign policy might be looked
upon as dead and buried, together with all hope for the future of the German people.

Once we know what the consequences of this 'internal colonization' theory would be we
can no longer consider as a mere accident the fact that among those who inculcate this
quite pernicious mentality among our people the Jew is always in the first line. He
knows his softies only too well not to know that they are ready to be the grateful
victims of every swindle which promises them a gold-block in the shape of a discovery
that will enable them to outwit Nature and thus render superfluous the hard and
inexorable struggle for existence; so that finally they may become lords of the planet
partly by sheer DOLCE FAR NIENTE and partly by working when a pleasing
opportunity arises.

It cannot be too strongly emphasised that any German 'internal colonization' must first
of all be considered as suited only for the relief of social grievances. To carry out a

system of internal colonization, the most important preliminary measure would be to
free the soil from the grip of the speculator and assure that freedom. But such a system
could never suffice to assure the future of the nation without the acquisition of new

If we adopt a different plan we shall soon reach a point beyond which the resources of
our soil can no longer be exploited, and at the same time we shall reach a point beyond
which our man-power cannot develop.

In conclusion, the following must be said:

The fact that only up to a limited extent can internal colonization be practised in a
national territory which is of definitely small area and the restriction of the procreative
faculty which follows as a result of such conditions--these two factors have a very
unfavourable effect on the military and political standing of a nation.

The extent of the national territory is a determining factor in the external security of the
nation. The larger the territory which a people has at its disposal the stronger are the
national defences of that people. Military decisions are more quickly, more easily, more
completely and more effectively gained against a people occupying a national territory
which is restricted in area, than against States which have extensive territories.
Moreover, the magnitude of a national territory is in itself a certain assurance that an
outside Power will not hastily risk the adventure of an invasion; for in that case the
struggle would have to be long and exhausting before victory could be hoped for. The
risk being so great. there would have to be extraordinary reasons for such an aggressive
adventure. Hence it is that the territorial magnitude of a State furnishes a basis whereon
national liberty and independence can be maintained with relative ease; while, on the
contrary, a State whose territory is small offers a natural temptation to the invader.

As a matter of fact, so-called national circles in the German REICH rejected those first
two possibilities of establishing a balance between the constant numerical increase in
the population and a national territory which could not expand proportionately. But the
reasons given for that rejection were different from those which I have just expounded.
It was mainly on the basis of certain moral sentiments that restriction of the birth-rate
was objected to. Proposals for internal colonization were rejected indignantly because it
was suspected that such a policy might mean an attack on the big landowners, and that
this attack might be the forerunner of a general assault against the principle of private
property as a whole. The form in which the latter solution--internal colonization--was
recommended justified the misgivings of the big landowners.

But the form in which the colonization proposal was rejected was not very clever, as
regards the impression which such rejection might be calculated to make on the mass of
the people, and anyhow it did not go to the root of the problem at all.

Only two further ways were left open in which work and bread could be secured for the
increasing population.

(3) It was possible to think of acquiring new territory on which a certain portion of' the
increasing population could be settled each year; or else

(4) Our industry and commerce had to be organized in such a manner as to secure an
increase in the exports and thus be able to support our people by the increased
purchasing power accruing from the profits made on foreign markets.

Therefore the problem was: A policy of territorial expansion or a colonial and
commercial policy. Both policies were taken into consideration, examined,
recommended and rejected, from various standpoints, with the result that the second
alternative was finally adopted. The sounder alternative, however, was undoubtedly
the first.

The principle of acquiring new territory, on which the surplus population could be
settled, has many advantages to recommend it, especially if we take the future as well
as the present into account.

In the first place, too much importance cannot be placed on the necessity for adopting a
policy which will make it possible to maintain a healthy peasant class as the basis of the
national community. Many of our present evils have their origin exclusively in the
disproportion between the urban and rural portions of the population. A solid stock of
small and medium farmers has at all times been the best protection which a nation
could have against the social diseases that are prevalent to-day. Moreover, that is the
only solution which guarantees the daily bread of a nation within the framework of its
domestic national economy. With this condition once guaranteed, industry and
commerce would retire from the unhealthy position of foremost importance which they
hold to-day and would take their due place within the general scheme of national
economy, adjusting the balance between demand and supply. Thus industry and
commerce would no longer constitute the basis of the national subsistence, but would
be auxiliary institutions. By fulfilling their proper function, which is to adjust the
balance between national production and national consumption, they render the
national subsistence more or less independent of foreign countries and thus assure the
freedom and independence of the nation, especially at critical junctures in its history.

Such a territorial policy, however, cannot find its fulfilment in the Cameroons but
almost exclusively here in Europe. One must calmly and squarely face the truth that it
certainly cannot be part of the dispensation of Divine Providence to give a fifty times
larger share of the soil of this world to one nation than to another. In considering this
state of affairs to-day, one must not allow existing political frontiers to distract attention

from what ought to exist on principles of strict justice. If this earth has sufficient room
for all, then we ought to have that share of the soil which is absolutely necessary for our

Of course people will not voluntarily make that accommodation. At this point the right
of self-preservation comes into effect. And when attempts to settle the difficulty in an
amicable way are rejected the clenched hand must take by force that which was refused
to the open hand of friendship. If in the past our ancestors had based their political
decisions on similar pacifist nonsense as our present generation does, we should not
possess more than one-third of the national territory that we possess to-day and
probably there would be no German nation to worry about its future in Europe. No. We
owe the two Eastern Marks (Note 8) of the Empire to the natural determination of our
forefathers in their struggle for existence, and thus it is to the same determined policy
that we owe the inner strength which is based on the extent of our political and racial
territories and which alone has made it possible for us to exist up to now.

And there is still another reason why that solution would have been the correct one:

Many contemporary European States are like pyramids standing on their apexes. The
European territory which these States possess is ridiculously small when compared
with the enormous overhead weight of their colonies, foreign trade, etc. It may be said
that they have the apex in Europe and the base of the pyramid all over the world; quite
different from the United States of America, which has its base on the American
Continent and is in contact with the rest of the world only through its apex. Out of that
situation arises the incomparable inner strength of the U.S.A. and the contrary situation
is responsible for the weakness of most of the colonial European Powers.

England cannot be suggested as an argument against this assertion, though in glancing
casually over the map of the British Empire one is inclined easily to overlook the
existence of a whole Anglo-Saxon world. England's position cannot be compared with
that of any other State in Europe, since it forms a vast community of language and
culture together with the U.S.A.

Therefore the only possibility which Germany had of carrying a sound territorial policy
into effect was that of acquiring new territory in Europe itself. Colonies cannot serve
this purpose as long as they are not suited for settlement by Europeans on a large scale.
In the nineteenth century it was no longer possible to acquire such colonies by peaceful
means. Therefore any attempt at such a colonial expansion would have meant an
enormous military struggle. Consequently it would have been more practical to
undertake that military struggle for new territory in Europe rather than to wage war for
the acquisition of possessions abroad.

Such a decision naturally demanded that the nation's undivided energies should be
devoted to it. A policy of that kind which requires for its fulfilment every ounce of
available energy on the part of everybody concerned, cannot be carried into effect by
half-measures or in a hesitating manner. The political leadership of the German Empire
should then have been directed exclusively to this goal. No political step should have
been taken in response to other considerations than this task and the means of
accomplishing it. Germany should have been alive to the fact that such a goal could
have been reached only by war, and the prospect of war should have been faced with
calm and collected determination.

The whole system of alliances should have been envisaged and valued from that
standpoint. If new territory were to be acquired in Europe it must have been mainly at
Russia's cost, and once again the new German Empire should have set out on its march
along the same road as was formerly trodden by the Teutonic Knights, this time to
acquire soil for the German plough by means of the German sword and thus provide
the nation with its daily bread.

For such a policy, however, there was only one possible ally in Europe. That was

Only by alliance with England was it possible to safeguard the rear of the new German
crusade. The justification for undertaking such an expedition was stronger than the
justification which our forefathers had for setting out on theirs. Not one of our pacifists
refuses to eat the bread made from the grain grown in the East; and yet the first plough
here was that called the 'Sword'.

No sacrifice should have been considered too great if it was a necessary means of
gaining England's friendship. Colonial and naval ambitions should have been
abandoned and attempts should not have been made to compete against British

Only a clear and definite policy could lead to such an achievement. Such a policy would
have demanded a renunciation of the endeavour to conquer the world's markets, also a
renunciation of colonial intentions and naval power. All the means of power at the
disposal of the State should have been concentrated in the military forces on land. This
policy would have involved a period of temporary self-denial, for the sake of a great
and powerful future.

There was a time when England might have entered into negotiations with us, on the
grounds of that proposal. For England would have well understood that the problems
arising from the steady increase in population were forcing Germany to look for a
solution either in Europe with the help of England or, without England, in some other
part of the world.

This outlook was probably the chief reason why London tried to draw nearer to
Germany about the turn of the century. For the first time in Germany an attitude was
then manifested which afterwards displayed itself in a most tragic way. People then
gave expression to an unpleasant feeling that we might thus find ourselves obliged to
pull England's chestnuts out of the fire. As if an alliance could be based on anything else
than mutual give-and-take! And England would have become a party to such a mutual
bargain. British diplomats were still wise enough to know that an equivalent must be
forthcoming as a consideration for any services rendered.

Let us suppose that in 1904 our German foreign policy was managed astutely enough to
enable us to take the part which Japan played. It is not easy to measure the greatness of
the results that might have accrued to Germany from such a policy.

There would have been no world war. The blood which would have been shed in 1904
would not have been a tenth of that shed from 1914 to 1918. And what a position
Germany would hold in the world to-day?

In any case the alliance with Austria was then an absurdity.

For this mummy of a State did not attach itself to Germany for the purpose of carrying
through a war, but rather to maintain a perpetual state of peace which was meant to be
exploited for the purpose of slowly but persistently exterminating the German element
in the Dual Monarchy.

Another reason for the impossible character of this alliance was that nobody could
expect such a State to take an active part in defending German national interests, seeing
that it did not have sufficient strength and determination to put an end to the policy of
de-Germanization within its own frontiers. If Germany herself was not moved by a
sufficiently powerful national sentiment and was not sufficiently ruthless to take away
from that absurd Habsburg State the right to decide the destinies of ten million
inhabitants who were of the same nationality as the Germans themselves, surely it was
out of the question to expect the Habsburg State to be a collaborating party in any great
and courageous German undertaking. The attitude of the old REICH towards the
Austrian question might have been taken as a test of its stamina for the struggle where
the destinies of the whole nation were at stake.

In any case, the policy of oppression against the German population in Austria should
not have been allowed to be carried on and to grow stronger from year to year; for the
value of Austria as an ally could be assured only by upholding the German element
there. But that course was not followed.

Nothing was dreaded so much as the possibility of an armed conflict; but finally, and at
a most unfavourable moment, the conflict had to be faced and accepted. They thought
to cut loose from the cords of destiny, but destiny held them fast.

They dreamt of maintaining a world peace and woke up to find themselves in a world

And that dream of peace was a most significant reason why the above-mentioned third
alternative for the future development of Germany was not even taken into
consideration. The fact was recognized that new territory could be gained only in the
East; but this meant that there would be fighting ahead, whereas they wanted peace at
any cost. The slogan of German foreign policy at one time used to be: The use of all
possible means for the maintenance of the German nation. Now it was changed to:
Maintenance of world peace by all possible means. We know what the result was. I
shall resume the discussion of this point in detail later on.

There remained still another alternative, which we may call the fourth. This was:
Industry and world trade, naval power and colonies.

Such a development might certainly have been attained more easily and more rapidly.
To colonize a territory is a slow process, often extending over centuries. Yet this fact is
the source of its inner strength, for it is not through a sudden burst of enthusiasm that it
can be put into effect, but rather through a gradual and enduring process of growth
quite different from industrial progress, which can be urged on by advertisement
within a few years. The result thus achieved, however, is not of lasting quality but
something frail, like a soap-bubble. It is much easier to build quickly than to carry
through the tough task of settling a territory with farmers and establishing farmsteads.
But the former is more quickly destroyed than the latter.

In adopting such a course Germany must have known that to follow it out would
necessarily mean war sooner or later. Only children could believe that sweet and
unctuous expressions of goodness and persistent avowals of peaceful intentions could
get them their bananas through this 'friendly competition between the nations', with the
prospect of never having to fight for them.

No. Once we had taken this road, England was bound to be our enemy at some time or
other to come. Of course it fitted in nicely with our innocent assumptions, but still it
was absurd to grow indignant at the fact that a day came when the English took the
liberty of opposing our peaceful penetration with the brutality of violent egoists.

Naturally, we on our side would never have done such a thing.

If a European territorial policy against Russia could have been put into practice only in
case we had England as our ally, on the other hand a colonial and world-trade policy
could have been carried into effect only against English interests and with the support
of Russia. But then this policy should have been adopted in full consciousness of all the
consequences it involved and, above all things, Austria should have been discarded as
quickly as possible.

At the turn of the century the alliance with Austria had become a veritable absurdity
from all points of view.

But nobody thought of forming an alliance with Russia against England, just as nobody
thought of making England an ally against Russia; for in either case the final result
would inevitably have meant war. And to avoid war was the very reason why a
commercial and industrial policy was decided upon. It was believed that the peaceful
conquest of the world by commercial means provided a method which would
permanently supplant the policy of force. Occasionally, however, there were doubts
about the efficiency of this principle, especially when some quite incomprehensible
warnings came from England now and again. That was the reason why the fleet was
built. It was not for the purpose of attacking or annihilating England but merely to
defend the concept of world-peace, mentioned above, and also to protect the principle
of conquering the world by 'peaceful' means. Therefore this fleet was kept within
modest limits, not only as regards the number and tonnage of the vessels but also in
regard to their armament, the idea being to furnish new proofs of peaceful intentions.

The chatter about the peaceful conquest of the world by commercial means was
probably the most completely nonsensical stuff ever raised to the dignity of a guiding
principle in the policy of a State, This nonsense became even more foolish when
England was pointed out as a typical example to prove how the thing could be put into
practice. Our doctrinal way of regarding history and our professorial ideas in that
domain have done irreparable harm and offer a striking 'proof' of how people 'learn'
history without understanding anything of it. As a matter of fact, England ought to
have been looked upon as a convincing argument against the theory of the pacific
conquest of the world by commercial means. No nation prepared the way for its
commercial conquests more brutally than England did by means of the sword, and no
other nation has defended such conquests more ruthlessly. Is it not a characteristic
quality of British statecraft that it knows how to use political power in order to gain
economic advantages and, inversely, to turn economic conquests into political power?
What an astounding error it was to believe that England would not have the courage to
give its own blood for the purposes of its own economic expansion! The fact that
England did not possess a national army proved nothing; for it is not the actual military
structure of the moment that matters but rather the will and determination to use
whatever military strength is available. England has always had the armament which
she needed. She always fought with those weapons which were necessary for success.

She sent mercenary troops, to fight as long as mercenaries sufficed; but she never
hesitated to draw heavily and deeply from the best blood of the whole nation when
victory could be obtained only by such a sacrifice. And in every case the fighting spirit,
dogged determination, and use of brutal means in conducting military operations have
always remained the same.

But in Germany, through the medium of the schools, the Press and the comic papers, an
idea of the Englishman was gradually formed which was bound eventually to lead to
the worst kind of self-deception. This absurdity slowly but persistently spread into
every quarter of German life. The result was an undervaluation for which we have had
to pay a heavy penalty. The delusion was so profound that the Englishman was looked
upon as a shrewd business man, but personally a coward even to an incredible degree.
Unfortunately our lofty teachers of professorial history did not bring home to the minds
of their pupils the truth that it is not possible to build up such a mighty organization as
the British Empire by mere swindle and fraud. The few who called attention to that
truth were either ignored or silenced. I can vividly recall to mind the astonished looks
of my comrades when they found themselves personally face to face for the first time
with the Tommies in Flanders. After a few days of fighting the consciousness slowly
dawned on our soldiers that those Scotsmen were not like the ones we had seen
described and caricatured in the comic papers and mentioned in the communiqués.

It was then that I formed my first ideas of the efficiency of various forms of

Such a falsification, however, served the purpose of those who had fabricated it. This
caricature of the Englishman, though false, could be used to prove the possibility of
conquering the world peacefully by commercial means. Where the Englishman
succeeded we should also succeed. Our far greater honesty and our freedom from that
specifically English 'perfidy' would be assets on our side. Thereby it was hoped that the
sympathy of the smaller nations and the confidence of the greater nations could be
gained more easily.

We did not realize that our honesty was an object of profound aversion for other people
because we ourselves believed in it. The rest of the world looked on our behaviour as
the manifestation of a shrewd deceitfulness; but when the revolution came, then they
were amazed at the deeper insight it gave them into our mentality, sincere even beyond
the limits of stupidity.

Once we understand the part played by that absurd notion of conquering the world by
peaceful commercial means we can clearly understand how that other absurdity, the
Triple Alliance, came to exist. With what State then could an alliance have been made?
In alliance with Austria we could not acquire new territory by military means, even in
Europe. And this very fact was the real reason for the inner weakness of the Triple

Alliance. A Bismarck could permit himself such a makeshift for the necessities of the
moment, but certainly not any of his bungling successors, and least of all when the
foundations no longer existed on which Bismarck had formed the Triple Alliance. In
Bismarck's time Austria could still be looked upon as a German State; but the gradual
introduction of universal suffrage turned the country into a parliamentary Babel, in
which the German voice was scarcely audible.

From the viewpoint of racial policy, this alliance with Austria was simply disastrous. A
new Slavic Great Power was allowed to grow up close to the frontiers of the German
Empire. Later on this Power was bound to adopt towards Germany an attitude different
from that of Russia, for example. The Alliance was thus bound to become more empty
and more feeble, because the only supporters of it were losing their influence and were
being systematically pushed out of the more important public offices.

About the year 1900 the Alliance with Austria had already entered the same phase as
the Alliance between Austria and Italy.

Here also only one alternative was possible: Either to take the side of the Habsburg
Monarchy or to raise a protest against the oppression of the German element in Austria.
But, generally speaking, when one takes such a course it is bound eventually to lead to
open conflict.

From the psychological point of view also, the Triple decreases according as such an
alliance limits its object to the defence of the STATUS QUO. But, on the other hand, an
alliance will increase its cohesive strength the more the parties concerned in it may hope
to use it as a means of reaching some practical goal of expansion. Here, as everywhere
else, strength does not lie in defence but in attack.

This truth was recognized in various quarters but, unfortunately, not by the so-called
elected representatives of the people. As early as 1912 Ludendorff, who was then
Colonel and an Officer of the General Staff, pointed out these weak features of the
Alliance in a memorandum which he then drew up. But of course the 'statesmen' did
not attach any importance or value to that document. In general it would seem as if
reason were a faculty that is active only in the case of ordinary mortals but that it is
entirely absent when we come to deal with that branch of the species known as

It was lucky for Germany that the war of 1914 broke out with Austria as its direct cause,
for thus the Habsburgs were compelled to participate. Had the origin of the War been
otherwise, Germany would have been left to her own resources. The Habsburg State
would never have been ready or willing to take part in a war for the origin of which
Germany was responsible. What was the object of so much obloquy later in the case of
Italy's decision would have taken place, only earlier, in the case of Austria. In other

words, if Germany had been forced to go to war for some reason of its own, Austria
would have remained 'neutral' in order to safeguard the State against a revolution
which might begin immediately after the war had started. The Slav element would have
preferred to smash up the Dual Monarchy in 1914 rather than permit it to come to the
assistance of Germany. But at that time there were only a few who understood all the
dangers and aggravations which resulted from the alliance with the Danubian

In the first place, Austria had too many enemies who were eagerly looking forward to
obtain the heritage of that decrepit State, so that these people gradually developed a
certain animosity against Germany, because Germany was an obstacle to their desires
inasmuch as it kept the Dual Monarchy from falling to pieces, a consummation that was
hoped for and yearned for on all sides. The conviction developed that Vienna could be
reached only by passing through Berlin.

In the second place, by adopting this policy Germany lost its best and most promising
chances of other alliances. In place of these possibilities one now observed a growing
tension in the relations with Russia and even with Italy. And this in spite of the fact that
the general attitude in Rome was just as favourable to Germany as it was hostile to
Austria, a hostility which lay dormant in the individual Italian and broke out violently
on occasion.

Since a commercial and industrial policy had been adopted, no motive was left for
waging war against Russia. Only the enemies of the two countries, Germany and
Russia, could have an active interest in such a war under these circumstances. As a
matter of fact, it was only the Jews and the Marxists who tried to stir up bad blood
between the two States.

In the third place, the Alliance constituted a permanent danger to German security; for
any great Power that was hostile to Bismarck's Empire could mobilize a whole lot of
other States in a war against Germany by promising them tempting spoils at the
expense of the Austrian ally.

It was possible to arouse the whole of Eastern Europe against Austria, especially Russia,
and Italy also. The world coalition which had developed under the leadership of King
Edward could never have become a reality if Germany's ally, Austria, had not offered
such an alluring prospect of booty. It was this fact alone which made it possible to
combine so many heterogeneous States with divergent interests into one common
phalanx of attack. Every member could hope to enrich himself at the expense of Austria
if he joined in the general attack against Germany. The fact that Turkey was also a tacit
party to the unfortunate alliance with Austria augmented Germany's peril to an
extraordinary degree.

Jewish international finance needed this bait of the Austrian heritage in order to carry
out its plans of ruining Germany; for Germany had not yet surrendered to the general
control which the international captains of finance and trade exercised over the other
States. Thus it was possible to consolidate that coalition and make it strong enough and
brave enough, through the sheer weight of numbers, to join in bodily conflict with the
'horned' Siegfried. (Note 9)

The alliance with the Habsburg Monarchy, which I loathed while still in Austria, was
the subject of grave concern on my part and caused me to meditate on it so persistently
that finally I came to the conclusions which I have mentioned above.

In the small circles which I frequented at that time I did not conceal my conviction that
this sinister agreement with a State doomed to collapse would also bring catastrophe to
Germany if she did not free herself from it in time. I never for a moment wavered in
that firm conviction, even when the tempest of the World War seemed to have made
shipwreck of the reasoning faculty itself and had put blind enthusiasm in its place, even
among those circles where the coolest and hardest objective thinking ought to have held
sway. In the trenches I voiced and upheld my own opinion whenever these problems
came under discussion. I held that to abandon the Habsburg Monarchy would involve
no sacrifice if Germany could thereby reduce the number of her own enemies; for the
millions of Germans who had donned the steel helmet had done so not to fight for the
maintenance of a corrupt dynasty but rather for the salvation of the German people.

Before the War there were occasions on which it seemed that at least one section of the
German public had some slight misgivings about the political wisdom of the alliance
with Austria. From time to time German conservative circles issued warnings against
being over-confident about the worth of that alliance; but, like every other reasonable
suggestion made at that time, it was thrown to the winds. The general conviction was
that the right measures had been adopted to 'conquer' the world, that the success of
these measures would be enormous and the sacrifices negligible.

Once again the 'uninitiated' layman could do nothing but observe how the 'elect' were
marching straight ahead towards disaster and enticing their beloved people to follow
them, as the rats followed the Pied Piper of Hamelin.

If we would look for the deeper grounds which made it possible to foist on the people
this absurd notion of peacefully conquering the world through commercial penetration,
and how it was possible to put forward the maintenance of world-peace as a national
aim, we shall find that these grounds lay in a general morbid condition that had
pervaded the whole body of German political thought.

The triumphant progress of technical science in Germany and the marvellous
development of German industries and commerce led us to forget that a powerful State

had been the necessary pre-requisite of that success. On the contrary, certain circles
went even so far as to give vent to the theory that the State owed its very existence to
these phenomena; that it was, above all, an economic institution and should be
constituted in accordance with economic interests. Therefore, it was held, the State was
dependent on the economic structure. This condition of things was looked upon and
glorified as the soundest and most normal arrangement.

Now, the truth is that the State in itself has nothing whatsoever to do with any definite
economic concept or a definite economic development. It does not arise from a compact
made between contracting parties, within a certain delimited territory, for the purpose
of serving economic ends. The State is a community of living beings who have kindred
physical and spiritual natures, organized for the purpose of assuring the conservation
of their own kind and to help towards fulfilling those ends which Providence has
assigned to that particular race or racial branch. Therein, and therein alone, lie the
purpose and meaning of a State. Economic activity is one of the many auxiliary means
which are necessary for the attainment of those aims. But economic activity is never the
origin or purpose of a State, except where a State has been originally founded on a false
and unnatural basis. And this alone explains why a State as such does not necessarily
need a certain delimited territory as a condition of its establishment. This condition
becomes a necessary pre-requisite only among those people who would provide and
assure subsistence for their kinsfolk through their own industry, which means that they
are ready to carry on the struggle for existence by means of their own work. People who
can sneak their way, like parasites, into the human body politic and make others work
for them under various pretences can form a State without possessing any definite
delimited territory. This is chiefly applicable to that parasitic nation which, particularly
at the present time preys upon the honest portion of mankind; I mean the Jews.

The Jewish State has never been delimited in space. It has been spread all over the
world, without any frontiers whatsoever, and has always been constituted from the
membership of one race exclusively. That is why the Jews have always formed a State
within the State. One of the most ingenious tricks ever devised has been that of sailing
the Jewish ship-of-state under the flag of Religion and thus securing that tolerance
which Aryans are always ready to grant to different religious faiths. But the Mosaic
Law is really nothing else than the doctrine of the preservation of the Jewish race.
Therefore this Law takes in all spheres of sociological, political and economic science
which have a bearing on the main end in view.

The instinct for the preservation of one's own species is the primary cause that leads to
the formation of human communities. Hence the State is a racial organism, and not an
economic organization. The difference between the two is so great as to be
incomprehensible to our contemporary so-called 'statesmen'. That is why they like to
believe that the State may be constituted as an economic structure, whereas the truth is
that it has always resulted from the exercise of those qualities which are part of the will

to preserve the species and the race. But these qualities always exist and operate
through the heroic virtues and have nothing to do with commercial egoism; for the
conservation of the species always presupposes that the individual is ready to sacrifice
himself. Such is the meaning of the poet's lines:



The sacrifice of the individual existence is necessary in order to assure the conservation
of the race. Hence it is that the most essential condition for the establishment and
maintenance of a State is a certain feeling of solidarity, wounded in an identity of
character and race and in a resolute readiness to defend these at all costs. With people
who live on their own territory this will result in a development of the heroic virtues;
with a parasitic people it will develop the arts of subterfuge and gross perfidy unless
we admit that these characteristics are innate and that the varying political forms
through which the parasitic race expresses itself are only the outward manifestations of
innate characteristics. At least in the beginning, the formation of a State can result only
from a manifestation of the heroic qualities I have spoken of. And the people who fail in
the struggle for existence, that is to say those, who become vassals and are thereby
condemned to disappear entirely sooner or later, are those who do not display the
heroic virtues in the struggle, or those who fall victims to the perfidy of the parasites.
And even in this latter case the failure is not so much due to lack of intellectual powers,
but rather to a lack of courage and determination. An attempt is made to conceal the
real nature of this failing by saying that it is the humane feeling.

The qualities which are employed for the foundation and preservation of a State have
accordingly little or nothing to do with the economic situation. And this is
conspicuously demonstrated by the fact that the inner strength of a State only very
rarely coincides with what is called its economic expansion. On the contrary, there are
numerous examples to show that a period of economic prosperity indicates the
approaching decline of a State. If it were correct to attribute the foundation of human
communities to economic forces, then the power of the State as such would be at its
highest pitch during periods of economic prosperity, and not vice versa.

It is specially difficult to understand how the belief that the State is brought into being
and preserved by economic forces could gain currency in a country which has given
proof of the opposite in every phase of its history. The history of Prussia shows in a
manner particularly clear and distinct, that it is out of the moral virtues of the people
and not from their economic circumstances that a State is formed. It is only under the
protection of those virtues that economic activities can be developed and the latter will

continue to flourish until a time comes when the creative political capacity declines.
Therewith the economic structure will also break down, a phenomenon which is now
happening in an alarming manner before our eyes. The material interest of mankind can
prosper only in the shade of the heroic virtues. The moment they become the primary
considerations of life they wreck the basis of their own existence.

Whenever the political power of Germany was specially strong the economic situation
also improved. But whenever economic interests alone occupied the foremost place in
the life of the people, and thrust transcendent ideals into the back.-ground, the State
collapsed and economic ruin followed readily.

If we consider the question of what those forces actually are which are necessary to the
creation and preservation of a State, we shall find that they are: The capacity and
readiness to sacrifice the individual to the common welfare. That these qualities have
nothing at all to do with economics can be proved by referring to the simple fact that
man does not sacrifice himself for material interests. In other words, he will die for an
ideal but not for a business. The marvellous gift for public psychology which the
English have was never shown better than the way in which they presented their case in
the World War. We were fighting for our bread; but the English declared that they were
fighting for 'freedom', and not at all for their own freedom. Oh, no, but for the freedom
of the small nations. German people laughed at that effrontery and were angered by it;
but in doing so they showed how political thought had declined among our so-called
diplomats in Germany even before the War. These diplomatists did not have the
slightest notion of what that force was which brought men to face death of their own
free will and determination.

As long as the German people, in the War of 1914, continued to believe that they were
fighting for ideals they stood firm. As soon as they were told that they were fighting
only for their daily bread they began to give up the struggle.

Our clever 'statesmen' were greatly amazed at this change of feeling. They never
understood that as soon as man is called upon to struggle for purely material causes he
will avoid death as best he can; for death and the enjoyment of the material fruits of a
victory are quite incompatible concepts. The frailest woman will become a heroine
when the life of her own child is at stake. And only the will to save the race and native
land or the State, which offers protection to the race, has in all ages been the urge which
has forced men to face the weapons of their enemies.

The following may be proclaimed as a truth that always holds good:

A State has never arisen from commercial causes for the purpose of peacefully serving
commercial ends; but States have always arisen from the instinct to maintain the racial
group, whether this instinct manifest itself in the heroic sphere or in the sphere of

cunning and chicanery. In the first case we have the Aryan States, based on the
principles of work and cultural development. In the second case we have the Jewish
parasitic colonies. But as soon as economic interests begin to predominate over the
racial and cultural instincts in a people or a State, these economic interests unloose the
causes that lead to subjugation and oppression.

The belief, which prevailed in Germany before the War, that the world could be opened
up and even conquered for Germany through a system of peaceful commercial
penetration and a colonial policy was a typical symptom which indicated the decline of
those real qualities whereby States are created and preserved, and indicated also the
decline of that insight, will-power and practical determination which belong to those
qualities. The World War with its consequences, was the natural liquidation of that

To anyone who had not thought over the matter deeply, this attitude of the German
people--which was quite general--must have seemed an insoluble enigma. After all,
Germany herself was a magnificent example of an empire that had been built up purely
by a policy of power. Prussia, which was the generative cell of the German Empire, had
been created by brilliant heroic deeds and not by a financial or commercial compact.
And the Empire itself was but the magnificent recompense for a leadership that had
been conducted on a policy of power and military valour.

How then did it happen that the political instincts of this very same German people
became so degenerate? For it was not merely one isolated phenomenon which pointed
to this decadence, but morbid symptoms which appeared in alarming numbers, now all
over the body politic, or eating into the body of the nation like a gangrenous ulcer. It
seemed as if some all-pervading poisonous fluid had been injected by some mysterious
hand into the bloodstream of this once heroic body, bringing about a creeping paralysis
that affected the reason and the elementary instinct of self-preservation.

During the years 1912-1914 I used to ponder perpetually on those problems which
related to the policy of the Triple Alliance and the economic policy then being pursued
by the German Empire. Once again I came to the conclusion that the only explanation of
this enigma lay in the operation of that force which I had already become acquainted
with in Vienna, though from a different angle of vision. The force to which I refer was
the Marxist teaching and WELTANSCHAUUNG and its organized action throughout
the nation.

For the second time in my life I plunged deep into the study of that destructive
teaching. This time, however, I was not urged by the study of the question by the
impressions and influences of my daily environment, but directed rather by the
observation of general phenomena in the political life of Germany. In delving again into
the theoretical literature of this new world and endeavouring to get a clear view of the

possible consequences of its teaching, I compared the theoretical principles of Marxism
with the phenomena and happenings brought about by its activities in the political,
cultural, and economic spheres.

For the first time in my life I now turned my attention to the efforts that were being
made to subdue this universal pest.

I studied Bismarck's exceptional legislation in its original concept, its operation and its
results. Gradually I formed a basis for my own opinions, which has proved as solid as a
rock, so that never since have I had to change my attitude towards the general problem.
I also made a further and more thorough analysis of the relations between Marxism and

During my sojourn in Vienna I used to look upon Germany as an imperturbable
colossus; but even then serious doubts and misgivings would often disturb me. In my
own mind and in my conversation with my small circle of acquaintances I used to
criticize Germany's foreign policy and the incredibly superficial way, according to my
thinking, in which Marxism was dealt with, though it was then the most important
problem in Germany. I could not understand how they could stumble blindfolded into
the midst of this peril, the effects of which would be momentous if the openly declared
aims of Marxism could be put into practice. Even as early as that time I warned people
around me, just as I am warning a wider audience now, against that soothing slogan of
all indolent and feckless nature: NOTHING CAN HAPPEN TO US. A similar mental
contagion had already destroyed a mighty empire. Can Germany escape the operation
of those laws to which all other human communities are subject?

In the years 1913 and 1914 I expressed my opinion for the first time in various circles,
some of which are now members of the National Socialist Movement, that the problem
of how the future of the German nation can be secured is the problem of how Marxism
can be exterminated.

I considered the disastrous policy of the Triple Alliance as one of the consequences
resulting from the disintegrating effects of the Marxist teaching; for the alarming feature
was that this teaching was invisibly corrupting the foundations of a healthy political
and economic outlook. Those who had been themselves contaminated frequently did
not realise that their aims and actions sprang from this WELTANSCHAUUNG, which
they otherwise openly repudiated.

Long before then the spiritual and moral decline of the German people had set in,
though those who were affected by the morbid decadence were frequently unaware--as
often happens--of the forces which were breaking up their very existence. Sometimes
they tried to cure the disease by doctoring the symptoms, which were taken as the
cause. But since nobody recognized, or wanted to recognize, the real cause of the

disease this way of combating Marxism was no more effective than the application of
some quack's ointment.


[Note 8. German Austria was the East Mark on the South and East Prussia was the East
Mark on the North.]

[Note 9. Carlyle explains the epithet thus: "First then, let no one from the title
GEHOERNTE (Horned, Behorned), fancy that our brave Siegfried, who was the
loveliest as well as the bravest of men, was actually cornuted, and had hornson his
brow, though like Michael Angelo's Moses; or even that his skin, to which the epithet
BEHORNED refers, was hard like a crocodile's, and not softer than the softest shamey,
for the truth is, his Hornedness means only an Invulnerability, like that of Achilles..."]

[Note 10. Lines quoted from the Song of the Curassiers in Schiller's WALLENSTEIN.]

Chapter 5

The World War

DURING THE boisterous years of my youth nothing used to damp my wild spirits so
much as to think that I was born at a time when the world had manifestly decided not
to erect any more temples of fame except in honour of business people and State
officials. The tempest of historical achievements seemed to have permanently subsided,
so much so that the future appeared to be irrevocably delivered over to what was called
peaceful competition between the nations. This simply meant a system of mutual
exploitation by fraudulent means, the principle of resorting to the use of force in self-
defence being formally excluded. Individual countries increasingly assumed the
appearance of commercial undertakings, grabbing territory and clients and concessions
from each other under any and every kind of pretext. And it was all staged to an
accompaniment of loud but innocuous shouting. This trend of affairs seemed destined
to develop steadily and permanently. Having the support of public approbation, it
seemed bound eventually to transform the world into a mammoth department store. In
the vestibule of this emporium there would be rows of monumental busts which would
confer immortality on those profiteers who had proved themselves the shrewdest at
their trade and those administrative officials who had shown themselves the most
innocuous. The salesmen could be represented by the English and the administrative
functionaries by the Germans; whereas the Jews would be sacrificed to the unprofitable
calling of proprietorship, for they are constantly avowing that they make no profits and
are always being called upon to 'pay out'. Moreover they have the advantage of being
versed in the foreign languages.

Why could I not have been born a hundred years ago? I used to ask myself. Somewhere
about the time of the Wars of Liberation, when a man was still of some value even
though he had no 'business'.

Thus I used to think it an ill-deserved stroke of bad luck that I had arrived too late on
this terrestrial globe, and I felt chagrined at the idea that my life would have to run its
course along peaceful and orderly lines. As a boy I was anything but a pacifist and all
attempts to make me so turned out futile.

Then the Boer War came, like a glow of lightning on the far horizon. Day after day I
used to gaze intently at the newspapers and I almost 'devoured' the telegrams and

COMMUNIQUES, overjoyed to think that I could witness that heroic struggle, even
though from so great a distance.

When the Russo-Japanese War came I was older and better able to judge for myself. For
national reasons I then took the side of the Japanese in our discussions. I looked upon
the defeat of the Russians as a blow to Austrian Slavism.

Many years had passed between that time and my arrival in Munich. I now realized
that what I formerly believed to be a morbid decadence was only the lull before the
storm. During my Vienna days the Balkans were already in the grip of that sultry pause
which presages the violent storm. Here and there a flash of lightning could be
occasionally seen; but it rapidly disappeared in sinister gloom. Then the Balkan War
broke out; and therewith the first gusts of the forthcoming tornado swept across a
highly-strung Europe. In the supervening calm men felt the atmosphere oppressive and
foreboding, so much so that the sense of an impending catastrophe became transformed
into a feeling of impatient expectance. They wished that Heaven would give free rein to
the fate which could now no longer be curbed. Then the first great bolt of lightning
struck the earth. The storm broke and the thunder of the heavens intermingled with the
roar of the cannons in the World War.

When the news came to Munich that the Archduke Franz Ferdinand had been
murdered, I had been at home all day and did not get the particulars of how it
happened. At first I feared that the shots may have been fired by some German-
Austrian students who had been aroused to a state of furious indignation by the
persistent pro-Slav activities of the Heir to the Habsburg Throne and therefore wished
to liberate the German population from this internal enemy. It was quite easy to
imagine what the result of such a mistake would have been. It would have brought on a
new wave of persecution, the motives of which would have been 'justified' before the
whole world. But soon afterwards I heard the names of the presumed assassins and also
that they were known to be Serbs. I felt somewhat dumbfounded in face of the
inexorable vengeance which Destiny had wrought. The greatest friend of the Slavs had
fallen a victim to the bullets of Slav patriots.

It is unjust to the Vienna government of that time to blame it now for the form and
tenor of the ultimatum which was then presented. In a similar position and under
similar circumstances, no other Power in the world would have acted otherwise. On her
southern frontiers Austria had a relentless mortal foe who indulged in acts of
provocation against the Dual Monarchy at intervals which were becoming more and
more frequent. This persistent line of conduct would not have been relaxed until the
arrival of the opportune moment for the destruction of the Empire. In Austria there was
good reason to fear that, at the latest, this moment would come with the death of the old
Emperor. Once that had taken place, it was quite possible that the Monarchy would not
be able to offer any serious resistance. For some years past the State had been so

completely identified with the personality of Francis Joseph that, in the eyes of the great
mass of the people, the death of this venerable personification of the Empire would be
tantamount to the death of the Empire itself. Indeed it was one of the clever artifices of
Slav policy to foster the impression that the Austrian State owed its very existence
exclusively to the prodigies and rare talents of that monarch. This kind of flattery was
particularly welcomed at the Hofburg, all the more because it had no relation
whatsoever to the services actually rendered by the Emperor. No effort whatsoever was
made to locate the carefully prepared sting which lay hidden in this glorifying praise.
One fact which was entirely overlooked, perhaps intentionally, was that the more the
Empire remained dependent on the so-called administrative talents of 'the wisest
Monarch of all times', the more catastrophic would be the situation when Fate came to
knock at the door and demand its tribute.

Was it possible even to imagine the Austrian Empire without its venerable ruler?
Would not the tragedy which befell Maria Theresa be repeated at once?

It is really unjust to the Vienna governmental circles to reproach them with having
instigated a war which might have been prevented. The war was bound to come.
Perhaps it might have been postponed for a year or two at the most. But it had always
been the misfortune of German, as well as Austrian, diplomats that they endeavoured
to put off the inevitable day of reckoning, with the result that they were finally
compelled to deliver their blow at a most inopportune moment.

No. Those who did not wish this war ought to have had the courage to take the
consequences of the refusal upon themselves. Those consequences must necessarily
have meant the sacrifice of Austria. And even then war would have come, not as a war
in which all the nations would have been banded against us but in the form of a
dismemberment of the Habsburg Monarchy. In that case we should have had to decide
whether we should come to the assistance of the Habsburg or stand aside as spectators,
with our arms folded, and thus allow Fate to run its course.

Just those who are loudest in their imprecations to-day and make a great parade of
wisdom in judging the causes of the war are the very same people whose collaboration
was the most fatal factor in steering towards the war.

For several decades previously the German Social-Democrats had been agitating in an
underhand and knavish way for war against Russia; whereas the German Centre Party,
with religious ends in view, had worked to make the Austrian State the chief centre and
turning-point of German policy. The consequences of this folly had now to be borne.
What came was bound to come and under no circumstances could it have been
avoided. The fault of the German Government lay in the fact that, merely for the sake of
preserving peace at all costs, it continued to miss the occasions that were favourable for
action, got entangled in an alliance for the purpose of preserving the peace of the world,

and thus finally became the victim of a world coalition which opposed the German
effort for the maintenance of peace and was determined to bring about the world war.

Had the Vienna Government of that time formulated its ultimatum in less drastic terms,
that would not have altered the situation at all: but such a course might have aroused
public indignation. For, in the eyes of the great masses, the ultimatum was too
moderate and certainly not excessive or brutal. Those who would deny this to-day are
either simpletons with feeble memories or else deliberate falsehood-mongers.

The War of 1914 was certainly not forced on the masses; it was even desired by the
whole people.

There was a desire to bring the general feeling of uncertainty to an end once and for all.
And it is only in the light of this fact that we can understand how more than two
million German men and youths voluntarily joined the colours, ready to shed the last
drop of their blood for the cause.

For me these hours came as a deliverance from the distress that had weighed upon me
during the days of my youth. I am not ashamed to acknowledge to-day that I was
carried away by the enthusiasm of the moment and that I sank down upon my knees
and thanked Heaven out of the fullness of my heart for the favour of having been
permitted to live in such a time.

The fight for freedom had broken out on an unparalleled scale in the history of the
world. From the moment that Fate took the helm in hand the conviction grew among
the mass of the people that now it was not a question of deciding the destinies of
Austria or Serbia but that the very existence of the German nation itself was at stake.

At last, after many years of blindness, the people saw clearly into the future. Therefore,
almost immediately after the gigantic struggle had begun, an excessive enthusiasm was
replaced by a more earnest and more fitting undertone, because the exaltation of the
popular spirit was not a mere passing frenzy. It was only too necessary that the gravity
of the situation should be recognized. At that time there was, generally speaking, not
the slightest presentiment or conception of how long the war might last. People
dreamed of the soldiers being home by Christmas and that then they would resume
their daily work in peace.

Whatever mankind desires, that it will hope for and believe in. The overwhelming
majority of the people had long since grown weary of the perpetual insecurity in the
general condition of public affairs. Hence it was only natural that no one believed that
the Austro-Serbian conflict could be shelved. Therefore they looked forward to a radical
settlement of accounts. I also belonged to the millions that desired this.

The moment the news of the Sarajevo outrage reached Munich two ideas came into my
mind: First, that war was absolutely inevitable and, second, that the Habsburg State
would now be forced to honour its signature to the alliance. For what I had feared most
was that one day Germany herself, perhaps as a result of the Alliance, would become
involved in a conflict the first direct cause of which did not affect Austria. In such a
contingency, I feared that the Austrian State, for domestic political reasons, would find
itself unable to decide in favour of its ally. But now this danger was removed. The old
State was compelled to fight, whether it wished to do so or not.

My own attitude towards the conflict was equally simple and clear. I believed that it
was not a case of Austria fighting to get satisfaction from Serbia but rather a case of
Germany fighting for her own existence--the German nation for its own to-be-or-not-to-
be, for its freedom and for its future. The work of Bismarck must now be carried on.
Young Germany must show itself worthy of the blood shed by our fathers on so many
heroic fields of battle, from Weissenburg to Sedan and Paris. And if this struggle should
bring us victory our people will again rank foremost among the great nations. Only
then could the German Empire assert itself as the mighty champion of peace, without
the necessity of restricting the daily bread of its children for the sake of maintaining the

As a boy and as a young man, I often longed for the occasion to prove that my national
enthusiasm was not mere vapouring. Hurrahing sometimes seemed to me to be a kind
of sinful indulgence, though I could not give any justification for that feeling; for, after
all, who has the right to shout that triumphant word if he has not won the right to it
there where there is no play-acting and where the hand of the Goddess of Destiny puts
the truth and sincerity of nations and men through her inexorable test? Just as millions
of others, I felt a proud joy in being permitted to go through this test. I had so often
sung DEUTSCHLAND ÜBER ALLES and so often roared 'HEIL' that I now thought it
was as a kind of retro-active grace that I was granted the right of appearing before the
Court of Eternal Justice to testify to the truth of those sentiments.

One thing was clear to me from the very beginning, namely, that in the event of war,
which now seemed inevitable, my books would have to be thrown aside forthwith. I
also realized that my place would have to be there where the inner voice of conscience
called me.

I had left Austria principally for political reasons. What therefore could be more
rational than that I should put into practice the logical consequences of my political
opinions, now that the war had begun. I had no desire to fight for the Habsburg cause,
but I was prepared to die at any time for my own kinsfolk and the Empire to which they
really belonged.

On August 3rd, 1914, I presented an urgent petition to His Majesty, King Ludwig III,
requesting to be allowed to serve in a Bavarian regiment. In those days the Chancellery
had its hands quite full and therefore I was all the more pleased when I received the
answer a day later, that my request had been granted. I opened the document with
trembling hands; and no words of mine could now describe the satisfaction I felt on
reading that I was instructed to report to a Bavarian regiment. Within a few days I was
wearing that uniform which I was not to put oft again for nearly six years.

For me, as for every German, the most memorable period of my life now began. Face to
face with that mighty struggle, all the past fell away into oblivion. With a wistful pride I
look back on those days, especially because we are now approaching the tenth
anniversary of that memorable happening. I recall those early weeks of war when kind
fortune permitted me to take my place in that heroic struggle among the nations.

As the scene unfolds itself before my mind, it seems only like yesterday. I see myself
among my young comrades on our first parade drill, and so on until at last the day
came on which we were to leave for the front.

In common with the others, I had one worry during those days. This was a fear that we
might arrive too late for the fighting at the front. Time and again that thought disturbed
me and every announcement of a victorious engagement left a bitter taste, which
increased as the news of further victories arrived.

At long last the day came when we left Munich on war service. For the first time in my
life I saw the Rhine, as we journeyed westwards to stand guard before that historic
German river against its traditional and grasping enemy. As the first soft rays of the
morning sun broke through the light mist and disclosed to us the Niederwald Statue,
with one accord the whole troop train broke into the strains of DIE WACHT AM
RHEIN. I then felt as if my heart could not contain its spirit.

And then followed a damp, cold night in Flanders. We marched in silence throughout
the night and as the morning sun came through the mist an iron greeting suddenly
burst above our heads. Shrapnel exploded in our midst and spluttered in the damp
ground. But before the smoke of the explosion disappeared a wild 'Hurrah' was
shouted from two hundred throats, in response to this first greeting of Death. Then
began the whistling of bullets and the booming of cannons, the shouting and singing of
the combatants. With eyes straining feverishly, we pressed forward, quicker and
quicker, until we finally came to close-quarter fighting, there beyond the beet-fields and
the meadows. Soon the strains of a song reached us from afar. Nearer and nearer, from
company to company, it came. And while Death began to make havoc in our ranks we
passed the song on to those beside us: DEUTSCHLAND, DEUTSCHLAND ÜBER

After four days in the trenches we came back. Even our step was no longer what it had
been. Boys of seventeen looked now like grown men. The rank and file of the List
Regiment (Note 11) had not been properly trained in the art of warfare, but they knew
how to die like old soldiers.

That was the beginning. And thus we carried on from year to year. A feeling of horror
replaced the romantic fighting spirit. Enthusiasm cooled down gradually and exuberant
spirits were quelled by the fear of the ever-present Death. A time came when there
arose within each one of us a conflict between the urge to self-preservation and the call
of duty. And I had to go through that conflict too. As Death sought its prey everywhere
and unrelentingly a nameless Something rebelled within the weak body and tried to
introduce itself under the name of Common Sense; but in reality it was Fear, which had
taken on this cloak in order to impose itself on the individual. But the more the voice
which advised prudence increased its efforts and the more clear and persuasive became
its appeal, resistance became all the stronger; until finally the internal strife was over
and the call of duty was triumphant. Already in the winter of 1915-16 I had come
through that inner struggle. The will had asserted its incontestable mastery. Whereas in
the early days I went into the fight with a cheer and a laugh, I was now habitually calm
and resolute. And that frame of mind endured. Fate might now put me through the
final test without my nerves or reason giving way. The young volunteer had become an
old soldier.

This same transformation took place throughout the whole army. Constant fighting had
aged and toughened it and hardened it, so that it stood firm and dauntless against
every assault.

Only now was it possible to judge that army. After two and three years of continuous
fighting, having been thrown into one battle after another, standing up stoutly against
superior numbers and superior armament, suffering hunger and privation, the time had
come when one could assess the value of that singular fighting force.

For a thousand years to come nobody will dare to speak of heroism without recalling
the German Army of the World War. And then from the dim past will emerge the
immortal vision of those solid ranks of steel helmets that never flinched and never
faltered. And as long as Germans live they will be proud to remember that these men
were the sons of their forefathers.

I was then a soldier and did not wish to meddle in politics, all the more so because the
time was inopportune. I still believe that the most modest stable-boy of those days
served his country better than the best of, let us say, the 'parliamentary deputies'. My
hatred for those footlers was never greater than in those days when all decent men who
had anything to say said it point-blank in the enemy's face; or, failing this, kept their
mouths shut and did their duty elsewhere. I despised those political fellows and if I had

had my way I would have formed them into a Labour Battalion and given them the
opportunity of babbling amongst themselves to their hearts' content, without offence or
harm to decent people.

In those days I cared nothing for politics; but I could not help forming an opinion on
certain manifestations which affected not only the whole nation but also us soldiers in
particular. There were two things which caused me the greatest anxiety at that time and
which I had come to regard as detrimental to our interests.

Shortly after our first series of victories a certain section of the Press already began to
throw cold water, drip by drip, on the enthusiasm of the public. At first this was not
obvious to many people. It was done under the mask of good intentions and a spirit of
anxious care. The public was told that big celebrations of victories were somewhat out
of place and were not worthy expressions of the spirit of a great nation. The fortitude
and valour of German soldiers were accepted facts which did not necessarily call for
outbursts of celebration. Furthermore, it was asked, what would foreign opinion have
to say about these manifestations? Would not foreign opinion react more favourably to
a quiet and sober form of celebration rather than to all this wild jubilation? Surely the
time had come--so the Press declared--for us Germans to remember that this war was
not our work and that hence there need be no feeling of shame in declaring our
willingness to do our share towards effecting an understanding among the nations. For
this reason it would not be wise to sully the radiant deeds of our army with
unbecoming jubilation; for the rest of the world would never understand this.
Furthermore, nothing is more appreciated than the modesty with which a true hero
quietly and unassumingly carries on and forgets. Such was the gist of their warning.

Instead of catching these fellows by their long ears and dragging them to some ditch
and looping a cord around their necks, so that the victorious enthusiasm of the nation
should no longer offend the aesthetic sensibilities of these knights of the pen, a general
Press campaign was now allowed to go on against what was called 'unbecoming' and
'undignified' forms of victorious celebration.

No one seemed to have the faintest idea that when public enthusiasm is once damped,
nothing can enkindle it again, when the necessity arises. This enthusiasm is an
intoxication and must be kept up in that form. Without the support of this enthusiastic
spirit how would it be possible to endure in a struggle which, according to human
standards, made such immense demands on the spiritual stamina of the nation?

I was only too well acquainted with the psychology of the broad masses not to know
that in such cases a magnaminous 'aestheticism' cannot fan the fire which is needed to
keep the iron hot. In my eyes it was even a mistake not to have tried to raise the pitch of
public enthusiasm still higher. Therefore I could not at all understand why the contrary
policy was adopted, that is to say, the policy of damping the public spirit.

Another thing which irritated me was the manner in which Marxism was regarded and
accepted. I thought that all this proved how little they knew about the Marxist plague. It
was believed in all seriousness that the abolition of party distinctions during the War
had made Marxism a mild and moderate thing.

But here there was no question of party. There was question of a doctrine which was
being expounded for the express purpose of leading humanity to its destruction. The
purport of this doctrine was not understood because nothing was said about that side of
the question in our Jew-ridden universities and because our supercilious bureaucratic
officials did not think it worth while to read up a subject which had not been prescribed
in their university course. This mighty revolutionary trend was going on beside them;
but those 'intellectuals' would not deign to give it their attention. That is why State
enterprise nearly always lags behind private enterprise. Of these gentry once can truly
say that their maxim is: What we don't know won't bother us. In the August of 1914 the
German worker was looked upon as an adherent of Marxist socialism. That was a gross
error. When those fateful hours dawned the German worker shook off the poisonous
clutches of that plague; otherwise he would not have been so willing and ready to fight.
And people were stupid enough to imagine that Marxism had now become 'national',
another apt illustration of the fact that those in authority had never taken the trouble to
study the real tenor of the Marxist teaching. If they had done so, such foolish errors
would not have been committed.

Marxism, whose final objective was and is and will continue to be the destruction of all
non-Jewish national States, had to witness in those days of July 1914 how the German
working classes, which it had been inveigling, were aroused by the national spirit and
rapidly ranged themselves on the side of the Fatherland. Within a few days the
deceptive smoke-screen of that infamous national betrayal had vanished into thin air
and the Jewish bosses suddenly found themselves alone and deserted. It was as if not a
vestige had been left of that folly and madness with which the masses of the German
people had been inoculated for sixty years. That was indeed an evil day for the
betrayers of German Labour. The moment, however, that the leaders realized the
danger which threatened them they pulled the magic cap of deceit over their ears and,
without being identified, played the part of mimes in the national reawakening.

The time seemed to have arrived for proceeding against the whole Jewish gang of
public pests. Then it was that action should have been taken regardless of any
consequent whining or protestation. At one stroke, in the August of 1914, all the empty
nonsense about international solidarity was knocked out of the heads of the German
working classes. A few weeks later, instead of this stupid talk sounding in their ears,
they heard the noise of American-manufactured shrapnel bursting above the heads of
the marching columns, as a symbol of international comradeship. Now that the German
worker had rediscovered the road to nationhood, it ought to have been the duty of any

Government which had the care of the people in its keeping, to take this opportunity of
mercilessly rooting out everything that was opposed to the national spirit.

While the flower of the nation's manhood was dying at the front, there was time enough
at home at least to exterminate this vermin. But, instead of doing so, His Majesty the
Kaiser held out his hand to these hoary criminals, thus assuring them his protection and
allowing them to regain their mental composure.

And so the viper could begin his work again. This time, however, more carefully than
before, but still more destructively. While honest people dreamt of reconciliation these
perjured criminals were making preparations for a revolution.

Naturally I was distressed at the half-measures which were adopted at that time; but I
never thought it possible that the final consequences could have been so disastrous?

But what should have been done then? Throw the ringleaders into gaol, prosecute them
and rid the nation of them? Uncompromising military measures should have been
adopted to root out the evil. Parties should have been abolished and the Reichstag
brought to its senses at the point of the bayonet, if necessary. It would have been still
better if the Reichstag had been dissolved immediately. Just as the Republic to-day
dissolves the parties when it wants to, so in those days there was even more justification
for applying that measure, seeing that the very existence of the nation was at stake. Of
course this suggestion would give rise to the question: Is it possible to eradicate ideas
by force of arms? Could a WELTANSCHAUUNG be attacked by means of physical

At that time I turned these questions over and over again in my mind. By studying
analogous cases, exemplified in history, particularly those which had arisen from
religious circumstances, I came to the following fundamental conclusion:

Ideas and philosophical systems as well as movements grounded on a definite spiritual
foundation, whether true or not, can never be broken by the use of force after a certain
stage, except on one condition: namely, that this use of force is in the service of a new
idea or WELTANSCHAUUNG which burns with a new flame.

The application of force alone, without moral support based on a spiritual concept, can
never bring about the destruction of an idea or arrest the propagation of it, unless one is
ready and able ruthlessly to exterminate the last upholders of that idea even to a man,
and also wipe out any tradition which it may tend to leave behind. Now in the majority
of cases the result of such a course has been to exclude such a State, either temporarily
or for ever, from the comity of States that are of political significance; but experience has
also shown that such a sanguinary method of extirpation arouses the better section of
the population under the persecuting power. As a matter of fact, every persecution

which has no spiritual motives to support it is morally unjust and raises opposition
among the best elements of the population; so much so that these are driven more and
more to champion the ideas that are unjustly persecuted. With many individuals this
arises from the sheer spirit of opposition to every attempt at suppressing spiritual
things by brute force.

In this way the number of convinced adherents of the persecuted doctrine increases as
the persecution progresses. Hence the total destruction of a new doctrine can be
accomplished only by a vast plan of extermination; but this, in the final analysis, means
the loss of some of the best blood in a nation or State. And that blood is then avenged,
because such an internal and total clean-up brings about the collapse of the nation's
strength. And such a procedure is always condemned to futility from the very start if
the attacked doctrine should happen to have spread beyond a small circle.

That is why in this case, as with all other growths, the doctrine can be exterminated in
its earliest stages. As time goes on its powers of resistance increase, until at the
approach of age it gives way to younger elements, but under another form and from
other motives.

The fact remains that nearly all attempts to exterminate a doctrine, without having
some spiritual basis of attack against it, and also to wipe out all the organizations it has
created, have led in many cases to the very opposite being achieved; and that for the
following reasons:

When sheer force is used to combat the spread of a doctrine, then that force must be
employed systematically and persistently. This means that the chances of success in the
suppression of a doctrine lie only in the persistent and uniform application of the
methods chosen. The moment hesitation is shown, and periods of tolerance alternate
with the application of force, the doctrine against which these measures are directed
will not only recover strength but every successive persecution will bring to its support
new adherents who have been shocked by the oppressive methods employed. The old
adherents will become more embittered and their allegiance will thereby be
strengthened. Therefore when force is employed success is dependent on the consistent
manner in which it is used. This persistence, however, is nothing less than the product
of definite spiritual convictions. Every form of force that is not supported by a spiritual
backing will be always indecisive and uncertain. Such a force lacks the stability that can
be found only in a WELTANSCHAUUNG which has devoted champions. Such a force
is the expression of the individual energies; therefore it is from time to time dependent
on the change of persons in whose hands it is employed and also on their characters
and capacities.

But there is something else to be said: Every WELTANSCHAUUNG, whether religious
or political--and it is sometimes difficult to say where the one ends and the other

begins--fights not so much for the negative destruction of the opposing world of ideas
as for the positive realization of its own ideas. Thus its struggle lies in attack rather than
in defence. It has the advantage of knowing where its objective lies, as this objective
represents the realization of its own ideas. Inversely, it is difficult to say when the
negative aim for the destruction of a hostile doctrine is reached and secured. For this
reason alone a WELTANSCHAUUNG which is of an aggressive character is more
definite in plan and more powerful and decisive in action than a
WELTANSCHAUUNG which takes up a merely defensive attitude. If force be used to
combat a spiritual power, that force remains a defensive measure only so long as the
wielders of it are not the standard-bearers and apostles of a new spiritual doctrine.

To sum up, the following must be borne in mind: That every attempt to combat a
WELTANSCHAUUNG by means of force will turn out futile in the end if the struggle
fails to take the form of an offensive for the establishment of an entirely new spiritual
order of' things. It is only in the struggle between two Weltan-schauungen that physical
force, consistently and ruthlessly applied, will eventually turn the scales in its own
favour. It was here that the fight against Marxism had hitherto failed.

This was also the reason why Bismarck's anti-socialist legislation failed and was bound
to fail in the long run, despite everything. It lacked the basis of a new
WELTANSCHAUUNG for whose development and extension the struggle might have
been taken up. To say that the serving up of drivel about a so-called 'State-Authority' or
'Law-and-Order' was an adequate foundation for the spiritual driving force in a life-or-
death struggle is only what one would expect to hear from the wiseacres in high official

It was because there were no adequate spiritual motives back of this offensive that
Bismarck was compelled to hand over the administration of his socialist legislative
measures to the judgment and approval of those circles which were themselves the
product of the Marxist teaching. Thus a very ludicrous state of affairs prevailed when
the Iron Chancellor surrendered the fate of his struggle against Marxism to the goodwill
of the bourgeois democracy. He left the goat to take care of the garden. But this was
only the necessary result of the failure to find a fundamentally new
WELTANSCHAUUNG which would attract devoted champions to its cause and could
be established on the ground from which Marxism had been driven out. And thus the
result of the Bismarckian campaign was deplorable.

During the World War, or at the beginning of it, were the conditions any different?
Unfortunately, they were not.

The more I then pondered over the necessity for a change in the attitude of the
executive government towards Social-Democracy, as the incorporation of contemporary
Marxism, the more I realized the want of a practical substitute for this doctrine.

Supposing Social-Democracy were overthrown, what had one to offer the masses in its
stead? Not a single movement existed which promised any success in attracting vast
numbers of workers who would be now more or less without leaders, and holding
these workers in its train. It is nonsensical to imagine that the international fanatic who
has just severed his connection with a class party would forthwith join a bourgeois
party, or, in other words, another class organization. For however unsatisfactory these
various organizations may appear to be, it cannot be denied that bourgeois politicians
look on the distinction between classes as a very important factor in social life, provided
it does not turn out politically disadvantageous to them. If they deny this fact they show
themselves not only impudent but also mendacious.

Generally speaking, one should guard against considering the broad masses more
stupid than they really are. In political matters it frequently happens that feeling judges
more correctly than intellect. But the opinion that this feeling on the part of the masses
is sufficient proof of their stupid international attitude can be immediately and
definitely refuted by the simple fact that pacifist democracy is no less fatuous, though it
draws its supporters almost exclusively from bourgeois circles. As long as millions of
citizens daily gulp down what the social-democratic Press tells them, it ill becomes the
'Masters' to joke at the expense of the 'Comrades'; for in the long run they all swallow
the same hash, even though it be dished up with different spices. In both cases the cook
is one and the same--the Jew.

One should be careful about contradicting established facts. It is an undeniable fact that
the class question has nothing to do with questions concerning ideals, though that dope
is administered at election time. Class arrogance among a large section of our people, as
well as a prevailing tendency to look down on the manual labourer, are obvious facts
and not the fancies of some day-dreamer. Nevertheless it only illustrates the mentality
of our so-called intellectual circles, that they have not yet grasped the fact that
circumstances which are incapable of preventing the growth of such a plague as
Marxism are certainly not capable of restoring what has been lost.

The bourgeois' parties--a name coined by themselves--will never again be able to win
over and hold the proletarian masses in their train. That is because two worlds stand
opposed to one another here, in part naturally and in part artificially divided. These
two camps have one leading thought, and that is that they must fight one another. But
in such a fight the younger will come off victorious; and that is Marxism.

In 1914 a fight against Social-Democracy was indeed quite conceivable. But the lack of
any practical substitute made it doubtful how long the fight could be kept up. In this
respect there was a gaping void.

Long before the War I was of the same opinion and that was the reason why I could not
decide to join any of the parties then existing. During the course of the World War my

conviction was still further confirmed by the manifest impossibility of fighting Social-
Democracy in anything like a thorough way: because for that purpose there should
have been a movement that was something more than a mere 'parliamentary' party, and
there was none such.

I frequently discussed that want with my intimate comrades. And it was then that I first
conceived the idea of taking up political work later on. As I have often assured my
friends, it was just this that induced me to become active on the public hustings after
the War, in addition to my professional work. And I am sure that this decision was
arrived at after much earnest thought.


[Note 11. The Second Infantry Bavarian Regiment, in which Hitler served as a

Chapter 6

War Propaganda

IN WATCHING the course of political events I was always struck by the active part
which propaganda played in them. I saw that it was an instrument, which the Marxist
Socialists knew how to handle in a masterly way and how to put it to practical uses.
Thus I soon came to realize that the right use of propaganda was an art in itself and that
this art was practically unknown to our bourgeois parties. The Christian-Socialist Party
alone, especially in Lueger's time, showed a certain efficiency in the employment of this
instrument and owed much of their success to it.

It was during the War, however, that we had the best chance of estimating the
tremendous results which could be obtained by a propagandist system properly carried
out. Here again, unfortunately, everything was left to the other side, the work done on
our side being worse than insignificant. It was the total failure of the whole German
system of information--a failure which was perfectly obvious to every soldier--that
urged me to consider the problem of propaganda in a comprehensive way. I had ample
opportunity to learn a practical lesson in this matter; for unfortunately it was only too
well taught us by the enemy. The lack on our side was exploited by the enemy in such
an efficient manner that one could say it showed itself as a real work of genius. In that
propaganda carried on by the enemy I found admirable sources of instruction. The
lesson to be learned from this had unfortunately no attraction for the geniuses on our
own side. They were simply above all such things, too clever to accept any teaching.
Anyhow they did not honestly wish to learn anything.

Had we any propaganda at all? Alas, I can reply only in the negative. All that was
undertaken in this direction was so utterly inadequate and misconceived from the very
beginning that not only did it prove useless but at times harmful. In substance it was
insufficient. Psychologically it was all wrong. Anybody who had carefully investigated
the German propaganda must have formed that judgment of it. Our people did not
seem to be clear even about the primary question itself: Whether propaganda is a means
or an end?

Propaganda is a means and must, therefore, be judged in relation to the end it is
intended to serve. It must be organized in such a way as to be capable of attaining its
objective. And, as it is quite clear that the importance of the objective may vary from the

standpoint of general necessity, the essential internal character of the propaganda must
vary accordingly. The cause for which we fought during the War was the noblest and
highest that man could strive for. We were fighting for the freedom and independence
of our country, for the security of our future welfare and the honour of the nation.
Despite all views to the contrary, this honour does actually exist, or rather it will have to
exist; for a nation without honour will sooner or later lose its freedom and
independence. This is in accordance with the ruling of a higher justice, for a generation
of poltroons is not entitled to freedom. He who would be a slave cannot have honour;
for such honour would soon become an object of general scorn.

Germany was waging war for its very existence. The purpose of its war propaganda
should have been to strengthen the fighting spirit in that struggle and help it to victory.

But when nations are fighting for their existence on this earth, when the question of 'to
be or not to be' has to be answered, then all humane and aesthetic considerations must
be set aside; for these ideals do not exist of themselves somewhere in the air but are the
product of man's creative imagination and disappear when he disappears. Nature
knows nothing of them. Moreover, they are characteristic of only a small number of
nations, or rather of races, and their value depends on the measure in which they spring
from the racial feeling of the latter. Humane and aesthetic ideals will disappear from the
inhabited earth when those races disappear which are the creators and standard-bearers
of them.

All such ideals are only of secondary importance when a nation is struggling for its
existence. They must be prevented from entering into the struggle the moment they
threaten to weaken the stamina of the nation that is waging war. That is always the only
visible effect whereby their place in the struggle is to be judged.

In regard to the part played by humane feeling, Moltke stated that in time of war the
essential thing is to get a decision as quickly as possible and that the most ruthless
methods of fighting are at the same time the most humane. When people attempt to
answer this reasoning by highfalutin talk about aesthetics, etc., only one answer can be
given. It is that the vital questions involved in the struggle of a nation for its existence
must not be subordinated to any aesthetic considerations. The yoke of slavery is and
always will remain the most unpleasant experience that mankind can endure. Do the
Schwabing (Note 12) decadents look upon Germany's lot to-day as 'aesthetic'? Of
course, one doesn't discuss such a question with the Jews, because they are the modern
inventors of this cultural perfume. Their very existence is an incarnate denial of the
beauty of God's image in His creation.

Since these ideas of what is beautiful and humane have no place in warfare, they are not
to be used as standards of war propaganda.

During the War, propaganda was a means to an end. And this end was the struggle for
existence of the German nation. Propaganda, therefore, should have been regarded
from the standpoint of its utility for that purpose. The most cruel weapons were then
the most humane, provided they helped towards a speedier decision; and only those
methods were good and beautiful which helped towards securing the dignity and
freedom of the nation. Such was the only possible attitude to adopt towards war
propaganda in the life-or-death struggle.

If those in what are called positions of authority had realized this there would have
been no uncertainty about the form and employment of war propaganda as a weapon;
for it is nothing but a weapon, and indeed a most terrifying weapon in the hands of
those who know how to use it.

The second question of decisive importance is this: To whom should propaganda be
made to appeal? To the educated intellectual classes? Or to the less intellectual?

Propaganda must always address itself to the broad masses of the people. For the
intellectual classes, or what are called the intellectual classes to-day, propaganda is not
suited, but only scientific exposition. Propaganda has as little to do with science as an
advertisement poster has to do with art, as far as concerns the form in which it presents
its message. The art of the advertisement poster consists in the ability of the designer to
attract the attention of the crowd through the form and colours he chooses. The
advertisement poster announcing an exhibition of art has no other aim than to convince
the public of the importance of the exhibition. The better it does that, the better is the art
of the poster as such. Being meant accordingly to impress upon the public the meaning
of the exposition, the poster can never take the place of the artistic objects displayed in
the exposition hall. They are something entirely different. Therefore. those who wish to
study the artistic display must study something that is quite different from the poster;
indeed for that purpose a mere wandering through the exhibition galleries is of no use.
The student of art must carefully and thoroughly study each exhibit in order slowly to
form a judicious opinion about it.

The situation is the same in regard to what we understand by the word, propaganda.
The purpose of propaganda is not the personal instruction of the individual, but rather
to attract public attention to certain things, the importance of which can be brought
home to the masses only by this means.

Here the art of propaganda consists in putting a matter so clearly and forcibly before
the minds of the people as to create a general conviction regarding the reality of a
certain fact, the necessity of certain things and the just character of something that is
essential. But as this art is not an end in itself and because its purpose must be exactly
that of the advertisement poster, to attract the attention of the masses and not by any
means to dispense individual instructions to those who already have an educated

opinion on things or who wish to form such an opinion on grounds of objective study--
because that is not the purpose of propaganda, it must appeal to the feelings of the
public rather than to their reasoning powers.

All propaganda must be presented in a popular form and must fix its intellectual level
so as not to be above the heads of the least intellectual of those to whom it is directed.
Thus its purely intellectual level will have to be that of the lowest mental common
denominator among the public it is desired to reach. When there is question of bringing
a whole nation within the circle of its influence, as happens in the case of war
propaganda, then too much attention cannot be paid to the necessity of avoiding a high
level, which presupposes a relatively high degree of intelligence among the public.

The more modest the scientific tenor of this propaganda and the more it is addressed
exclusively to public sentiment, the more decisive will be its success. This is the best test
of the value of a propaganda, and not the approbation of a small group of intellectuals
or artistic people.

The art of propaganda consists precisely in being able to awaken the imagination of the
public through an appeal to their feelings, in finding the appropriate psychological
form that will arrest the attention and appeal to the hearts of the national masses. That
this is not understood by those among us whose wits are supposed to have been
sharpened to the highest pitch is only another proof of their vanity or mental inertia.

Once we have understood how necessary it is to concentrate the persuasive forces of
propaganda on the broad masses of the people, the following lessons result therefrom:

That it is a mistake to organize the direct propaganda as if it were a manifold system of
scientific instruction.

The receptive powers of the masses are very restricted, and their understanding is
feeble. On the other hand, they quickly forget. Such being the case, all effective
propaganda must be confined to a few bare essentials and those must be expressed as
far as possible in stereotyped formulas. These slogans should be persistently repeated
until the very last individual has come to grasp the idea that has been put forward. If
this principle be forgotten and if an attempt be made to be abstract and general, the
propaganda will turn out ineffective; for the public will not be able to digest or retain
what is offered to them in this way. Therefore, the greater the scope of the message that
has to be presented, the more necessary it is for the propaganda to discover that plan of
action which is psychologically the most efficient.

It was, for example, a fundamental mistake to ridicule the worth of the enemy as the
Austrian and German comic papers made a chief point of doing in their propaganda.
The very principle here is a mistaken one; for, when they came face to face with the

enemy, our soldiers had quite a different impression. Therefore, the mistake had
disastrous results. Once the German soldier realised what a tough enemy he had to
fight he felt that he had been deceived by the manufacturers of the information which
had been given him. Therefore, instead of strengthening and stimulating his fighting
spirit, this information had quite the contrary effect. Finally he lost heart.

On the other hand, British and American war propaganda was psychologically efficient.
By picturing the Germans to their own people as Barbarians and Huns, they were
preparing their soldiers for the horrors of war and safeguarding them against illusions.
The most terrific weapons which those soldiers encountered in the field merely
confirmed the information that they had already received and their belief in the truth of
the assertions made by their respective governments was accordingly reinforced. Thus
their rage and hatred against the infamous foe was increased. The terrible havoc caused
by the German weapons of war was only another illustration of the Hunnish brutality
of those barbarians; whereas on the side of the Entente no time was left the soldiers to
meditate on the similar havoc which their own weapons were capable of. Thus the
British soldier was never allowed to feel that the information which he received at home
was untrue. Unfortunately the opposite was the case with the Germans, who finally
wound up by rejecting everything from home as pure swindle and humbug. This result
was made possible because at home they thought that the work of propaganda could be
entrusted to the first ass that came along, braying of his own special talents, and they
had no conception of the fact that propaganda demands the most skilled brains that can
be found.

Thus the German war propaganda afforded us an incomparable example of how the
work of 'enlightenment' should not be done and how such an example was the result of
an entire failure to take any psychological considerations whatsoever into account.

From the enemy, however, a fund of valuable knowledge could be gained by those who
kept their eyes open, whose powers of perception had not yet become sclerotic, and
who during four-and-a-half years had to experience the perpetual flood of enemy

The worst of all was that our people did not understand the very first condition which
has to be fulfilled in every kind of propaganda; namely, a systematically one-sided
attitude towards every problem that has to be dealt with. In this regard so many errors
were committed, even from the very beginning of the war, that it was justifiable to
doubt whether so much folly could be attributed solely to the stupidity of people in
higher quarters.

What, for example, should we say of a poster which purported to advertise some new
brand of soap by insisting on the excellent qualities of the competitive brands? We
should naturally shake our heads. And it ought to be just the same in a similar kind of

political advertisement. The aim of propaganda is not to try to pass judgment on
conflicting rights, giving each its due, but exclusively to emphasize the right which we
are asserting. Propaganda must not investigate the truth objectively and, in so far as it is
favourable to the other side, present it according to the theoretical rules of justice; yet it
must present only that aspect of the truth which is favourable to its own side.

It was a fundamental mistake to discuss the question of who was responsible for the
outbreak of the war and declare that the sole responsibility could not be attributed to
Germany. The sole responsibility should have been laid on the shoulders of the enemy,
without any discussion whatsoever.

And what was the consequence of these half-measures? The broad masses of the people
are not made up of diplomats or professors of public jurisprudence nor simply of
persons who are able to form reasoned judgment in given cases, but a vacillating crowd
of human children who are constantly wavering between one idea and another. As soon
as our own propaganda made the slightest suggestion that the enemy had a certain
amount of justice on his side, then we laid down the basis on which the justice of our
own cause could be questioned. The masses are not in a position to discern where the
enemy's fault ends and where our own begins. In such a case they become hesitant and
distrustful, especially when the enemy does not make the same mistake but heaps all
the blame on his adversary. Could there be any clearer proof of this than the fact that
finally our own people believed what was said by the enemy's propaganda, which was
uniform and consistent in its assertions, rather than what our own propaganda said?
And that, of course, was increased by the mania for objectivity which addicts our
people. Everybody began to be careful about doing an injustice to the enemy, even at
the cost of seriously injuring, and even ruining his own people and State.

Naturally the masses were not conscious of the fact that those in authority had failed to
study the subject from this angle.

The great majority of a nation is so feminine in its character and outlook that its thought
and conduct are ruled by sentiment rather than by sober reasoning. This sentiment,
however, is not complex, but simple and consistent. It is not highly differentiated, but
has only the negative and positive notions of love and hatred, right and wrong, truth
and falsehood. Its notions are never partly this and partly that. English propaganda
especially understood this in a marvellous way and put what they understood into
practice. They allowed no half-measures which might have given rise to some doubt.

Proof of how brilliantly they understood that the feeling of the masses is something
primitive was shown in their policy of publishing tales of horror and outrages which
fitted in with the real horrors of the time, thereby cleverly and ruthlessly preparing the
ground for moral solidarity at the front, even in times of great defeats. Further, the way
in which they pilloried the German enemy as solely responsible for the war--which was

a brutal and absolute falsehood--and the way in which they proclaimed his guilt was
excellently calculated to reach the masses, realizing that these are always extremist in
their feelings. And thus it was that this atrocious lie was positively believed.

The effectiveness of this kind of propaganda is well illustrated by the fact that after
four-and-a-half years, not only was the enemy still carrying on his propagandist work,
but it was already undermining the stamina of our people at home.

That our propaganda did not achieve similar results is not to be wondered at, because it
had the germs of inefficiency lodged in its very being by reason of its ambiguity. And
because of the very nature of its content one could not expect it to make the necessary
impression on the masses. Only our feckless 'statesmen' could have imagined that on
pacifists slops of such a kind the enthusiasm could be nourished which is necessary to
enkindle that spirit which leads men to die for their country.

And so this product of ours was not only worthless but detrimental.

No matter what an amount of talent employed in the organization of propaganda, it
will have no result if due account is not taken of these fundamental principles.
Propaganda must be limited to a few simple themes and these must be represented
again and again. Here, as in innumerable other cases, perseverance is the first and most
important condition of success.

Particularly in the field of propaganda, placid aesthetes and blase intellectuals should
never be allowed to take the lead. The former would readily transform the impressive
character of real propaganda into something suitable only for literary tea parties. As to
the second class of people, one must always beware of this pest; for, in consequence of
their insensibility to normal impressions, they are constantly seeking new excitements.

Such people grow sick and tired of everything. They always long for change and will
always be incapable of putting themselves in the position of picturing the wants of their
less callous fellow-creatures in their immediate neighbourhood, let alone trying to
understand them. The blase intellectuals are always the first to criticize propaganda, or
rather its message, because this appears to them to be outmoded and trivial. They are
always looking for something new, always yearning for change; and thus they become
the mortal enemies of every effort that may be made to influence the masses in an
effective way. The moment the organization and message of a propagandist movement
begins to be orientated according to their tastes it becomes incoherent and scattered.

It is not the purpose of propaganda to create a series of alterations in sentiment with a
view to pleasing these blase gentry. Its chief function is to convince the masses, whose
slowness of understanding needs to be given time in order that they may absorb

information; and only constant repetition will finally succeed in imprinting an idea on
the memory of the crowd.

Every change that is made in the subject of a propagandist message must always
emphasize the same conclusion. The leading slogan must of course be illustrated in
many ways and from several angles, but in the end one must always return to the
assertion of the same formula. In this way alone can propaganda be consistent and
dynamic in its effects.

Only by following these general lines and sticking to them steadfastly, with uniform
and concise emphasis, can final success be reached. Then one will be rewarded by the
surprising and almost incredible results that such a persistent policy secures.

The success of any advertisement, whether of a business or political nature, depends on
the consistency and perseverance with which it is employed.

In this respect also the propaganda organized by our enemies set us an excellent
example. It confined itself to a few themes, which were meant exclusively for mass
consumption, and it repeated these themes with untiring perseverance. Once these
fundamental themes and the manner of placing them before the world were recognized
as effective, they adhered to them without the slightest alteration for the whole duration
of the War. At first all of it appeared to be idiotic in its impudent assertiveness. Later on
it was looked upon as disturbing, but finally it was believed.

But in England they came to understand something further: namely, that the possibility
of success in the use of this spiritual weapon consists in the mass employment of it, and
that when employed in this way it brings full returns for the large expenses incurred.

In England propaganda was regarded as a weapon of the first order, whereas with us it
represented the last hope of a livelihood for our unemployed politicians and a snug job
for shirkers of the modest hero type.

Taken all in all, its results were negative.


[Note 12. Schwabing is the artistic quarter in Munich where artists have their studios
and litterateurs, especially of the Bohemian class, foregather.]

Chapter 7

The Revolution

IN 1915 the enemy started his propaganda among our soldiers. From 1916 onwards it
steadily became more intensive, and at the beginning of 1918 it had swollen into a storm
flood. One could now judge the effects of this proselytizing movement step by step.
Gradually our soldiers began to think just in the way the enemy wished them to think.
On the German side there was no counter-propaganda.

At that time the army authorities, under our able and resolute Commander, were
willing and ready to take up the fight in the propaganda domain also, but unfortunately
they did not have the necessary means to carry that intention into effect. Moreover, the
army authorities would have made a psychological mistake had they undertaken this
task of mental training. To be efficacious it had come from the home front. For only thus
could it be successful among men who for nearly four years now had been performing
immortal deeds of heroism and undergoing all sorts of privations for the sake of that
home. But what were the people at home doing? Was their failure to act merely due to
unintelligence or bad faith?

In the midsummer of 1918, after the evacuation of the southern bank of the hearne, the
German Press adopted a policy which was so woefully inopportune, and even
criminally stupid, that I used to ask myself a question which made me more and more
furious day after day: Is it really true that we have nobody who will dare to put an end
to this process of spiritual sabotage which is being carried on among our heroic troops?

What happened in France during those days of 1914, when our armies invaded that
country and were marching in triumph from one victory to another? What happened in
Italy when their armies collapsed on the Isonzo front? What happened in France again
during the spring of 1918, when German divisions took the main French positions by
storm and heavy long-distance artillery bombarded Paris?

How they whipped up the flagging courage of those troops who were retreating and
fanned the fires of national enthusiasm among them! How their propaganda and their
marvellous aptitude in the exercise of mass-influence reawakened the fighting spirit in
that broken front and hammered into the heads of the soldiers a, firm belief in final

Meanwhile, what were our people doing in this sphere? Nothing, or even worse than
nothing. Again and again I used to become enraged and indignant as I read the latest
papers and realized the nature of the mass-murder they were committing: through their
influence on the minds of the people and the soldiers. More than once I was tormented
by the thought that if Providence had put the conduct of German propaganda into my
hands, instead of into the hands of those incompetent and even criminal ignoramuses
and weaklings, the outcome of the struggle might have been different.

During those months I felt for the first time that Fate was dealing adversely with me in
keeping me on the fighting front and in a position where any chance bullet from some
nigger or other might finish me, whereas I could have done the Fatherland a real service
in another sphere. For I was then presumptuous enough to believe that I would have
been successful in managing the propaganda business.

But I was a being without a name, one among eight millions. Hence it was better for me
to keep my mouth shut and do my duty as well as I could in the position to which I had
been assigned.

In the summer of 1915 the first enemy leaflets were dropped on our trenches. They all
told more or less the same story, with some variations in the form of it. The story was
that distress was steadily on the increase in Germany; that the War would last
indefinitely; that the prospect of victory for us was becoming fainter day after day; that
the people at home were yearning for peace, but that 'Militarism' and the 'Kaiser' would
not permit it; that the world--which knew this very well--was not waging war against
the German people but only against the man who was exclusively responsible, the
Kaiser; that until this enemy of world-peace was removed there could be no end to the
conflict; but that when the War was over the liberal and democratic nations would
receive the Germans as colleagues in the League for World Peace. This would be done
the moment 'Prussian Militarism' had been finally destroyed.

To illustrate and substantiate all these statements, the leaflets very often contained
'Letters from Home', the contents of which appeared to confirm the enemy's
propagandist message.

Generally speaking, we only laughed at all these efforts. The leaflets were read, sent to
base headquarters, then forgotten until a favourable wind once again blew a fresh
contingent into the trenches. These were mostly dropped from aeroplanes which were
used specially for that purpose.

One feature of this propaganda was very striking. It was that in sections where
Bavarian troops were stationed every effort was made by the enemy propagandists to
stir up feeling against the Prussians, assuring the soldiers that Prussia and Prussia alone

was the guilty party who was responsible for bringing on and continuing the War, and
that there was no hostility whatsoever towards the Bavarians; but that there could be no
possibility of coming to their assistance so long as they continued to serve Prussian
interests and helped to pull the Prussian chestnuts out of the fire.

This persistent propaganda began to have a real influence on our soldiers in 1915. The
feeling against Prussia grew quite noticeable among the Bavarian troops, but those in
authority did nothing to counteract it. This was something more than a mere crime of
omission; for sooner or later not only the Prussians were bound to have to atone
severely for it but the whole German nation and consequently the Bavarians themselves

In this direction the enemy propaganda began to achieve undoubted success from 1916

In a similar way letters coming directly from home had long since been exercising their
effect. There was now no further necessity for the enemy to broadcast such letters in
leaflet form. And also against this influence from home nothing was done except a few
supremely stupid 'warnings' uttered by the executive government. The whole front was
drenched in this poison which thoughtless women at home sent out, without suspecting
for a moment that the enemy's chances of final victory were thus strengthened or that
the sufferings of their own men at the front were thus being prolonged and rendered
more severe. These stupid letters written by German women eventually cost the lives of
hundreds of thousands of our men.

Thus in 1916 several distressing phenomena were already manifest. The whole front
was complaining and grousing, discontented over many things and often justifiably so.
While they were hungry and yet patient, and their relatives at home were in distress, in
other quarters there was feasting and revelry. Yes; even on the front itself everything
was not as it ought to have been in this regard.

Even in the early stages of the war the soldiers were sometimes prone to complain; but
such criticism was confined to 'internal affairs'. The man who at one moment groused
and grumbled ceased his murmur after a few moments and went about his duty
silently, as if everything were in order. The company which had given signs of
discontent a moment earlier hung on now to its bit of trench, defending it tooth and
nail, as if Germany's fate depended on these few hundred yards of mud and shell-holes.
The glorious old army was still at its post. A sudden change in my own fortunes soon
placed me in a position where I had first-hand experience of the contrast between this
old army and the home front. At the end of September 1916 my division was sent into
the Battle of the Somme. For us this was the first of a series of heavy engagements, and
the impression created was that of a veritable inferno, rather than war. Through weeks
of incessant artillery bombardment we stood firm, at times ceding a little ground but

then taking it back again, and never giving way. On October 7th, 1916, I was wounded
but had the luck of being able to get back to our lines and was then ordered to be sent
by ambulance train to Germany.

Two years had passed since I had left home, an almost endless period in such
circumstances. I could hardly imagine what Germans looked like without uniforms. In
the clearing hospital at Hermies I was startled when I suddenly heard the voice of a
German woman who was acting as nursing sister and talking with one of the wounded
men lying near me. Two years! And then this voice for the first time!

The nearer our ambulance train approached the German frontier the more restless each
one of us became. En route we recognised all these places through which we passed
two years before as young volunteers--Brussels, Louvain, Liège--and finally we thought
we recognized the first German homestead, with its familiar high gables and
picturesque window-shutters. Home!

What a change! From the mud of the Somme battlefields to the spotless white beds in
this wonderful building. One hesitated at first before entering them. It was only by slow
stages that one could grow accustomed to this new world again. But unfortunately
there were certain other aspects also in which this new world was different.

The spirit of the army at the front appeared to be out of place here. For the first time I
encountered something which up to then was unknown at the front: namely, boasting
of one's own cowardice. For, though we certainly heard complaining and grousing at
the front, this was never in the spirit of any agitation to insubordination and certainly
not an attempt to glorify one's fear. No; there at the front a coward was a coward and
nothing else, And the contempt which his weakness aroused in the others was quite
general, just as the real hero was admired all round. But here in hospital the spirit was
quite different in some respects. Loudmouthed agitators were busy here in heaping
ridicule on the good soldier and painting the weak-kneed poltroon in glorious colours.
A couple of miserable human specimens were the ringleaders in this process of
defamation. One of them boasted of having intentionally injured his hand in barbed-
wire entanglements in order to get sent to hospital. Although his wound was only a
slight one, it appeared that he had been here for a very long time and would be here
interminably. Some arrangement for him seemed to be worked by some sort of swindle,
just as he got sent here in the ambulance train through a swindle. This pestilential
specimen actually had the audacity to parade his knavery as the manifestation of a
courage which was superior to that of the brave soldier who dies a hero's death. There
were many who heard this talk in silence; but there were others who expressed their
assent to what the fellow said.

Personally I was disgusted at the thought that a seditious agitator of this kind should be
allowed to remain in such an institution. What could be done? The hospital authorities

here must have known who and what he was; and actually they did know. But still they
did nothing about it.

As soon as I was able to walk once again I obtained leave to visit Berlin.

Bitter want was in evidence everywhere. The metropolis, with its teeming millions, was
suffering from hunger. The talk that was current in the various places of refreshment
and hospices visited by the soldiers was much the same as that in our hospital. The
impression given was that these agitators purposely singled out such places in order to
spread their views.

But in Munich conditions were far worse. After my discharge from hospital, I was sent
to a reserve battalion there. I felt as in some strange town. Anger, discontent, complaints
met one's ears wherever one went. To a certain extent this was due to the infinitely
maladroit manner in which the soldiers who had returned from the front were treated
by the non-commissioned officers who had never seen a day's active service and who
on that account were partly incapable of adopting the proper attitude towards the old
soldiers. Naturally those old soldiers displayed certain characteristics which had been
developed from the experiences in the trenches. The officers of the reserve units could
not understand these peculiarities, whereas the officer home from active service was at
least in a position to understand them for himself. As a result he received more respect
from the men than officers at the home headquarters. But, apart from all this, the
general spirit was deplorable. The art of shirking was looked upon as almost a proof of
higher intelligence, and devotion to duty was considered a sign of weakness or bigotry.
Government offices were staffed by Jews. Almost every clerk was a Jew and every Jew
was a clerk. I was amazed at this multitude of combatants who belonged to the chosen
people and could not help comparing it with their slender numbers in the fighting lines.

In the business world the situation was even worse. Here the Jews had actually become
'indispensable'. Like leeches, they were slowly sucking the blood from the pores of the
national body. By means of newly floated War Companies an instrument had been
discovered whereby all national trade was throttled so that no business could be carried
on freely

Special emphasis was laid on the necessity for unhampered centralization. Hence as
early as 1916-17 practically all production was under the control of Jewish finance.

But against whom was the anger of the people directed? It was then that I already saw
the fateful day approaching which must finally bring the DEBACLE, unless timely
preventive measures were taken.

While Jewry was busy despoiling the nation and tightening the screws of its despotism,
the work of inciting the people against the Prussians increased. And just as nothing was

done at the front to put a stop to the venomous propaganda, so here at home no official
steps were taken against it. Nobody seemed capable of understanding that the collapse
of Prussia could never bring about the rise of Bavaria. On the contrary, the collapse of
the one must necessarily drag the other down with it.

This kind of behaviour affected me very deeply. In it I could see only a clever Jewish
trick for diverting public attention from themselves to others. While Prussians and
Bavarians were squabbling, the Jews were taking away the sustenance of both from
under their very noses. While Prussians were being abused in Bavaria the Jews
organized the revolution and with one stroke smashed both Prussia and Bavaria.

I could not tolerate this execrable squabbling among people of the same German stock
and preferred to be at the front once again. Therefore, just after my arrival in Munich I
reported myself for service again. At the beginning of March 1917 I rejoined my old
regiment at the front.

Towards the end of 1917 it seemed as if we had got over the worst phases of moral
depression at the front. After the Russian collapse the whole army recovered its courage
and hope, and all were gradually becoming more and more convinced that the struggle
would end in our favour. We could sing once again. The ravens were ceasing to croak.
Faith in the future of the Fatherland was once more in the ascendant.

The Italian collapse in the autumn of 1917 had a wonderful effect; for this victory
proved that it was possible to break through another front besides the Russian. This
inspiring thought now became dominant in the minds of millions at the front and
encouraged them to look forward with confidence to the spring of 1918. It was quite
obvious that the enemy was in a state of depression. During this winter the front was
somewhat quieter than usual. But that was the calm before the storm.

Just when preparations were being made to launch a final offensive which would bring
this seemingly eternal struggle to an end, while endless columns of transports were
bringing men and munitions to the front, and while the men were being trained for that
final onslaught, then it was that the greatest act of treachery during the whole War was
accomplished in Germany.

Germany must not win the War. At that moment when victory seemed ready to alight
on the German standards, a conspiracy was arranged for the purpose of striking at the
heart of the German spring offensive with one blow from the rear and thus making
victory impossible. A general strike in the munition factories was organized.

If this conspiracy could achieve its purpose the German front would have collapsed and
the wishes of the VORWÄRTS (the organ of the Social-Democratic Party) that this time
victory should not take the side of the German banners, would have been fulfilled. For

want of munitions the front would be broken through within a few weeks, the offensive
would be effectively stopped and the Entente saved. Then International Finance would
assume control over Germany and the internal objective of the Marxist national betrayal
would be achieved. That objective was the destruction of the national economic system
and the establishment of international capitalistic domination in its stead. And this goal
has really been reached, thanks to the stupid credulity of the one side and the
unspeakable treachery of the other.

The munition strike, however, did not bring the final success that had been hoped for:
namely, to starve the front of ammunition. It lasted too short a time for the lack of
ammunitions as such to bring disaster to the army, as was originally planned. But the
moral damage was much more terrible.

In the first place. what was the army fighting for if the people at home did not wish it to
be victorious? For whom then were these enormous sacrifices and privations being
made and endured? Must the soldiers fight for victory while the home front goes on
strike against it?

In the second place, what effect did this move have on the enemy?

In the winter of 1917-18 dark clouds hovered in the firmament of the Entente. For nearly
four years onslaught after onslaught has been made against the German giant, but they
failed to bring him to the ground. He had to keep them at bay with one arm that held
the defensive shield because his other arm had to be free to wield the sword against his
enemies, now in the East and now in the South. But at last these enemies were
overcome and his rear was now free for the conflict in the West. Rivers of blood had
been shed for the accomplishment of that task; but now the sword was free to combine
in battle with the shield on the Western Front. And since the enemy had hitherto failed
to break the German defence here, the Germans themselves had now to launch the
attack. The enemy feared and trembled before the prospect of this German victory.

At Paris and London conferences followed one another in unending series. Even the
enemy propaganda encountered difficulties. It was no longer so easy to demonstrate
that the prospect of a German victory was hopeless. A prudent silence reigned at the
front, even among the troops of the Entente. The insolence of their masters had
suddenly subsided. A disturbing truth began to dawn on them. Their opinion of the
German soldier had changed. Hitherto they were able to picture him as a kind of fool
whose end would be destruction; but now they found themselves face to face with the
soldier who had overcome their Russian ally. The policy of restricting the offensive to
the East, which had been imposed on the German military authorities by the necessities
of the situation, now seemed to the Entente as a tactical stroke of genius. For three years
these Germans had been battering away at the Russian front without any apparent
success at first. Those fruitless efforts were almost sneered at; for it was thought that in

the long run the Russian giant would triumph through sheer force of numbers.
Germany would be worn out through shedding so much blood. And facts appeared to
confirm this hope.

Since the September days of 1914, when for the first time interminable columns of
Russian war prisoners poured into Germany after the Battle of Tannenberg, it seemed
as if the stream would never end but that as soon as one army was defeated and routed
another would take its place. The supply of soldiers which the gigantic Empire placed
at the disposal of the Czar seemed inexhaustible; new victims were always at hand for
the holocaust of war. How long could Germany hold out in this competition? Would
not the day finally have to come when, after the last victory which the Germans would
achieve, there would still remain reserve armies in Russia to be mustered for the final
battle? And what then? According to human standards a Russian victory over Germany
might be delayed but it would have to come in the long run.

All the hopes that had been based on Russia were now lost. The Ally who had sacrificed
the most blood on the altar of their mutual interests had come to the end of his
resources and lay prostrate before his unrelenting foe. A feeling of terror and dismay
came over the Entente soldiers who had hitherto been buoyed up by blind faith. They
feared the coming spring. For, seeing that hitherto they had failed to break the Germans
when the latter could concentrate only part of the fighting strength on the Western
Front, how could they count on victory now that the undivided forces of that amazing
land of heroes appeared to be gathered for a massed attack in the West?

The shadow of the events which had taken place in South Tyrol, the spectre of General
Cadorna's defeated armies, were reflected in the gloomy faces of the Entente troops in
Flanders. Faith in victory gave way to fear of defeat to come.

Then, on those cold nights, when one almost heard the tread of the German armies
advancing to the great assault, and the decision was being awaited in fear and
trembling, suddenly a lurid light was set aglow in Germany and sent its rays into the
last shell-hole on the enemy's front. At the very moment when the German divisions
were receiving their final orders for the great offensive a general strike broke out in

At first the world was dumbfounded. Then the enemy propaganda began activities
once again and pounced on this theme at the eleventh hour. All of a sudden a means
had come which could be utilized to revive the sinking confidence of the Entente
soldiers. The probabilities of victory could now be presented as certain, and the anxious
foreboding in regard to coming events could now be transformed into a feeling of
resolute assurance. The regiments that had to bear the brunt of the Greatest German
onslaught in history could now be inspired with the conviction that the final decision in
this war would not be won by the audacity of the German assault but rather by the

powers of endurance on the side of the defence. Let the Germans now have whatever
victories they liked, the revolution and not the victorious army was welcomed in the

British, French and American newspapers began to spread this belief among their
readers while a very ably managed propaganda encouraged the morale of their troops
at the front.

'Germany Facing Revolution! An Allied Victory Inevitable!' That was the best medicine
to set the staggering Poilu and Tommy on their feet once again. Our rifles and machine-
guns could now open fire once again; but instead of effecting a panic-stricken retreat
they were now met with a determined resistance that was full of confidence.

That was the result of the strike in the munitions factories. Throughout the enemy
countries faith in victory was thus revived and strengthened, and that paralysing
feeling of despair which had hitherto made itself felt on the Entente front was banished.
Consequently the strike cost the lives of thousands of German soldiers. But the
despicable instigators of that dastardly strike were candidates for the highest public
positions in the Germany of the Revolution.

At first it was apparently possible to overcome the repercussion of these events on the
German soldiers, but on the enemy's side they had a lasting effect. Here the resistance
had lost all the character of an army fighting for a lost cause. In its place there was now
a grim determination to struggle through to victory. For, according to all human rules
of judgment, victory would now be assured if the Western front could hold out against
the German offensive even for only a few months. The Allied parliaments recognized
the possibilities of a better future and voted huge sums of money for the continuation of
the propaganda which was employed for the purpose of breaking up the internal
cohesion of Germany.

It was my luck that I was able to take part in the first two offensives and in the final
offensive. These have left on me the most stupendous impressions of my life--
stupendous, because now for the last time the struggle lost its defensive character and
assumed the character of an offensive, just as it was in 1914. A sigh of relief went up
from the German trenches and dug-outs when finally, after three years of endurance in
that inferno, the day for the settling of accounts had come. Once again the lusty
cheering of victorious battalions was heard, as they hung the last crowns of the
immortal laurel on the standards which they consecrated to Victory. Once again the
strains of patriotic songs soared upwards to the heavens above the endless columns of
marching troops, and for the last time the Lord smiled on his ungrateful children.

In the midsummer of 1918 a feeling of sultry oppression hung over the front. At home
they were quarrelling. About what? We heard a great deal among various units at the

front. The War was now a hopeless affair, and only the foolhardy could think of victory.
It was not the people but the capitalists and the Monarchy who were interested in
carrying on. Such were the ideas that came from home and were discussed at the front.

At first this gave rise to only very slight reaction. What did universal suffrage matter to
us? Is this what we had been fighting for during four years? It was a dastardly piece of
robbery thus to filch from the graves of our heroes the ideals for which they had fallen.
It was not to the slogan, 'Long Live Universal Suffrage,' that our troops in Flanders once
faced certain death but with the cry, 'DEUTSCHLAND ÜBER ALLES IN DER WELT'. A
small but by no means an unimportant difference. And the majority of those who were
shouting for this suffrage were absent when it came to fighting for it. All this political
rabble were strangers to us at the front. During those days only a fraction of these
parliamentarian gentry were to be seen where honest Germans foregathered.

The old soldiers who had fought at the front had little liking for those new war aims of
Messrs. Ebert, Scheidemann, Barth, Liebknecht and others. We could not understand
why, all of a sudden, the shirkers should abrogate all executive powers to themselves,
without having any regard to the army.

From the very beginning I had my own definite personal views. I intensely loathed the
whole gang of miserable party politicians who had betrayed the people. I had long ago
realized that the interests of the nation played only a very small part with this
disreputable crew and that what counted with them was the possibility of filling their
own empty pockets. My opinion was that those people thoroughly deserved to be
hanged, because they were ready to sacrifice the peace and if necessary allow Germany
to be defeated just to serve their own ends. To consider their wishes would mean to
sacrifice the interests of the working classes for the benefit of a gang of thieves. To meet
their wishes meant that one should agree to sacrifice Germany.

Such, too, was the opinion still held by the majority of the army. But the reinforcements
which came from home were fast becoming worse and worse; so much so that their
arrival was a source of weakness rather than of strength to our fighting forces. The
young recruits in particular were for the most part useless. Sometimes it was hard to
believe that they were sons of the same nation that sent its youth into the battles that
were fought round Ypres.

In August and September the symptoms of moral disintegration increased more and
more rapidly, although the enemy's offensive was not at all comparable to the
frightfulness of our own former defensive battles. In comparison with this offensive the
battles fought on the Somme and in Flanders remained in our memories as the most
terrible of all horrors.

At the end of September my division occupied, for the third time, those positions which
we had once taken by storm as young volunteers. What a memory!

Here we had received our baptism of fire, in October and November 1914. With a
burning love of the homeland in their hearts and a song on their lips, our young
regiment went into action as if going to a dance. The dearest blood was given freely
here in the belief that it was shed to protect the freedom and independence of the

In July 1917 we set foot for the second time on what we regarded as sacred soil. Were
not our best comrades at rest here, some of them little more than boys--the soldiers who
had rushed into death for their country's sake, their eyes glowing with enthusiastic

The older ones among us, who had been with the regiment from the beginning, were
deeply moved as we stood on this sacred spot where we had sworn 'Loyalty and Duty
unto Death'. Three years ago the regiment had taken this position by storm; now it was
called upon to defend it in a gruelling struggle.

With an artillery bombardment that lasted three weeks the English prepared for their
great offensive in Flanders. There the spirits of the dead seemed to live again. The
regiment dug itself into the mud, clung to its shell-holes and craters, neither flinching
nor wavering, but growing smaller in numbers day after day. Finally the British
launched their attack on July 31st, 1917.

We were relieved in the beginning of August. The regiment had dwindled down to a
few companies, who staggered back, mud-crusted, more like phantoms than human
beings. Besides a few hundred yards of shell-holes, death was the only reward which
the English gained.

Now in the autumn of 1918 we stood for the third time on the ground we had stormed
in 1914. The village of Comines, which formerly had served us as a base, was now
within the fighting zone. Although little had changed in the surrounding district itself,
yet the men had become different, somehow or other. They now talked politics. Like
everywhere else, the poison from home was having its effect here also. The young
drafts succumbed to it completely. They had come directly from home.

During the night of October 13th-14th, the British opened an attack with gas on the
front south of Ypres. They used the yellow gas whose effect was unknown to us, at least
from personal experience. I was destined to experience it that very night. On a hill south
of Werwick, in the evening of October 13th, we were subjected for several hours to a
heavy bombardment with gas bombs, which continued throughout the night with more
or less intensity. About midnight a number of us were put out of action, some for ever.

Towards morning I also began to feel pain. It increased with every quarter of an hour;
and about seven o'clock my eyes were scorching as I staggered back and delivered the
last dispatch I was destined to carry in this war. A few hours later my eyes were like
glowing coals and all was darkness around me.

I was sent into hospital at Pasewalk in Pomerania, and there it was that I had to hear of
the Revolution.

For a long time there had been something in the air which was indefinable and
repulsive. People were saying that something was bound to happen within the next few
weeks, although I could not imagine what this meant. In the first instance I thought of a
strike similar to the one which had taken place in spring. Unfavourable rumours were
constantly coming from the Navy, which was said to be in a state of ferment. But this
seemed to be a fanciful creation of a few isolated young people. It is true that at the
hospital they were all talking abut the end of the war and hoping that this was not far
off, but nobody thought that the decision would come immediately. I was not able to
read the newspapers.

In November the general tension increased. Then one day disaster broke in upon us
suddenly and without warning. Sailors came in motor-lorries and called on us to rise in
revolt. A few Jew-boys were the leaders in that combat for the 'Liberty, Beauty, and
Dignity' of our National Being. Not one of them had seen active service at the front.
Through the medium of a hospital for venereal diseases these three Orientals had been
sent back home. Now their red rags were being hoisted here.

During the last few days I had begun to feel somewhat better. The burning pain in the
eye-sockets had become less severe. Gradually I was able to distinguish the general
outlines of my immediate surroundings. And it was permissible to hope that at least I
would recover my sight sufficiently to be able to take up some profession later on. That
I would ever be able to draw or design once again was naturally out of the question.
Thus I was on the way to recovery when the frightful hour came.

My first thought was that this outbreak of high treason was only a local affair. I tried to
enforce this belief among my comrades. My Bavarian hospital mates, in particular, were
readily responsive. Their inclinations were anything but revolutionary. I could not
imagine this madness breaking out in Munich; for it seemed to me that loyalty to the
House of Wittelsbach was, after all, stronger than the will of a few Jews. And so I could
not help believing that this was merely a revolt in the Navy and that it would be
suppressed within the next few days.

With the next few days came the most astounding information of my life. The rumours
grew more and more persistent. I was told that what I had considered to be a local affair

was in reality a general revolution. In addition to this, from the front came the shameful
news that they wished to capitulate! What! Was such a thing possible?

On November 10th the local pastor visited the hospital for the purpose of delivering a
short address. And that was how we came to know the whole story.

I was in a fever of excitement as I listened to the address. The reverend old gentleman
seemed to be trembling when he informed us that the House of Hohen-zollern should
no longer wear the Imperial Crown, that the Fatherland had become a 'Republic', that
we should pray to the Almighty not to withhold His blessing from the new order of
things and not to abandon our people in the days to come. In delivering this message he
could not do more than briefly express appreciation of the Royal House, its services to
Pomerania, to Prussia, indeed, to the whole of the German Fatherland, and--here he
began to weep. A feeling of profound dismay fell on the people in that assembly, and I
do not think there was a single eye that withheld its tears. As for myself, I broke down
completely when the old gentleman tried to resume his story by informing us that we
must now end this long war, because the war was lost, he said, and we were at the
mercy of the victor. The Fatherland would have to bear heavy burdens in the future. We
were to accept the terms of the Armistice and trust to the magnanimity of our former
enemies. It was impossible for me to stay and listen any longer. Darkness surrounded
me as I staggered and stumbled back to my ward and buried my aching head between
the blankets and pillow.

I had not cried since the day that I stood beside my mother's grave. Whenever Fate dealt
cruelly with me in my young days the spirit of determination within me grew stronger
and stronger. During all those long years of war, when Death claimed many a true
friend and comrade from our ranks, to me it would have appeared sinful to have
uttered a word of complaint. Did they not die for Germany? And, finally, almost in the
last few days of that titanic struggle, when the waves of poison gas enveloped me and
began to penetrate my eyes, the thought of becoming permanently blind unnerved me;
but the voice of conscience cried out immediately: Poor miserable fellow, will you start
howling when there are thousands of others whose lot is a hundred times worse than
yours? And so I accepted my misfortune in silence, realizing that this was the only thing
to be done and that personal suffering was nothing when compared with the
misfortune of one's country.

So all had been in vain. In vain all the sacrifices and privations, in vain the hunger and
thirst for endless months, in vain those hours that we stuck to our posts though the fear
of death gripped our souls, and in vain the deaths of two millions who fell in
discharging this duty. Think of those hundreds of thousands who set out with hearts
full of faith in their fatherland, and never returned; ought not their graves to open, so
that the spirits of those heroes bespattered with mud and blood should come home and
take vengeance on those who had so despicably betrayed the greatest sacrifice which a

human being can make for his country? Was it for this that the soldiers died in August
and September 1914, for this that the volunteer regiments followed the old comrades in
the autumn of the same year? Was it for this that those boys of seventeen years of age
were mingled with the earth of Flanders? Was this meant to be the fruits of the sacrifice
which German mothers made for their Fatherland when, with heavy hearts, they said
good-bye to their sons who never returned? Has all this been done in order to enable a
gang of despicable criminals to lay hands on the Fatherland?

Was this then what the German soldier struggled for through sweltering heat and
blinding snowstorm, enduring hunger and thirst and cold, fatigued from sleepless
nights and endless marches? Was it for this that he lived through an inferno of artillery
bombardments, lay gasping and choking during gas attacks, neither flinching nor
faltering, but remaining staunch to the thought of defending the Fatherland against the
enemy? Certainly these heroes also deserved the epitaph:

Traveller, when you come to Germany, tell the Homeland that we lie here, true to the
Fatherland and faithful to our duty. (Note 13) [Note 13. Here again we have the
defenders of Thermopylae recalled as the prototype of German valour in the Great War.
Hitler's quotation is a German variant of the couplet inscribed on the monument erected
at Thermopylae to the memory of Leonidas and his Spartan soldiers who fell defending
the Pass. As given by Herodotus, who claims that he saw the inscription himself, the
original text may be literally translated thus:

Go, tell the Spartans, thou who passeth by, That here, obedient to their laws, we lie.]

And at Home? But--was this the only sacrifice that we had to consider? Was the
Germany of the past a country of little worth? Did she not owe a certain duty to her
own history? Were we still worthy to partake in the glory of the past? How could we
justify this act to future generations?

What a gang of despicable and depraved criminals!

The more I tried then to glean some definite information of the terrible events that had
happened the more my head became afire with rage and shame. What was all the pain I
suffered in my eyes compared with this tragedy?

The following days were terrible to bear, and the nights still worse. To depend on the
mercy of the enemy was a precept which only fools or criminal liars could recommend.
During those nights my hatred increased--hatred for the orignators of this dastardly

During the following days my own fate became clear to me. I was forced now to scoff at
the thought of my personal future, which hitherto had been the cause of so much worry

to me. Was it not ludicrous to think of building up anything on such a foundation?
Finally, it also became clear to me that it was the inevitable that had happened,
something which I had feared for a long time, though I really did not have the heart to
believe it.

Emperor William II was the first German Emperor to offer the hand of friendship to the
Marxist leaders, not suspecting that they were scoundrels without any sense of honour.
While they held the imperial hand in theirs, the other hand was already feeling for the

There is no such thing as coming to an understanding with the Jews. It must be the
hard-and-fast 'Either-Or.'

For my part I then decided that I would take up political work.

Chapter 8

The Beginning Of My Political Activities

TOWARDS THE end of November I returned to Munich. I went to the depot of my
regiment, which was now in the hands of the 'Soldiers' Councils'. As the whole
administration was quite repulsive to me, I decided to leave it as soon as I possibly
could. With my faithful war-comrade, Ernst-Schmidt, I came to Traunstein and
remained there until the camp was broken up. In March 1919 we were back again in

The situation there could not last as it was. It tended irresistibly to a further extension of
the Revolution. Eisner's death served only to hasten this development and finally led to
the dictatorship of the Councils--or, to put it more correctly, to a Jewish hegemony,
which turned out to be transitory but which was the original aim of those who had
contrived the Revolution.

At that juncture innumerable plans took shape in my mind. I spent whole days
pondering on the problem of what could be done, but unfortunately every project had
to give way before the hard fact that I was quite unknown and therefore did not have
even the first pre-requisite necessary for effective action. Later on I shall explain the
reasons why I could not decide to join any of the parties then in existence.

As the new Soviet Revolution began to run its course in Munich my first activities drew
upon me the ill-will of the Central Council. In the early morning of April 27th, 1919, I
was to have been arrested; but the three fellows who came to arrest me did not have the
courage to face my rifle and withdrew just as they had arrived.

A few days after the liberation of Munich I was ordered to appear before the Inquiry
Commission which had been set up in the 2nd Infantry Regiment for the purpose of
watching revolutionary activities. That was my first incursion into the more or less
political field.

After another few weeks I received orders to attend a course of lectures which were
being given to members of the army. This course was meant to inculcate certain
fundamental principles on which the soldier could base his political ideas. For me the
advantage of this organization was that it gave me a chance of meeting fellow soldiers

who were of the same way of thinking and with whom I could discuss the actual
situation. We were all more or less firmly convinced that Germany could not be saved
from imminent disaster by those who had participated in the November treachery--that
is to say, the Centre and the Social-Democrats; and also that the so-called Bourgeois-
National group could not make good the damage that had been done, even if they had
the best intentions. They lacked a number of requisites without which such a task could
never be successfully undertaken. The years that followed have justified the opinions
which we held at that time.

In our small circle we discussed the project of forming a new party. The leading ideas
which we then proposed were the same as those which were carried into effect
afterwards, when the German Labour Party was founded. The name of the new
movement which was to be founded should be such that of itself, it would appeal to the
mass of the people; for all our efforts would turn out vain and useless if this condition
were lacking. And that was the reason why we chose the name 'Social-Revolutionary
Party', particularly because the social principles of our new organization were indeed

But there was also a more fundamental reason. The attention which I had given to
economic problems during my earlier years was more or less confined to considerations
arising directly out of the social problem. Subsequently this outlook broadened as I
came to study the German policy of the Triple Alliance. This policy was very largely the
result of an erroneous valuation of the economic situation, together with a confused
notion as to the basis on which the future subsistence of the German people could be
guaranteed. All these ideas were based on the principle that capital is exclusively the
product of labour and that, just like labour, it was subject to all the factors which can
hinder or promote human activity. Hence, from the national standpoint, the significance
of capital depended on the greatness and freedom and power of the State, that is to say,
of the nation, and that it is this dependence alone which leads capital to promote the
interests of the State and the nation, from the instinct of self-preservation and for the
sake of its own development.

On such principles the attitude of the State towards capital would be comparatively
simple and clear. Its only object would be to make sure that capital remained
subservient to the State and did not allocate to itself the right to dominate national
interests. Thus it could confine its activities within the two following limits: on the one
side, to assure a vital and independent system of national economy and, on the other, to
safeguard the social rights of the workers.

Previously I did not recognize with adequate clearness the difference between capital
which is purely the product of creative labour and the existence and nature of capital
which is exclusively the result of financial speculation. Here I needed an impulse to set
my mind thinking in this direction; but that impulse had hitherto been lacking.

The requisite impulse now came from one of the men who delivered lectures in the
course I have already mentioned. This was Gottfried Feder.

For the first time in my life I heard a discussion which dealt with the principles of stock-
exchange capital and capital which was used for loan activities. After hearing the first
lecture delivered by Feder, the idea immediately came into my head that I had now
found a way to one of the most essential pre-requisites for the founding of a new party.

To my mind, Feder's merit consisted in the ruthless and trenchant way in which he
described the double character of the capital engaged in stock-exchange and loan
transaction, laying bare the fact that this capital is ever and always dependent on the
payment of interest. In fundamental questions his statements were so full of common
sense that those who criticized him did not deny that AU FOND his ideas were sound
but they doubted whether it be possible to put these ideas into practice. To me this
seemed the strongest point in Feder's teaching, though others considered it a weak

It is not the business of him who lays down a theoretical programme to explain the
various ways in which something can be put into practice. His task is to deal with the
problem as such; and, therefore, he has to look to the end rather than the means. The
important question is whether an idea is fundamentally right or not. The question of
whether or not it may be difficult to carry it out in practice is quite another matter.
When a man whose task it is to lay down the principles of a programme or policy
begins to busy himself with the question as to whether it is expedient and practical,
instead of confining himself to the statement of the absolute truth, his work will cease to
be a guiding star to those who are looking about for light and leading and will become
merely a recipe for every-day iife. The man who lays down the programme of a
movement must consider only the goal. It is for the political leader to point out the way
in which that goal may be reached. The thought of the former will, therefore, be
determined by those truths that are everlasting, whereas the activity of the latter must
always be guided by taking practical account of the circumstances under which those
truths have to be carried into effect.

The greatness of the one will depend on the absolute truth of his idea, considered in the
abstract; whereas that of the other will depend on whether or not he correctly judges the
given realities and how they may be utilized under the guidance of the truths
established by the former. The test of greatness as applied to a political leader is the
success of his plans and his enterprises, which means his ability to reach the goal for
which he sets out; whereas the final goal set up by the political philosopher can never
be reached; for human thought may grasp truths and picture ends which it sees like
clear crystal, though such ends can never be completely fulfilled because human nature
is weak and imperfect. The more an idea is correct in the abstract, and, therefore, all the

more powerful, the smaller is the possibility of putting it into practice, at least as far as
this latter depends on human beings. The significance of a political philosopher does
not depend on the practical success of the plans he lays down but rather on their
absolute truth and the influence they exert on the progress of mankind. If it were
otherwise, the founders of religions could not be considered as the greatest men who
have ever lived, because their moral aims will never be completely or even
approximately carried out in practice. Even that religion which is called the Religion of
Love is really no more than a faint reflex of the will of its sublime Founder. But its
significance lies in the orientation which it endeavoured to give to human civilization,
and human virtue and morals.

This very wide difference between the functions of a political philosopher and a
practical political leader is the reason why the qualifications necessary for both
functions are scarcely ever found associated in the same person. This applies especially
to the so-called successful politician of the smaller kind, whose activity is indeed hardly
more than practising the art of doing the possible, as Bismarck modestly defined the art
of politics in general. If such a politician resolutely avoids great ideas his success will be
all the easier to attain; it will be attained more expeditely and frequently will be more
tangible. By reason of this very fact, however, such success is doomed to futility and
sometimes does not even survive the death of its author. Generally speaking, the work
of politicians is without significance for the following generation, because their
temporary success was based on the expediency of avoiding all really great decisive
problems and ideas which would be valid also for future generations.

To pursue ideals which will still be of value and significance for the future is generally
not a very profitable undertaking and he who follows such a course is only very rarely
understood by the mass of the people, who find beer and milk a more persuasive index
of political values than far-sighted plans for the future, the realization of which can only
take place later on and the advantages of which can be reaped only by posterity.

Because of a certain vanity, which is always one of the blood-relations of unintelligence,
the general run of politicians will always eschew those schemes for the future which are
really difficult to put into practice; and they will practise this avoidance so that they
may not lose the immediate favour of the mob. The importance and the success of such
politicians belong exclusively to the present and will be of no consequence for the
future. But that does not worry small-minded people; they are quite content with
momentary results.

The position of the constructive political philosopher is quite different. The importance
of his work must always be judged from the standpoint of the future; and he is
frequently described by the word WELTFREMD, or dreamer. While the ability of the
politician consists in mastering the art of the possible, the founder of a political system
belongs to those who are said to please the gods only because they wish for and

demand the impossible. They will always have to renounce contemporary fame; but if
their ideas be immortal, posterity will grant them its acknowledgment.

Within long spans of human progress it may occasionally happen that the practical
politician and political philosopher are one. The more intimate this union is, the greater
will be the obstacles which the activity of the politician will have to encounter. Such a
man does not labour for the purpose of satisfying demands that are obvious to every
philistine, but he reaches out towards ends which can be understood only by the few.
His life is torn asunder by hatred and love. The protest of his contemporaries, who do
not understand the man, is in conflict with the recognition of posterity, for whom he
also works.

For the greater the work which a man does for the future, the less will he be appreciated
by his contemporaries. His struggle will accordingly be all the more severe, and his
success all the rarer. When, in the course of centuries, such a man appears who is
blessed with success then, towards the end of his days, he may have a faint prevision of
his future fame. But such great men are only the Marathon runners of history. The
laurels of contemporary fame are only for the brow of the dying hero.

The great protagonists are those who fight for their ideas and ideals despite the fact that
they receive no recognition at the hands of their contemporaries. They are the men
whose memories will be enshrined in the hearts of the future generations. It seems then
as if each individual felt it his duty to make retroactive atonement for the wrong which
great men have suffered at the hands of their contemporaries. Their lives and their work
are then studied with touching and grateful admiration. Especially in dark days of
distress, such men have the power of healing broken hearts and elevating the
despairing spirit of a people.

To this group belong not only the genuinely great statesmen but all the great reformers
as well. Beside Frederick the Great we have such men as Martin Luther and Richard

When I heard Gottfried Feder's first lecture on 'The Abolition of the Interest-Servitude',
I understood immediately that here was a truth of transcendental importance for the
future of the German people. The absolute separation of stock-exchange capital from
the economic life of the nation would make it possible to oppose the process of
internationalization in German business without at the same time attacking capital as
such, for to do this would jeopardize the foundations of our national independence. I
clearly saw what was developing in Germany and I realized then that the stiffest fight
we would have to wage would not be against the enemy nations but against
international capital. In Feder's speech I found an effective rallying-cry for our coming

Here, again, later events proved how correct was the impression we then had. The fools
among our bourgeois politicians do not mock at us on this point any more; for even
those politicians now see--if they would speak the truth--that international stock-
exchange capital was not only the chief instigating factor in bringing on the War but
that now when the War is over it turns the peace into a hell.

The struggle against international finance capital and loan-capital has become one of the
most important points in the programme on which the German nation has based its
fight for economic freedom and independence.

Regarding the objections raised by so-called practical people, the following answer
must suffice: All apprehensions concerning the fearful economic consequences that
would follow the abolition of the servitude that results from interest-capital are ill-
timed; for, in the first place, the economic principles hitherto followed have proved
quite fatal to the interests of the German people. The attitude adopted when the
question of maintaining our national existence arose vividly recalls similar advice once
given by experts--the Bavarian Medical College, for example--on the question of
introducing railroads. The fears expressed by that august body of experts were not
realized. Those who travelled in the coaches of the new 'Steam-horse' did not suffer
from vertigo. Those who looked on did not become ill and the hoardings which had
been erected to conceal the new invention were eventually taken down. Only those
blinds which obscure the vision of the would-be 'experts', have remained. And that will
be always so.

In the second place, the following must be borne in mind: Any idea may be a source of
danger if it be looked upon as an end in itself, when really it is only the means to an
end. For me and for all genuine National-Socialists there is only one doctrine. PEOPLE

What we have to fight for is the necessary security for the existence and increase of our
race and people, the subsistence of its children and the maintenance of our racial stock
unmixed, the freedom and independence of the Fatherland; so that our people may be
enabled to fulfil the mission assigned to it by the Creator.

All ideas and ideals, all teaching and all knowledge, must serve these ends. It is from
this standpoint that everything must be examined and turned to practical uses or else
discarded. Thus a theory can never become a mere dead dogma since everything will
have to serve the practical ends of everyday life.

Thus the judgment arrived at by Gottfried Feder determined me to make a fundamental
study of a question with which I had hitherto not been very familiar.

I began to study again and thus it was that I first came to understand perfectly what
was the substance and purpose of the life-work of the Jew, Karl Marx. His CAPITAL
became intelligible to me now for the first time. And in the light of it I now exactly
understood the fight of the Social-Democrats against national economics, a fight which
was to prepare the ground for the hegemony of a real international and stock-exchange

In another direction also this course of lectures had important consequences for me.

One day I put my name down as wishing to take part in the discussion. Another of the
participants thought that he would break a lance for the Jews and entered into a lengthy
defence of them. This aroused my opposition. An overwhelming number of those who
attended the lecture course supported my views. The consequence of it all was that, a
few days later, I was assigned to a regiment then stationed at Munich and given a
position there as 'instruction officer'.

At that time the spirit of discipline was rather weak among those troops. It was still
suffering from the after-effects of the period when the Soldiers' Councils were in
control. Only gradually and carefully could a new spirit of military discipline and
obedience be introduced in place of 'voluntary obedience', a term which had been used
to express the ideal of military discipline under Kurt Eisner's higgledy-piggledy regime.
The soldiers had to be taught to think and feel in a national and patriotic way. In these
two directions lay my future line of action.

I took up my work with the greatest delight and devotion. Here I was presented with an
opportunity of speaking before quite a large audience. I was now able to confirm what I
had hitherto merely felt, namely, that I had a talent for public speaking. My voice had
become so much better that I could be well understood, at least in all parts of the small
hall where the soldiers assembled.

No task could have been more pleasing to me than this one; for now, before being
demobilized, I was in a position to render useful service to an institution which had
been infinitely dear to my heart: namely, the army.

I am able to state that my talks were successful. During the course of my lectures I have
led back hundreds and even thousands of my fellow countrymen to their people and
their fatherland. I 'nationalized' these troops and by so doing I helped to restore general

Here again I made the acquaintance of several comrades whose thought ran along the
same lines as my own and who later became members of the first group out of which
the new movement developed.

Chapter 9

The German Labour Party

ONE DAY I received an order from my superiors to investigate the nature of an
association which was apparently political. It called itself 'The German Labour Party'
and was soon to hold a meeting at which Gottfried Feder would speak. I was ordered to
attend this meeting and report on the situation.

The spirit of curiosity in which the army authorities then regarded political parties can
be very well understood. The Revolution had granted the soldiers the right to take an
active part in politics and it was particularly those with the smallest experience who
had availed themselves of this right. But not until the Centre and the Social-Democratic
parties were reluctantly forced to recognize that the sympathies of the soldiers had
turned away from the revolutionary parties towards the national movement and the
national reawakening, did they feel obliged to withdraw from the army the right to vote
and to forbid it all political activity.

The fact that the Centre and Marxism had adopted this policy was instructive, because
if they had not thus curtailed the 'rights of the citizen'--as they described the political
rights of the soldiers after the Revolution--the government which had been established
in November 1918 would have been overthrown within a few years and the dishonour
and disgrace of the nation would not have been further prolonged. At that time the
soldiers were on the point of taking the best way to rid the nation of the vampires and
valets who served the cause of the Entente in the interior of the country. But the fact
that the so-called 'national' parties voted enthusiastically for the doctrinaire policy of
the criminals who organized the Revolution in November (1918) helped also to render
the army ineffective as an instrument of national restoration and thus showed once
again where men might be led by the purely abstract notions accepted by these most
gullible people.

The minds of the bourgeois middle classes had become so fossilized that they sincerely
believed the army could once again become what it had previously been, namely, a
rampart of German valour; while the Centre Party and the Marxists intended only to
extract the poisonous tooth of nationalism, without which an army must always remain
just a police force but can never be in the position of a military organization capable of

fighting against the outside enemy. This truth was sufficiently proved by subsequent

Or did our 'national' politicians believe, after all, that the development of our army
could be other than national? This belief might be possible and could be explained by
the fact that during the War they were not soldiers but merely talkers. In other words,
they were parliamentarians, and, as such, they did not have the slightest idea of what
was passing in the hearts of those men who remembered the greatness of their own past
and also remembered that they had once been the first soldiers in the world.

I decided to attend the meeting of this Party, which had hitherto been entirely unknown
to me. When I arrived that evening in the guest room of the former Sternecker Brewery-
-which has now become a place of historical significance for us--I found approximately
20-25 persons present, most of them belonging to the lower classes.

The theme of Feder's lecture was already familiar to me; for I had heard it in the lecture
course I have spoken of. Therefore, I could concentrate my attention on studying the
society itself.

The impression it made upon me was neither good nor bad. I felt that here was just
another one of these many new societies which were being formed at that time. In those
days everybody felt called upon to found a new Party whenever he felt displeased with
the course of events and had lost confidence in all the parties already existing. Thus it
was that new associations sprouted up all round, to disappear just as quickly, without
exercising any effect or making any noise whatsoever. Generally speaking, the founders
of such associations did not have the slightest idea of what it means to bring together a
number of people for the foundations of a party or a movement. Therefore these
associations disappeared because of their woeful lack of anything like an adequate
grasp of the necessities of the situation.

My opinion of the 'German Labour Party' was not very different after I had listened to
their proceedings for about two hours. I was glad when Feder finally came to a close. I
had observed enough and was just about to leave when it was announced that anybody
who wished was free to open a discussion. Thereupon, I decided to remain. But the
discussion seemed to proceed without anything of vital importance being mentioned,
when suddenly a 'professor' commenced to speak. He opened by throwing doubt on the
accuracy of what Feder had said, and then. after Feder had replied very effectively, the
professor suddenly took up his position on what he called 'the basis of facts,' but before
this he recommended the young party most urgently to introduce the secession of
Bavaria from Prussia as one of the leading proposals in its programme. In the most self-
assured way, this man kept on insisting that German-Austria would join Bavaria and
that the peace would then function much better. He made other similarly extravagant
statements. At this juncture I felt bound to ask for permission to speak and to tell the

learned gentleman what I thought. The result was that the honourable gentleman who
had last spoken slipped out of his place, like a whipped cur, without uttering a sound.
While I was speaking the audience listened with an expression of surprise on their
faces. When I was just about to say good-night to the assembly and to leave, a man
came after me quickly and introduced himself. I did not grasp the name correctly; but
he placed a little book in my hand, which was obviously a political pamphlet, and
asked me very earnestly to read it.

I was quite pleased; because in this way, I could come to know about this association
without having to attend its tiresome meetings. Moreover, this man, who had the
appearance of a workman, made a good impression on me. Thereupon, I left the hall.

At that time I was living in one of the barracks of the 2nd Infantry Regiment. I had a
little room which still bore the unmistakable traces of the Revolution. During the day I
was mostly out, at the quarters of Light Infantry No. 41 or else attending meetings or
lectures, held at some other branch of the army. I spent only the night at the quarters
where I lodged. Since I usually woke up about five o'clock every morning I got into the
habit of amusing myself with watching little mice which played around in my small
room. I used to place a few pieces of hard bread or crust on the floor and watch the
funny little beasts playing around and enjoying themselves with these delicacies. I had
suffered so many privations in my own life that I well knew what hunger was and
could only too well picture to myself the pleasure these little creatures were

So on the morning after the meeting I have mentioned, it happened that about five
o'clock I lay fully awake in bed, watching the mice playing and vying with each other.
As I was not able to go to sleep again, I suddenly remembered the pamphlet that one of
the workers had given me at the meeting. It was a small pamphlet of which this worker
was the author. In his little book he described how his mind had thrown off the shackles
of the Marxist and trades-union phraseology, and that he had come back to the
nationalist ideals. That was the reason why he had entitled his little book: "My Political
Awakening". The pamphlet secured my attention the moment I began to read, and I
read it with interest to the end. The process here described was similar to that which I
had experienced in my own case ten years previously. Unconsciously my own
experiences began to stir again in my mind. During that day my thoughts returned
several times to what I had read; but I finally decided to give the matter no further
attention. A week or so later, however, I received a postcard which informed me, to my
astonishment, that I had been admitted into the German Labour Party. I was asked to
answer this communication and to attend a meeting of the Party Committee on
Wednesday next.

This manner of getting members rather amazed me, and I did not know whether to be
angry or laugh at it. Hitherto I had not any idea of entering a party already in existence

but wanted to found one of my own. Such an invitation as I now had received I looked
upon as entirely out of the question for me.

I was about to send a written reply when my curiosity got the better of me, and I
decided to attend the gathering at the date assigned, so that I might expound my
principles to these gentlemen in person.

Wednesday came. The tavern in which the meeting was to take place was the 'Alte
Rosenbad' in the Herrnstrasse, into which apparently only an occasional guest
wandered. This was not very surprising in the year 1919, when the bills of fare even at
the larger restaurants were only very modest and scanty in their pretensions and thus
not very attractive to clients. But I had never before heard of this restaurant.

I went through the badly-lighted guest-room, where not a single guest was to be seen,
and searched for the door which led to the side room; and there I was face-to-face with
the 'Congress'. Under the dim light shed by a grimy gas-lamp I could see four young
people sitting around a table, one of them the author of the pamphlet. He greeted me
cordially and welcomed me as a new member of the German Labour Party.

I was taken somewhat aback on being informed that actually the National President of
the Party had not yet come; so I decided that I would keep back my own exposition for
the time being. Finally the President appeared. He was the man who had been chairman
of the meeting held in the Sternecker Brewery, when Feder spoke.

My curiosity was stimulated anew and I sat waiting for what was going to happen.
Now I got at least as far as learning the names of the gentlemen who had been parties to
the whole affair. The REICH National President of the Association was a certain Herr
Harrer and the President for the Munich district was Anton Drexler.

The minutes of the previous meeting were read out and a vote of confidence in the
secretary was passed. Then came the treasurer's report. The Society possessed a total
fund of seven marks and fifty pfennigs (a sum corresponding to 7s. 6d. in English
money at par), whereupon the treasurer was assured that he had the confidence of the
members. This was now inserted in the minutes. Then letters of reply which had been
written by the Chairman were read; first, to a letter received from Kiel, then to one from
Düsseldorf and finally to one from Berlin. All three replies received the approval of all
present. Then the incoming letters were read--one from Berlin, one from Düsseldorf and
one from Kiel. The reception of these letters seemed to cause great satisfaction. This
increasing bulk of correspondence was taken as the best and most obvious sign of the
growing importance of the German Labour Party. And then? Well, there followed a
long discussion of the replies which would be given to these newly-received letters.

It was all very awful. This was the worst kind of parish-pump clubbism. And was I
supposed to become a member of such a club?

The question of new members was next discussed--that is to say, the question of
catching myself in the trap.

I now began to ask questions. But I found that, apart from a few general principles,
there was nothing--no programme, no pamphlet, nothing at all in print, no card of
membership, not even a party stamp, nothing but obvious good faith and good

I no longer felt inclined to laugh; for what else was all this but a typical sign of the most
complete perplexity and deepest despair in regard to all political parties, their
programmes and views and activities? The feeling which had induced those few young
people to join in what seemed such a ridiculous enterprise was nothing but the call of
the inner voice which told them--though more intuitively than consciously--that the
whole party system as it had hitherto existed was not the kind of force that could
restore the German nation or repair the damages that had been done to the German
people by those who hitherto controlled the internal affairs of the nation. I quickly read
through the list of principles that formed the platform of the party. These principles
were stated on typewritten sheets. Here again I found evidence of the spirit of longing
and searching, but no sign whatever of a knowledge of the conflict that had to be
fought. I myself had experienced the feelings which inspired those people. It was the
longing for a movement which should be more than a party, in the hitherto accepted
meaning of that word.

When I returned to my room in the barracks that evening I had formed a definite
opinion on this association and I was facing the most difficult problem of my life.
Should I join this party or refuse?

From the side of the intellect alone, every consideration urged me to refuse; but my
feelings troubled me. The more I tried to prove to myself how senseless this club was,
on the whole, the more did my feelings incline me to favour it. During the following
days I was restless.

I began to consider all the pros and cons. I had long ago decided to take an active part
in politics. The fact that I could do so only through a new movement was quite clear to
me; but I had hitherto lacked the impulse to take concrete action. I am not one of those
people who will begin something to-day and just give it up the next day for the sake of
something new. That was the main reason which made it so difficult for me to decide in
joining something newly founded; for this must become the real fulfilment of
everything I dreamt, or else it had better not be started at all. I knew that such a
decision should bind me for ever and that there could be no turning back. For me there

could be no idle dallying but only a cause to be championed ardently. I had already an
instinctive feeling against people who took up everything, but never carried anything
through to the end. I loathed these Jacks-of-all-Trades, and considered the activities of
such people to be worse than if they were to remain entirely quiescent.

Fate herself now seemed to supply the finger-post that pointed out the way. I should
never have entered one of the big parties already in existence and shall explain my
reasons for this later on. This ludicrous little formation, with its handful of members,
seemed to have the unique advantage of not yet being fossilized into an 'organization'
and still offered a chance for real personal activity on the part of the individual. Here it
might still be possible to do some effective work; and, as the movement was still small,
one could all the easier give it the required shape. Here it was still possible to determine
the character of the movement, the aims to be achieved and the road to be taken, which
would have been impossible in the case of the big parties already existing.

The longer I reflected on the problem, the more my opinion developed that just such a
small movement would best serve as an instrument to prepare the way for the national
resurgence, but that this could never be done by the political parliamentary parties
which were too firmly attached to obsolete ideas or had an interest in supporting the
new regime. What had to be proclaimed here was a new WELTANSCHAUUNG and
not a new election cry.

It was, however, infinitely difficult to decide on putting the intention into practice.
What were the qualifications which I could bring to the accomplishment of such a task?

The fact that I was poor and without resources could, in my opinion, be the easiest to
bear. But the fact that I was utterly unknown raised a more difficult problem. I was only
one of the millions which Chance allows to exist or cease to exist, whom even their next-
door neighbours will not consent to know. Another difficulty arose from the fact that I
had not gone through the regular school curriculum.

The so-called 'intellectuals' still look down with infinite superciliousness on anyone
who has not been through the prescribed schools and allowed them to pump the
necessary knowledge into him. The question of what a man can do is never asked but
rather, what has he learned? 'Educated' people look upon any imbecile who is plastered
with a number of academic certificates as superior to the ablest young fellow who lacks
these precious documents. I could therefore easily imagine how this 'educated' world
would receive me and I was wrong only in so far as I then believed men to be for the
most part better than they proved to be in the cold light of reality. Because of their being
as they are, the few exceptions stand out all the more conspicuously. I learned more and
more to distinguish between those who will always be at school and those who will one
day come to know something in reality.

After two days of careful brooding and reflection I became convinced that I must take
the contemplated step.

It was the most fateful decision of my life. No retreat was possible.

Thus I declared myself ready to accept the membership tendered me by the German
Labour Party and received a provisional certificate of membership. I was numbered

Chapter 10

Why The Second Reich Collapsed

THE DEPTH of a fall is always measured by the difference between the level of the
original position from which a body has fallen and that in which it is now found. The
same holds good for Nations and States. The matter of greatest importance here is the
height of the original level, or rather the greatest height that had been attained before
the descent began.

For only the profound decline or collapse of that which was capable of reaching
extraordinary heights can make a striking impression on the eye of the beholder. The
collapse of the Second REICH was all the more bewildering for those who could ponder
over it and feel the effect of it in their hearts, because the REICH had fallen from a
height which can hardly be imagined in these days of misery and humiliation.

The Second REICH was founded in circumstances of such dazzling splendour that the
whole nation had become entranced and exalted by it. Following an unparalleled series
of victories, that Empire was handed over as the guerdon of immortal heroism to the
children and grandchildren of the heroes. Whether they were fully conscious of it or not
does not matter; anyhow, the Germans felt that this Empire had not been brought into
existence by a series of able political negotiations through parliamentary channels, but
that it was different from political institutions founded elsewhere by reason of the
nobler circumstances that had accompanied its establishment. When its foundations
were laid the accompanying music was not the chatter of parliamentary debates but the
thunder and boom of war along the battle front that encircled Paris. It was thus that an
act of statesmanship was accomplished whereby the Germans, princes as well as
people, established the future REICH and restored the symbol of the Imperial Crown.
Bismarck's State was not founded on treason and assassination by deserters and
shirkers but by the regiments that had fought at the front. This unique birth and
baptism of fire sufficed of themselves to surround the Second Empire with an aureole of
historical splendour such as few of the older States could lay claim to.

And what an ascension then began! A position of independence in regard to the outside
world guaranteed the means of livelihood at home. The nation increased in numbers
and in worldly wealth. The honour of the State and therewith the honour of the people

as a whole were secured and protected by an army which was the most striking witness
of the difference between this new REICH and the old German Confederation.

But the downfall of the Second Empire and the German people has been so profound
that they all seem to have been struck dumbfounded and rendered incapable of feeling
the significance of this downfall or reflecting on it. It seems as if people were utterly
unable to picture in their minds the heights to which the Empire formerly attained, so
visionary and unreal appears the greatness and splendour of those days in contrast to
the misery of the present. Bearing this in mind we can understand why and how people
become so dazed when they try to look back to the sublime past that they forget to look
for the symptoms of the great collapse which must certainly have been present in some
form or other. Naturally this applies only to those for whom Germany was more than
merely a place of abode and a source of livelihood. These are the only people who have
been able to feel the present conditions as really catastrophic, whereas others have
considered these conditions as the fulfilment of what they had looked forward to and
hitherto silently wished.

The symptoms of future collapse were definitely to be perceived in those earlier days,
although very few made any attempt to draw a practical lesson from their significance.
But this is now a greater necessity than it ever was before. For just as bodily ailments
can be cured only when their origin has been diagnosed, so also political disease can be
treated only when it has been diagnosed. It is obvious of course that the external
symptoms of any disease can be more readily detected than its internal causes, for these
symptoms strike the eye more easily. This is also the reason why so many people
recognize only external effects and mistake them for causes. Indeed they will sometimes
try to deny the existence of such causes. And that is why the majority of people among
us recognize the German collapse only in the prevailing economic distress and the
results that have followed therefrom. Almost everyone has to carry his share of this
burden, and that is why each one looks on the economic catastrophe as the cause of the
present deplorable state of affairs. The broad masses of the people see little of the
cultural, political, and moral background of this collapse. Many of them completely lack
both the necessary feeling and powers of understanding for it.

That the masses of the people should thus estimate the causes of Germany's downfall is
quite understandable. But the fact that intelligent sections of the community regard the
German collapse primarily as an economic catastrophe, and consequently think that a
cure for it may be found in an economic solution, seems to me to be the reason why
hitherto no improvement has been brought about. No improvement can be brought
about until it be understood that economics play only a second or third role, while the
main part is played by political, moral and racial factors. Only when this is understood
will it be possible to understand the causes of the present evil and consequently to find
the ways and means of remedying them.

Therefore the question of why Germany really collapsed is one of the most urgent
significance, especially for a political movement which aims at overcoming this disaster.

In scrutinizing the past with a view to discovering the causes of the German break-up, it
is necessary to be careful lest we may be unduly impressed by external results that
readily strike the eye and thus ignore the less manifest causes of these results.

The most facile, and therefore the most generally accepted, way of accounting for the
present misfortune is to say that it is the result of a lost war, and that this is the real
cause of the present misfortune. Probably there are many who honestly believe in this
absurd explanation but there are many more in whose mouths it is a deliberate and
conscious falsehood. This applies to all those who are now feeding at the Government
troughs. For the prophets of the Revolution again and again declared to the people that
it would be immaterial to the great masses what the result of the War might be. On the
contrary, they solemnly assured the public that it was High Finance which was
principally interested in a victorious outcome of this gigantic struggle among the
nations but that the German people and the German workers had no interest
whatsoever in such an outcome. Indeed the apostles of world conciliation habitually
asserted that, far from any German downfall, the opposite was bound to take place--
namely, the resurgence of the German people--once 'militarism' had been crushed. Did
not these self-same circles sing the praises of the Entente and did they not also lay the
whole blame for the sanguinary struggle on the shoulders of Germany? Without this
explanation, would they have been able to put forward the theory that a military defeat
would have no political consequences for the German people? Was not the whole
Revolution dressed up in gala colours as blocking the victorious advance of the German
banners and that thus the German people would be assured its liberty both at home and

Is not that so, you miserable, lying rascals?

That kind of impudence which is typical of the Jews was necessary in order to proclaim
the defeat of the army as the cause of the German collapse. Indeed the Berlin
VORWÄRTS, that organ and mouthpiece of sedition then wrote on this occasion that
the German nation should not be permitted to bring home its banners triumphantly.

And yet they attribute our collapse to the military defeat.

Of course it would be out of the question to enter into an argument with these liars who
deny at one moment what they said the moment before. I should waste no further
words on them were it not for the fact that there are many thoughtless people who
repeat all this in parrot fashion, without being necessarily inspired by any evil motives.
But the observations I am making here are also meant for our fighting followers, seeing
that nowadays one's spoken words are often forgotten and twisted in their meaning.

The assertion that the loss of the War was the cause of the German collapse can best be
answered as follows:

It is admittedly a fact that the loss of the War was of tragic importance for the future of
our country. But that loss was not in itself a cause. It was rather the consequence of
other causes. That a disastrous ending to this life-or-death conflict must have involved
catastrophes in its train was clearly seen by everyone of insight who could think in a
straightforward manner. But unfortunately there were also people whose powers of
understanding seemed to fail them at that critical moment. And there were other people
who had first questioned that truth and then altogether denied it. And there were
people who, after their secret desire had been fulfilled, were suddenly faced with the
subsequent facts that resulted from their own collaboration. Such people are responsible
for the collapse, and not the lost war, though they now want to attribute everything to
this. As a matter of fact the loss of the War was a result of their activities and not the
result of bad leadership as they now would like to maintain. Our enemies were not
cowards. They also know how to die. From the very first day of the War they
outnumbered the German Army, and the arsenals and armament factories of the whole
world were at their disposal for the replenishment of military equipment. Indeed it is
universally admitted that the German victories, which had been steadily won during
four years of warfare against the whole world, were due to superior leadership, apart of
course from the heroism of the troops. And the organization was solely due to the
German military leadership. That organization and leadership of the German Army
was the most mighty thing that the world has ever seen. Any shortcomings which
became evident were humanly unavoidable. The collapse of that army was not the
cause of our present distress. It was itself the consequence of other faults. But this
consequence in its turn ushered in a further collapse, which was more visible. That such
was actually the case can be shown as follows:

Must a military defeat necessarily lead to such a complete overthrow of the State and
Nation? Whenever has this been the result of an unlucky war? As a matter of fact, are
nations ever ruined by a lost war and by that alone? The answer to this question can be
briefly stated by referring to the fact that military defeats are the result of internal
decay, cowardice, want of character, and are a retribution for such things. If such were
not the causes then a military defeat would lead to a national resurgence and bring the
nation to a higher pitch of effort. A military defeat is not the tombstone of national life.
History affords innumerable examples to confirm the truth of that statement.

Unfortunately Germany's military overthrow was not an undeserved catastrophe, but a
well-merited punishment which was in the nature of an eternal retribution. This defeat
was more than deserved by us; for it represented the greatest external phenomenon of
decomposition among a series of internal phenomena, which, although they were

visible, were not recognized by the majority of the people, who follow the tactics of the
ostrich and see only what they want to see.

Let us examine the symptoms that were evident in Germany at the time that the
German people accepted this defeat. Is it not true that in several circles the misfortunes
of the Fatherland were even joyfully welcomed in the most shameful manner? Who
could act in such a way without thereby meriting vengeance for his attitude? Were
there not people who even went further and boasted that they had gone to the extent of
weakening the front and causing a collapse? Therefore it was not the enemy who
brought this disgrace upon our shoulders but rather our own countrymen. If they
suffered misfortune for it afterwards, was that misfortune undeserved? Was there ever
a case in history where a people declared itself guilty of a war, and that even against its
better conscience and its better knowledge?

No, and again no. In the manner in which the German nation reacted to its defeat we
can see that the real cause of our collapse must be looked for elsewhere and not in the
purely military loss of a few positions or the failure of an offensive. For if the front as
such had given way and thus brought about a national disaster, then the German nation
would have accepted the defeat in quite another spirit. They would have borne the
subsequent misfortune with clenched teeth, or they would have been overwhelmed by
sorrow. Regret and fury would have filled their hearts against an enemy into whose
hands victory had been given by a chance event or the decree of Fate; and in that case
the nation, following the example of the Roman Senate (Note 14), would have faced the
defeated legions on their return and expressed their thanks for the sacrifices that had
been made and would have requested them not to lose faith in the Empire. Even the
capitulation would have been signed under the sway of calm reason, while the heart
would have beaten in the hope of the coming REVANCHE.

That is the reception that would have been given to a military defeat which had to be
attributed only to the adverse decree of Fortune. There would have been neither joy-
making nor dancing. Cowardice would not have been boasted of, and the defeat would
not have been honoured. On returning from the Front, the troops would not have been
mocked at, and the colours would not have been dragged in the dust. But above all, that
disgraceful state of affairs could never have arisen which induced a British officer,
Colonel Repington, to declare with scorn: Every third German is a traitor! No, in such a
case this plague would never have assumed the proportions of a veritable flood which,
for the past five years, has smothered every vestige of respect for the German nation in
the outside world.

This shows only too clearly how false it is to say that the loss of the War was the cause
of the German break-up. No. The military defeat was itself but the consequence of a
whole series of morbid symptoms and their causes which had become active in the
German nation before the War broke out. The War was the first catastrophal

consequence, visible to all, of how traditions and national morale had been poisoned
and how the instinct of self-preservation had degenerated. These were the preliminary
causes which for many years had been undermining the foundations of the nation and
the Empire.

But it remained for the Jews, with their unqualified capacity for falsehood, and their
fighting comrades, the Marxists, to impute responsibility for the downfall precisely to
the man who alone had shown a superhuman will and energy in his effort to prevent
the catastrophe which he had foreseen and to save the nation from that hour of
complete overthrow and shame. By placing responsibility for the loss of the world war
on the shoulders of Ludendorff they took away the weapon of moral right from the
only adversary dangerous enough to be likely to succeed in bringing the betrayers of
the Fatherland to Justice. All this was inspired by the principle--which is quite true in
itself--that in the big lie there is always a certain force of credibility; because the broad
masses of a nation are always more easily corrupted in the deeper strata of their
emotional nature than consciously or voluntarily; and thus in the primitive simplicity of
their minds they more readily fall victims to the big lie than the small lie, since they
themselves often tell small lies in little matters but would be ashamed to resort to large-
scale falsehoods. It would never come into their heads to fabricate colossal untruths,
and they would not believe that others could have the impudence to distort the truth so
infamously. Even though the facts which prove this to be so may be brought clearly to
their minds, they will still doubt and waver and will continue to think that there may be
some other explanation. For the grossly impudent lie always leaves traces behind it,
even after it has been nailed down, a fact which is known to all expert liars in this world
and to all who conspire together in the art of lying. These people know only too well
how to use falsehood for the basest purposes.

From time immemorial. however, the Jews have known better than any others how
falsehood and calumny can be exploited. Is not their very existence founded on one
great lie, namely, that they are a religious community, whereas in reality they are a
race? And what a race! One of the greatest thinkers that mankind has produced has
branded the Jews for all time with a statement which is profoundly and exactly true. He
(Schopenhauer) called the Jew "The Great Master of Lies". Those who do not realize the
truth of that statement, or do not wish to believe it, will never be able to lend a hand in
helping Truth to prevail.

We may regard it as a great stroke of fortune for the German nation that its period of
lingering suffering was so suddenly curtailed and transformed into such a terrible
catastrophe. For if things had gone on as they were the nation would have more slowly,
but more surely, gone to ruin. The disease would have become chronic; whereas, in the
acute form of the disaster, it at least showed itself clearly to the eyes of a considerable
number of observers. It was not by accident that man conquered the black plague more
easily than he conquered tuberculosis. The first appeared in terrifying waves of death

that shook the whole of mankind, the other advances insidiously; the first induces
terror, the other gradual indifference. The result is, however, that men opposed the first
with all the energy they were capable of, whilst they try to arrest tuberculosis by feeble
means. Thus man has mastered the black plague, while tuberculosis still gets the better
of him.

The same applies to diseases in nations. So long as these diseases are not of a
catastrophic character, the population will slowly accustom itself to them and later
succumb. It is then a stroke of luck--although a bitter one--when Fate decides to
interfere in this slow process of decay and suddenly brings the victim face to face with
the final stage of the disease. More often than not the result of a catastrophe is that a
cure is at once undertaken and carried through with rigid determination.

But even in such a case the essential preliminary condition is always the recognition of
the internal causes which have given rise to the disease in question.

The important question here is the differentiation of the root causes from the
circumstances developing out of them. This becomes all the more difficult the longer the
germs of disease remain in the national body and the longer they are allowed to become
an integral part of that body. It may easily happen that, as time goes on, it will become
so difficult to recognize certain definite virulent poisons as such that they are accepted
as belonging to the national being; or they are merely tolerated as a necessary evil, so
that drastic attempts to locate those alien germs are not held to be necessary.

During the long period of peace prior to the last war certain evils were apparent here
and there although, with one or two exceptions, very little effort was made to discover
their origin. Here again these exceptions were first and foremost those phenomena in
the economic life of the nation which were more apparent to the individual than the evil
conditions existing in a good many other spheres.

There were many signs of decay which ought to have been given serious thought. As
far as economics were concerned, the following may be said:--

The amazing increase of population in Germany before the war brought the question of
providing daily bread into a more and more prominent position in all spheres of
political and economic thought and action. But unfortunately those responsible could
not make up their minds to arrive at the only correct solution and preferred to reach
their objective by cheaper methods. Repudiation of the idea of acquiring fresh territory
and the substitution for it of the mad desire for the commercial conquest of the world
was bound to lead eventually to unlimited and injurious industrialization.

The first and most fatal result brought about in this way was the weakening of the
agricultural classes, whose decline was proportionate to the increase in the proletariat
of the urban areas, until finally the equilibrium was completely upset.

The big barrier dividing rich and poor now became apparent. Luxury and poverty lived
so close to each other that the consequences were bound to be deplorable. Want and
frequent unemployment began to play havoc with the people and left discontent and
embitterment behind them. The result of this was to divide the population into political
classes. Discontent increased in spite of commercial prosperity. Matters finally reached
that stage which brought about the general conviction that 'things cannot go on as they
are', although no one seemed able to visualize what was really going to happen.

These were typical and visible signs of the depths which the prevailing discontent had
reached. Far worse than these, however, were other consequences which became
apparent as a result of the industrialization of the nation.

In proportion to the extent that commerce assumed definite control of the State, money
became more and more of a God whom all had to serve and bow down to. Heavenly
Gods became more and more old-fashioned and were laid away in the corners to make
room for the worship of mammon. And thus began a period of utter degeneration
which became specially pernicious because it set in at a time when the nation was more
than ever in need of an exalted idea, for a critical hour was threatening. Germany
should have been prepared to protect with the sword her efforts to win her own daily
bread in a peaceful way.

Unfortunately, the predominance of money received support and sanction in the very
quarter which ought to have been opposed to it. His Majesty, the Kaiser, made a
mistake when he raised representatives of the new finance capital to the ranks of the
nobility. Admittedly, it may be offered as an excuse that even Bismarck failed to realize
the threatening danger in this respect. In practice, however, all ideal virtues became
secondary considerations to those of money, for it was clear that having once taken this
road, the nobility of the sword would very soon rank second to that of finance.

Financial operations succeed easier than war operations. Hence it was no longer any
great attraction for a true hero or even a statesman to be brought into touch with the
nearest Jew banker. Real merit was not interested in receiving cheap decorations and
therefore declined them with thanks. But from the standpoint of good breeding such a
development was deeply regrettable. The nobility began to lose more and more of the
racial qualities that were a condition of its very existence, with the result that in many
cases the term 'plebeian' would have been more appropriate.

A serious state of economic disruption was being brought about by the slow elimination
of the personal control of vested interests and the gradual transference of the whole
economic structure into the hands of joint stock companies.

In this way labour became degraded into an object of speculation in the hands of
unscrupulous exploiters.

The de-personalization of property ownership increased on a vast scale. Financial
exchange circles began to triumph and made slow but sure progress in assuming
control of the whole of national life.

Before the War the internationalization of the German economic structure had already
begun by the roundabout way of share issues. It is true that a section of the German
industrialists made a determined attempt to avert the danger, but in the end they gave
way before the united attacks of money-grabbing capitalism, which was assisted in this
fight by its faithful henchmen in the Marxist movement.

The persistent war against German 'heavy industries' was the visible start of the
internationalization of German economic life as envisaged by the Marxists. This,
however, could only be brought to a successful conclusion by the victory which
Marxism was able to gain in the Revolution. As I write these words, success is attending
the general attack on the German State Railways which are now to be turned over to
international capitalists. Thus 'International Social-Democracy' has once again attained
one of its main objectives.

The best evidence of how far this 'commercialization' of the German nation was able to
go can be plainly seen in the fact that when the War was over one of the leading
captains of German industry and commerce gave it as his opinion that commerce as
such was the only force which could put Germany on its feet again.

This sort of nonsense was uttered just at the time when France was restoring public
education on a humanitarian basis, thus doing away with the idea that national life is
dependent on commerce rather than ideal values. The statement which Stinnes
broadcasted to the world at that time caused incredible confusion. It was immediately
taken up and has become the leading motto of all those humbugs and babblers--the
'statesmen' whom Fate let loose on Germany after the Revolution.

One of the worst evidences of decadence in Germany before the War was the ever
increasing habit of doing things by halves. This was one of the consequences of the
insecurity that was felt all round. And it is to be attributed also to a certain timidity
which resulted from one cause or another. And the latter malady was aggravated by the
educational system.

German education in pre-War times had an extraordinary number of weak features. It
was simply and exclusively limited to the production of pure knowledge and paid little
attention to the development of practical ability. Still less attention was given to the
development of individual character, in so far as this is ever possible. And hardly any
attention at all was paid to the development of a sense of responsibility, to
strengthening the will and the powers of decision. The result of this method was to
produce erudite people who had a passion for knowing everything. Before the War we
Germans were accepted and estimated accordingly. The German was liked because
good use could be made of him; but there was little esteem for him personally, on
account of this weakness of character. For those who can read its significance aright,
there is much instruction in the fact that among all nationalities Germans were the first
to part with their national citizenship when they found themselves in a foreign country.
And there is a world of meaning in the saying that was then prevalent: 'With the hat in
the hand one can go through the whole country'.

This kind of social etiquette turned out disastrous when it prescribed the exclusive
forms that had to be observed in the presence of His Majesty. These forms insisted that
there should be no contradiction whatsoever, but that everything should be praised
which His Majesty condescended to like.

It was just here that the frank expression of manly dignity, and not subservience, was
most needed. Servility in the presence of monarchs may be good enough for the
professional lackey and place-hunter, in fact for all those decadent beings who are more
pleased to be found moving in the high circles of royalty than among honest citizens.
These exceedingly 'humble' creatures however, though they grovel before their lord and
bread-giver, invariably put on airs of boundless superciliousness towards other mortals,
which was particularly impudent when they posed as the only people who had the
right to be called 'monarchists'. This was a gross piece of impertinence such as only
despicable specimens among the newly-ennobled or yet-to-be-ennobled could be
capable of.

And these have always been just the people who have prepared the way for the
downfall of monarchy and the monarchical principle. It could not be otherwise. For
when a man is prepared to stand up for a cause, come what may, he never grovels
before its representative. A man who is serious about the maintenance and welfare of
an institution will not allow himself to be discouraged when the representatives of that
institution show certain faults and failings. And he certainly will not run around to tell
the world about it, as certain false democratic 'friends' of the monarchy have done; but
he will approach His Majesty, the bearer of the Crown himself, to warn him of the
seriousness of a situation and persuade the monarch to act. Furthermore, he will not
take up the standpoint that it must be left to His Majesty to act as the latter thinks fit,
even though the course which he would take must plainly lead to disaster. But the man
I am thinking of will deem it his duty to protect the monarchy against the monarch

himself, no matter what personal risk he may run in doing so. If the worth of the
monarchical institution be dependent on the person of the monarch himself, then it
would be the worst institution imaginable; for only in rare cases are kings found to be
models of wisdom and understanding, and integrity of character, though we might like
to think otherwise. But this fact is unpalatable to the professional knaves and lackeys.
Yet all upright men, and they are the backbone of the nation, repudiate the nonsensical
fiction that all monarchs are wise, etc. For such men history is history and truth is truth,
even where monarchs are concerned. But if a nation should have the good luck to
possess a great king or a great man it ought to consider itself as specially favoured
above all the other nations, and these may be thankful if an adverse fortune has not
allotted the worst to them.

It is clear that the worth and significance of the monarchical principle cannot rest in the
person of the monarch alone, unless Heaven decrees that the crown should be set on the
head of a brilliant hero like Frederick the Great, or a sagacious person like William I.
This may happen once in several centuries, but hardly oftener than that. The ideal of the
monarchy takes precedence of the person of the monarch, inasmuch as the meaning of
the institution must lie in the institution it self. Thus the monarchy may be reckoned in
the category of those whose duty it is to serve. He, too, is but a wheel in this machine
and as such he is obliged to do his duty towards it. He has to adapt himself for the
fulfilment of high aims. If, therefore, there were no significance attached to the idea
itself and everything merely centred around the 'sacred' person, then it would never be
possible to depose a ruler who has shown himself to be an imbecile.

It is essential to insist upon this truth at the present time, because recently those
phenomena have appeared again and were in no small measure responsible for the
collapse of the monarchy. With a certain amount of native impudence these persons
once again talk about 'their King'--that is to say, the man whom they shamefully
deserted a few years ago at a most critical hour. Those who refrain from participating in
this chorus of lies are summarily classified as 'bad Germans'. They who make the
charge are the same class of quitters who ran away in 1918 and took to wearing red
badges. They thought that discretion was the better part of valour. They were
indifferent about what happened to the Kaiser. They camouflaged themselves as
'peaceful citizens' but more often than not they vanished altogether. All of a sudden
these champions of royalty were nowhere to be found at that time. Circumspectly, one
by one, these 'servants and counsellors' of the Crown reappeared, to resume their lip-
service to royalty but only after others had borne the brunt of the anti-royalist attack
and suppressed the Revolution for them. Once again they were all there. remembering
wistfully the flesh-pots of Egypt and almost bursting with devotion for the royal cause.
This went on until the day came when red badges were again in the ascendant. Then
this whole ramshackle assembly of royal worshippers scuttled anew like mice from the

If monarchs were not themselves responsible for such things one could not help
sympathizing with them. But they must realize that with such champions thrones can
be lost but certainly never gained.

All this devotion was a mistake and was the result of our whole system of education,
which in this case brought about a particularly severe retribution. Such lamentable
trumpery was kept up at the various courts that the monarchy was slowly becoming
under mined. When finally it did begin to totter, everything was swept away.
Naturally, grovellers and lick-spittles are never willing to die for their masters. That
monarchs never realize this, and almost on principle never really take the trouble to
learn it, has always been their undoing.

One visible result of wrong educational system was the fear of shouldering
responsibility and the resultant weakness in dealing with obvious vital problems of

The starting point of this epidemic, however, was in our parliamentary institution
where the shirking of responsibility is particularly fostered. Unfortunately the disease
slowly spread to all branches of everyday life but particularly affected the sphere of
public affairs. Responsibility was being shirked everywhere and this led to insufficient
or half-hearted measures being taken, personal responsibility for each act being reduced
to a minimum.

If we consider the attitude of various Governments towards a whole series of really
pernicious phenomena in public life, we shall at once recognize the fearful significance
of this policy of half-measures and the lack of courage to undertake responsibilities. I
shall single out only a few from the large numbers of instances known to me.

In journalistic circles it is a pleasing custom to speak of the Press as a 'Great Power'
within the State. As a matter of fact its importance is immense. One cannot easily
overestimate it, for the Press continues the work of education even in adult life.
Generally, readers of the Press can be classified into three groups:

First, those who believe everything they read;

Second, those who no longer believe anything;

Third, those who critically examine what they read and form their judgments

Numerically, the first group is by far the strongest, being composed of the broad masses
of the people. Intellectually, it forms the simplest portion of the nation. It cannot be
classified according to occupation but only into grades of intelligence. Under this

category come all those who have not been born to think for themselves or who have
not learnt to do so and who, partly through incompetence and partly through
ignorance, believe everything that is set before them in print. To these we must add that
type of lazy individual who, although capable of thinking for himself out of sheer
laziness gratefully absorbs everything that others had thought over, modestly believing
this to have been thoroughly done. The influence which the Press has on all these
people is therefore enormous; for after all they constitute the broad masses of a nation.
But, somehow they are not in a position or are not willing personally to sift what is
being served up to them; so that their whole attitude towards daily problems is almost
solely the result of extraneous influence. All this can be advantageous where public
enlightenment is of a serious and truthful character, but great harm is done when
scoundrels and liars take a hand at this work.

The second group is numerically smaller, being partly composed of those who were
formerly in the first group and after a series of bitter disappointments are now prepared
to believe nothing of what they see in print. They hate all newspapers. Either they do
not read them at all or they become exceptionally annoyed at their contents, which they
hold to be nothing but a congeries of lies and misstatements. These people are difficult
to handle; for they will always be sceptical of the truth. Consequently, they are useless
for any form of positive work.

The third group is easily the smallest, being composed of real intellectuals whom
natural aptitude and education have taught to think for themselves and who in all
things try to form their own judgments, while at the same time carefully sifting what
they read. They will not read any newspaper without using their own intelligence to
collaborate with that of the writer and naturally this does not set writers an easy task.
Journalists appreciate this type of reader only with a certain amount of reservation.

Hence the trash that newspapers are capable of serving up is of little danger--much less
of importance--to the members of the third group of readers. In the majority of cases
these readers have learnt to regard every journalist as fundamentally a rogue who
sometimes speaks the truth. Most unfortunately, the value of these readers lies in their
intelligence and not in their numerical strength, an unhappy state of affairs in a period
where wisdom counts for nothing and majorities for everything. Nowadays when the
voting papers of the masses are the deciding factor; the decision lies in the hands of the
numerically strongest group; that is to say the first group, the crowd of simpletons and
the credulous.

It is an all-important interest of the State and a national duty to prevent these people
from falling into the hands of false, ignorant or even evil-minded teachers. Therefore it
is the duty of the State to supervise their education and prevent every form of offence in
this respect. Particular attention should be paid to the Press; for its influence on these
people is by far the strongest and most penetrating of all; since its effect is not transitory

but continual. Its immense significance lies in the uniform and persistent repetition of
its teaching. Here, if anywhere, the State should never forget that all means should
converge towards the same end. It must not be led astray by the will-o'-the-wisp of so-
called 'freedom of the Press', or be talked into neglecting its duty, and withholding from
the nation that which is good and which does good. With ruthless determination the
State must keep control of this instrument of popular education and place it at the
service of the State and the Nation.

But what sort of pabulum was it that the German Press served up for the consumption
of its readers in pre-War days? Was it not the worst virulent poison imaginable? Was
not pacifism in its worst form inoculated into our people at a time when others were
preparing slowly but surely to pounce upon Germany? Did not this self-same Press of
ours in peace time already instil into the public mind a doubt as to the sovereign rights
of the State itself, thereby already handicapping the State in choosing its means of
defence? Was it not the German Press that under stood how to make all the nonsensical
talk about 'Western democracy' palatable to our people, until an exuberant public was
eventually prepared to entrust its future to the League of Nations? Was not this Press
instrumental in bringing in a state of moral degradation among our people? Were not
morals and public decency made to look ridiculous and classed as out-of-date and
banal, until finally our people also became modernized? By means of persistent attacks,
did not the Press keep on undermining the authority of the State, until one blow
sufficed to bring this institution tottering to the ground? Did not the Press oppose with
all its might every movement to give the State that which belongs to the State, and by
means of constant criticism, injure the reputation of the army, sabotage general
conscription and demand refusal of military credits, etc.--until the success of this
campaign was assured?

The function of the so-called liberal Press was to dig the grave for the German people
and REICH. No mention need be made of the lying Marxist Press. To them the
spreading of falsehood is as much a vital necessity as the mouse is to a cat. Their sole
task is to break the national backbone of the people, thus preparing the nation to
become the slaves of international finance and its masters, the Jews.

And what measures did the State take to counteract this wholesale poisoning of the
public mind? None, absolutely nothing at all. By this policy it was hoped to win the
favour of this pest--by means of flattery, by a recognition of the 'value' of the Press, its
'importance', its 'educative mission' and similar nonsense. The Jews acknowledged all
this with a knowing smile and returned thanks.

The reason for this ignominious failure on the part of the State lay not so much in its
refusal to realize the danger as in the out-and-out cowardly way of meeting the
situation by the adoption of faulty and ineffective measures. No one had the courage to
employ any energetic and radical methods. Everyone temporised in some way or other;

and instead of striking at its heart, the viper was only further irritated. The result was
that not only did everything remain as it was, but the power of this institution which
should have been combated grew greater from year to year.

The defence put up by the Government in those days against a mainly Jew-controlled
Press that was slowly corrupting the nation, followed no definite line of action, it had
no determination behind it and above all, no fixed objective whatsoever in view. This is
where official understanding of the situation completely failed both in estimating the
importance of the struggle, choosing the means and deciding on a definite plan. They
merely tinkered with the problem. Occasionally, when bitten, they imprisoned one or
another journalistic viper for a few weeks or months, but the whole poisonous brood
was allowed to carry on in peace.

It must be admitted that all this was partly the result of extraordinary crafty tactics on
the part of Jewry on the one hand, and obvious official stupidity or naïveté on the other
hand. The Jews were too clever to allow a simultaneous attack to be made on the whole
of their Press. No one section functioned as cover for the other. While the Marxist
newspaper, in the most despicable manner possible, reviled everything that was sacred,
furiously attacked the State and Government and incited certain classes of the
community against each other, the bourgeois-democratic papers, also in Jewish hands,
knew how to camouflage themselves as model examples of objectivity. They studiously
avoided harsh language, knowing well that block-heads are capable of judging only by
external appearances and never able to penetrate to the real depth and meaning of
anything. They measure the worth of an object by its exterior and not by its content.
This form of human frailty was carefully studied and understood by the Press.

For this class of blockheads the FRANKFURTER ZEITUNG would be acknowledged as
the essence of respectability. It always carefully avoided calling a spade a spade. It
deprecated the use of every form of physical force and persistently appealed to the
nobility of fighting with 'intellectual' weapons. But this fight, curiously enough, was
most popular with the least intellectual classes. That is one of the results of our
defective education, which turns the youth away from the instinctive dictates of Nature,
pumps into them a certain amount of knowledge without however being able to bring
them to what is the supreme act of knowing. To this end diligence and goodwill are of
no avail, if innate understanding fail. This final knowledge at which man must aim is
the understanding of causes which are instinctively perceived.

Let me explain: Man must not fall into the error of thinking that he was ever meant to
become lord and master of Nature. A lopsided education has helped to encourage that
illusion. Man must realize that a fundamental law of necessity reigns throughout the
whole realm of Nature and that his existence is subject to the law of eternal struggle and
strife. He will then feel that there cannot be a separate law for mankind in a world in
which planets and suns follow their orbits, where moons and planets trace their

destined paths, where the strong are always the masters of the weak and where those
subject to such laws must obey them or be destroyed. Man must also submit to the
eternal principles of this supreme wisdom. He may try to understand them but he can
never free himself from their sway.

It is just for intellectual DEMI-MONDE that the Jew writes those papers which he calls
his 'intellectual' Press. For them the FRANKFURTER ZEITUNG and BERLINER
TAGEBLATT are written, the tone being adapted to them, and it is over these people
that such papers have an influence. While studiously avoiding all forms of expression
that might strike the reader as crude, the poison is injected from other vials into the
hearts of the clientele. The effervescent tone and the fine phraseology lug the readers
into believing that a love for knowledge and moral principle is the sole driving force
that determines the policy of such papers, whereas in reality these features represent a
cunning way of disarming any opposition that might be directed against the Jews and
their Press.

They make such a parade of respectability that the imbecile readers are all the more
ready to believe that the excesses which other papers indulge in are only of a mild
nature and not such as to warrant legal action being taken against them. Indeed such
action might trespass on the freedom of the Press, that expression being a euphemism
under which such papers escape legal punishment for deceiving the public and
poisoning the public mind. Hence the authorities are very slow indeed to take any steps
against these journalistic bandits for fear of immediately alienating the sympathy of the
so-called respectable Press. A fear that is only too well founded, for the moment any
attempt is made to proceed against any member of the gutter press all the others rush to
its assistance at once, not indeed to support its policy but simply and solely to defend
the principle of freedom of the Press and liberty of public opinion. This outcry will
succeed in cowering the most stalwart; for it comes from the mouth of what is called
decent journalism.

And so this poison was allowed to enter the national bloodstream and infect public life
without the Government taking any effectual measures to master the course of the
disease. The ridiculous half-measures that were taken were in themselves an indication
of the process of disintegration that was already threatening to break up the Empire.
For an institution practically surrenders its existence when it is no longer determined to
defend itself with all the weapons at its command. Every half-measure is the outward
expression of an internal process of decay which must lead to an external collapse
sooner or later.

I believe that our present generation would easily master this danger if they were
rightly led. For this generation has gone through certain experiences which must have
strengthened the nerves of all those who did not become nervously broken by them.
Certainly in days to come the Jews will raise a tremendous cry throughout their

newspapers once a hand is laid on their favourite nest, once a move is made to put an
end to this scandalous Press and once this instrument which shapes public opinion is
brought under State control and no longer left in the hands of aliens and enemies of the
people. I am certain that this will be easier for us than it was for our fathers. The scream
of the twelve-inch shrapnel is more penetrating than the hiss from a thousand Jewish
newspaper vipers. Therefore let them go on with their hissing.

A further example of the weak and hesitating way in which vital national problems
were dealt with in pre-War Germany is the following: Hand in hand with the political
and moral process of infecting the nation, for many years an equally virulent process of
infection had been attacking the public health of the people. In large cities, particularly,
syphilis steadily increased and tuberculosis kept pace with it in reaping its harvest of
death almost in every part of the country.

Although in both cases the effect on the nation was alarming, it seemed as if nobody
was in a position to undertake any decisive measures against these scourges.

In the case of syphilis especially the attitude of the State and public bodies was one of
absolute capitulation. To combat this state of affairs something of far wider sweep
should have been undertaken than was really done. The discovery of a remedy which is
of a questionable nature and the excellent way in which it was placed on the market
were only of little assistance in fighting such a scourge. Here again the only course to
adopt is to attack the disease in its causes rather than in its symptoms. But in this case
the primary cause is to be found in the manner in which love has been prostituted. Even
though this did not directly bring about the fearful disease itself, the nation must still
suffer serious damage thereby, for the moral havoc resulting from this prostitution
would be sufficient to bring about the destruction of the nation, slowly but surely. This
Judaizing of our spiritual life and mammonizing of our natural instinct for procreation
will sooner or later work havoc with our whole posterity. For instead of strong, healthy
children, blessed with natural feelings, we shall see miserable specimens of humanity
resulting from economic calculation. For economic considerations are becoming more
and more the foundations of marriage and the sole preliminary condition of it. And
love looks for an outlet elsewhere.

Here, as elsewhere, one may defy Nature for a certain period of time; but sooner or later
she will take her inexorable revenge. And when man realizes this truth it is often too

Our own nobility furnishes an example of the devastating consequences that follow
from a persistent refusal to recognize the primary conditions necessary for normal
wedlock. Here we are openly brought face to face with the results of those reproductive
habits which on the one hand are determined by social pressure and, on the other, by
financial considerations. The one leads to inherited debility and the other to

adulteration of the blood-strain; for all the Jewish daughters of the department store
proprietors are looked upon as eligible mates to co-operate in propagating His
Lordship's stock. And the stock certainly looks it. All this leads to absolute
degeneration. Nowadays our bourgeoise are making efforts to follow in the same path,
They will come to the same journey's end.

These unpleasant truths are hastily and nonchalantly brushed aside, as if by so doing
the real state of affairs could also be abolished. But no. It cannot be denied that the
population of our great towns and cities is tending more and more to avail of
prostitution in the exercise of its amorous instincts and is thus becoming more and
more contaminated by the scourge of venereal disease. On the one hand, the visible
effects of this mass-infection can be observed in our insane asylums and, on the other
hand, alas! among the children at home. These are the doleful and tragic witnesses to
the steadily increasing scourge that is poisoning our sexual life. Their sufferings are the
visible results of parental vice.

There are many ways of becoming resigned to this unpleasant and terrible fact. Many
people go about seeing nothing or, to be more correct, not wanting to see anything. This
is by far the simplest and cheapest attitude to adopt. Others cover themselves in the
sacred mantle of prudery, as ridiculous as it is false. They describe the whole condition
of affairs as sinful and are profoundly indignant when brought face to face with a
victim. They close their eyes in reverend abhorrence to this godless scourge and pray to
the Almighty that He--if possible after their own death--may rain down fire and
brimstone as on Sodom and Gomorrah and so once again make an out standing
example of this shameless section of humanity. Finally, there are those who are well
aware of the terrible results which this scourge will and must bring about, but they
merely shrug their shoulders, fully convinced of their inability to undertake anything
against this peril. Hence matters are allowed to take their own course.

Undoubtedly all this is very convenient and simple, only it must not be overlooked that
this convenient way of approaching things can have fatal consequences for our national
life. The excuse that other nations are also not faring any better does not alter the fact of
our own deterioration, except that the feeling of sympathy for other stricken nations
makes our own suffering easier to bear. But the important question that arises here is:
Which nation will be the first to take the initiative in mastering this scourge, and which
nations will succumb to it? This will be the final upshot of the whole situation. The
present is a period of probation for racial values. The race that fails to come through the
test will simply die out and its place will be taken by the healthier and stronger races,
which will be able to endure greater hardships. As this problem primarily concerns
posterity, it belongs to that category of which it is said with terrible justification that the
sins of the fathers are visited on their offspring unto the tenth generation. This is a
consequence which follows on an infringement of the laws of blood and race.

The sin against blood and race is the hereditary sin in this world and it brings disaster
on every nation that commits it.

The attitude towards this one vital problem in pre-War Germany was most regrettable.
What measures were undertaken to arrest the infection of our youth in the large cities?
What was done to put an end to the contamination and mammonization of sexual life
among us? What was done to fight the resultant spreading of syphilis throughout the
whole of our national life? The reply to this question can best be illustrated by showing
what should have been done.

Instead of tackling this problem in a haphazard way, the authorities should have
realized that the fortunes or misfortunes of future generations depended on its solution.
But to admit this would have demanded that active measures be carried out in a
ruthless manner. The primary condition would have been that the enlightened attention
of the whole country should be concentrated on this terrible danger, so that every
individual would realize the importance of fighting against it. It would be futile to
impose obligations of a definite character--which are often difficult to bear--and expect
them to become generally effective, unless the public be thoroughly instructed on the
necessity of imposing and accepting such obligations. This demands a widespread and
systematic method of enlightenment and all other daily problems that might distract
public attention from this great central problem should be relegated to the background.

In every case where there are exigencies or tasks that seem impossible to deal with
successfully public opinion must be concentrated on the one problem, under the
conviction that the solution of this problem alone is a matter of life or death. Only in
this way can public interest be aroused to such a pitch as will urge people to combine in
a great voluntary effort and achieve important results.

This fundamental truth applies also to the individual, provided he is desirous of
attaining some great end. He must always concentrate his efforts to one definitely
limited stage of his progress which has to be completed before the next step be
attempted. Those who do not endeavour to realize their aims step by step and who do
not concentrate their energy in reaching the individual stages, will never attain the final
objective. At some stage or other they will falter and fail. This systematic way of
approaching an objective is an art in itself, and always calls for the expenditure of every
ounce of energy in order to conquer step after step of the road.

Therefore the most essential preliminary condition necessary for an attack on such a
difficult stage of the human road is that the authorities should succeed in convincing
the masses that the immediate objective which is now being fought for is the only one
that deserves to be considered and the only one on which everything depends. The
broad masses are never able clearly to see the whole stretch of the road lying in front of
them without becoming tired and thus losing faith in their ability to complete the task.

To a certain extent they will keep the objective in mind, but they are only able to survey
the whole road in small stages, as in the case of the traveller who knows where his
journey is going to end but who masters the endless stretch far better by attacking it in
degrees. Only in this way can he keep up his determination to reach the final objective.

It is in this way, with the assistance of every form of propaganda, that the problem of
fighting venereal disease should be placed before the public--not as a task for the nation
but as THE main task. Every possible means should be employed to bring the truth
about this scourge home to the minds of the people, until the whole nation has been
convinced that everything depends on the solution of this problem; that is to say, a
healthy future or national decay.

Only after such preparatory measures--if necessary spread over a period of many years-
-will public attention and public resolution be fully aroused, and only then can serious
and definite measures be undertaken without running the risk of not being fully
understood or of being suddenly faced with a slackening of the public will. It must be
made clear to all that a serious fight against this scourge calls for vast sacrifices and an
enormous amount of work.

To wage war against syphilis means fighting against prostitution, against prejudice,
against old-established customs, against current fashion, public opinion, and, last but
not least, against false prudery in certain circles.

The first preliminary condition to be fulfilled before the State can claim a moral right to
fight against all these things is that the young generation should be afforded facilities
for contracting early marriages. Late marriages have the sanction of a custom which,
from whatever angle we view it, is and will remain a disgrace to humanity.

Prostitution is a disgrace to humanity and cannot be removed simply by charitable or
academic methods. Its restriction and final extermination presupposes the removal of a
whole series of contributory circumstances. The first remedy must always be to
establish such conditions as will make early marriages possible, especially for young
men--for women are, after all, only passive subjects in this matter.

An illustration of the extent to which people have so often been led astray nowadays is
afforded by the fact that not infrequently one hears mothers in so-called 'better' circles
openly expressing their satisfaction at having found as a husband for their daughter a
man who has already sown his wild oats, etc. As there is usually so little shortage in
men of this type, the poor girl finds no difficulty in getting a mate of this description,
and the children of this marriage are a visible result of such supposedly sensible unions.

When one realizes, apart from this, that every possible effort is being made to hinder
the process of procreation and that Nature is being wilfully cheated of her rights, there

remains really only one question: Why is such an institution as marriage still in
existence, and what are its functions? Is it really nothing better than prostitution? Does
our duty to posterity no longer play any part? Or do people not realize the nature of the
curse they are inflicting on themselves and their offspring by such criminally foolish
neglect of one of the primary laws of Nature? This is how civilized nations degenerate
and gradually perish.

Marriage is not an end in itself but must serve the greater end, which is that of
increasing and maintaining the human species and the race. This is its only meaning
and purpose.

This being admitted, then it is clear that the institution of marriage must be judged by
the manner in which its allotted function is fulfilled. Therefore early marriages should
be the rule, because thus the young couple will still have that pristine force which is the
fountain head of a healthy posterity with unimpaired powers of resistance. Of course
early marriages cannot be made the rule unless a whole series of social measures are
first undertaken without which early marriages cannot be even thought of. In other
words, a solution of this question, which seems a small problem in itself, cannot be
brought about without adopting radical measures to alter the social background. The
importance of such measures ought to be studied and properly estimated, especially at
a time when the so-called 'social' Republic has shown itself unable to solve the housing
problem and thus has made it impossible for innumerable couples to get married. That
sort of policy prepares the way for the further advance of prostitution.

Another reason why early marriages are impossible is our nonsensical method of
regulating the scale of salaries, which pays far too little attention to the problem of
family support. Prostitution, therefore, can only be really seriously tackled if, by means
of a radical social reform, early marriage is made easier than hitherto. This is the first
preliminary necessity for the solution of this problem.

Secondly, a whole series of false notions must be eradicated from our system of
bringing up and educating children--things which hitherto no one seems to have
worried about. In our present educational system a balance will have to be established,
first and foremost, between mental instruction and physical training.

What is known as GYMNASIUM (Grammar School) to-day is a positive insult to the
Greek institution. Our system of education entirely loses sight of the fact that in the long
run a healthy mind can exist only in a healthy body. This statement, with few
exceptions, applies particularly to the broad masses of the nation.

In the pre-War Germany there was a time when no one took the trouble to think over
this truth. Training of the body was criminally neglected, the one-sided training of the
mind being regarded as a sufficient guarantee for the nation's greatness. This mistake

was destined to show its effects sooner than had been anticipated. It is not pure chance
that the Bolshevic teaching flourishes in those regions whose degenerate population has
been brought to the verge of starvation, as, for example, in the case of Central Germany,
Saxony, and the Ruhr Valley. In all these districts there is a marked absence of any
serious resistance, even by the so-called intellectual classes, against this Jewish
contagion. And the simple reason is that the intellectual classes are themselves
physically degenerate, not through privation but through education. The exclusive
intellectualism of the education in vogue among our upper classes makes them unfit for
life's struggle at an epoch in which physical force and not mind is the dominating
factor. Thus they are neither capable of maintaining themselves nor of making their
way in life. In nearly every case physical disability is the forerunner of personal

The extravagant emphasis laid on purely intellectual education and the consequent
neglect of physical training must necessarily lead to sexual thoughts in early youth.
Those boys whose constitutions have been trained and hardened by sports and
gymnastics are less prone to sexual indulgence than those stay-at-homes who have been
fed exclusively with mental pabulum. Sound methods of education cannot, however,
afford to disregard this, and we must not forget that the expectations of a healthy young
man from a woman will differ from those of a weakling who has been prematurely

Thus in every branch of our education the day's curriculum must be arranged so as to
occupy a boy's free time in profitable development of his physical powers. He has no
right in those years to loaf about, becoming a nuisance in public streets and in cinemas;
but when his day's work is done he ought to harden his young body so that his strength
may not be found wanting when the occasion arises. To prepare for this and to carry it
out should be the function of our educational system and not exclusively to pump in
knowledge or wisdom. Our school system must also rid itself of the notion that the
training of the body is a task that should be left to the individual himself. There is no
such thing as allowing freedom of choice to sin against posterity and thus against the

The fight against pollution of the mind must be waged simultaneously with the training
of the body. To-day the whole of our public life may be compared to a hot-house for the
forced growth of sexual notions and incitements. A glance at the bill-of-fare provided
by our cinemas, playhouses, and theatres suffices to prove that this is not the right food,
especially for our young people. Hoardings and advertisements kiosks combine to
attract the public in the most vulgar manner. Anyone who has not altogether lost
contact with adolescent yearnings will realize that all this must have very grave
consequences. This seductive and sensuous atmosphere puts notions into the heads of
our youth which, at their age, ought still to be unknown to them. Unfortunately, the
results of this kind of education can best be seen in our contemporary youth who are

prematurely grown up and therefore old before their time. The law courts from time to
time throw a distressing light on the spiritual life of our 14- and 15-year old children.
Who, therefore, will be surprised to learn that venereal disease claims its victims at this
age? And is it not a frightful shame to see the number of physically weak and
intellectually spoiled young men who have been introduced to the mysteries of
marriage by the whores of the big cities?

No; those who want seriously to combat prostitution must first of all assist in removing
the spiritual conditions on which it thrives. They will have to clean up the moral
pollution of our city 'culture' fearlessly and without regard for the outcry that will
follow. If we do not drag our youth out of the morass of their present environment they
will be engulfed by it. Those people who do not want to see these things are
deliberately encouraging them and are guilty of spreading the effects of prostitution to
the future--for the future belongs to our young generation. This process of cleansing our
'Kultur' will have to be applied in practically all spheres. The stage, art, literature, the
cinema, the Press and advertisement posters, all must have the stains of pollution
removed and be placed in the service of a national and cultural idea. The life of the
people must be freed from the asphyxiating perfume of our modern eroticism and also
from every unmanly and prudish form of insincerity. In all these things the aim and the
method must be determined by thoughtful consideration for the preservation of our
national well-being in body and soul. The right to personal freedom comes second in
importance to the duty of maintaining the race.

Only after such measures have been put into practice can a medical campaign against
this scourge begin with some hope of success. But, here again, half-measures will be
valueless. Far-reaching and important decisions will have to be made. It would be
doing things by halves if incurables were given the opportunity of infecting one healthy
person after another. This would be that kind of humanitarianism which would allow
hundreds to perish in order to save the suffering of one individual. The demand that it
should be made impossible for defective people to continue to propagate defective
offspring is a demand that is based on most reasonable grounds, and its proper
fulfilment is the most humane task that mankind has to face. Unhappy and undeserved
suffering in millions of cases will be spared, with the result that there will be a gradual
improvement in national health. A determined decision to act in this manner will at the
same time provide an obstacle against the further spread of venereal disease. It would
then be a case, where necessary, of mercilessly isolating all incurables--perhaps a
barbaric measure for those unfortunates--but a blessing for the present generation and
for posterity. The temporary pain thus experienced in this century can and will spare
future thousands of generations from suffering.

The fight against syphilis and its pace-maker, prostitution, is one of the gigantic tasks of
mankind; gigantic, because it is not merely a case of solving a single problem but the
removal of a whole series of evils which are the contributory causes of this scourge.

Disease of the body in this case is merely the result of a diseased condition of the moral,
social, and racial instincts.

But if for reasons of indolence or cowardice this fight is not fought to a finish we may
imagine what conditions will be like 500 years hence. Little of God's image will be left in
human nature, except to mock the Creator.

But what has been done in Germany to counteract this scourge? If we think calmly over
the answer we shall find it distressing. It is true that in governmental circles the terrible
and injurious effects of this disease were well known, but the counter-measures which
were officially adopted were ineffective and a hopeless failure. They tinkered with
cures for the symptoms, wholly regardless of the cause of the disease. Prostitutes were
medically examined and controlled as far as possible, and when signs of infection were
apparent they were sent to hospital. When outwardly cured, they were once more let
loose on humanity.

It is true that 'protective legislation' was introduced which made sexual intercourse a
punishable offence for all those not completely cured, or those suffering from venereal
disease. This legislation was correct in theory, but in practice it failed completely. In the
first place, in the majority of cases women will decline to appear in court as witnesses
against men who have robbed them of their health. Women would be exposed far more
than men to uncharitable remarks in such cases, and one can imagine what their
position would be if they had been infected by their own husbands. Should women in
that case lay a charge? Or what should they do?

In the case of the man there is the additional fact that he frequently is unfortunate
enough to run up against this danger when he is under the influence of alcohol. His
condition makes it impossible for him to assess the qualities of his 'amorous beauty,' a
fact which is well known to every diseased prostitute and makes them single out men in
this ideal condition for preference. The result is that the unfortunate man is not able to
recollect later on who his compassionate benefactress was, which is not surprising in
cities like Berlin and Munich. Many of such cases are visitors from the provinces who,
held speechless and enthralled by the magic charm of city life, become an easy prey for

In the final analysis who is able to say whether he has been infected or not?

Are there not innumerable cases on record where an apparently cured person has a
relapse and does untold harm without knowing it?

Therefore in practice the results of these legislative measures are negative. The same
applies to the control of prostitution, and, finally, even medical treatment and cure are
nowadays unsafe and doubtful. One thing only is certain. The scourge has spread

further and further in spite of all measures, and this alone suffices definitely to stamp
and substantiate their inefficiency.

Everything else that was undertaken was just as inefficient as it was absurd. The
spiritual prostitution of the people was neither arrested nor was anything whatsoever
undertaken in this direction.

Those, however, who do not regard this subject as a serious one would do well to
examine the statistical data of the spread of this disease, study its growth in the last
century and contemplate the possibilities of its further development. The ordinary
observer, unless he were particularly stupid, would experience a cold shudder if the
position were made clear to him.

The half-hearted and wavering attitude adopted in pre-War Germany towards this
iniquitous condition can assuredly be taken as a visible sign of national decay. When
the courage to fight for one's own health is no longer in evidence, then the right to live
in this world of struggle also ceases.

One of the visible signs of decay in the old REICH was the slow setback which the
general cultural level experienced. But by 'Kultur' I do not mean that which we
nowadays style as civilization, which on the contrary may rather be regarded as
inimical to the spiritual elevation of life.

At the turn of the last century a new element began to make its appearance in our
world. It was an element which had been hitherto absolutely unknown and foreign to
us. In former times there had certainly been offences against good taste; but these were
mostly departures from the orthodox canons of art, and posterity could recognize a
certain historical value in them. But the new products showed signs, not only of artistic
aberration but of spiritual degeneration. Here, in the cultural sphere, the signs of the
coming collapse first became manifest.

The Bolshevization of art is the only cultural form of life and the only spiritual
manifestation of which Bolshevism is capable.

Anyone to whom this statement may appear strange need only take a glance at those
lucky States which have become Bolshevized and, to his horror, he will there recognize
those morbid monstrosities which have been produced by insane and degenerate
people. All those artistic aberrations which are classified under the names of cubism
and dadism, since the opening of the present century, are manifestations of art which
have come to be officially recognized by the State itself. This phenomenon made its
appearance even during the short-lived period of the Soviet Republic in Bavaria. At that
time one might easily have recognized how all the official posters, propagandist

pictures and newspapers, etc., showed signs not only of political but also of cultural

About sixty years ago a political collapse such as we are experiencing to-day would
have been just as inconceivable as the cultural decline which has been manifested in
cubist and futurist pictures ever since 1900. Sixty years ago an exhibition of so-called
dadistic 'experiences' would have been an absolutely preposterous idea. The organizers
of such an exhibition would then have been certified for the lunatic asylum, whereas,
to-day they are appointed presidents of art societies. At that time such an epidemic
would never have been allowed to spread. Public opinion would not have tolerated it,
and the Government would not have remained silent; for it is the duty of a Government
to save its people from being stampeded into such intellectual madness. But intellectual
madness would have resulted from a development that followed the acceptance of this
kind of art. It would have marked one of the worst changes in human history; for it
would have meant that a retrogressive process had begun to take place in the human
brain, the final stages of which would be unthinkable.

If we study the course of our cultural life during the last twenty-five years we shall be
astonished to note how far we have already gone in this process of retrogression.
Everywhere we find the presence of those germs which give rise to protuberant
growths that must sooner or later bring about the ruin of our culture. Here we find
undoubted symptoms of slow corruption; and woe to the nations that are no longer able
to bring that morbid process to a halt.

In almost all the various fields of German art and culture those morbid phenomena may
be observed. Here everything seems to have passed the culminating point of its
excellence and to have entered the curve of a hasty decline. At the beginning of the
century the theatres seemed already degenerating and ceasing to be cultural factors,
except the Court theatres, which opposed this prostitution of the national art. With
these exceptions, and also a few other decent institutions, the plays produced on the
stage were of such a nature that the people would have benefited by not visiting them
at all. A sad symptom of decline was manifested by the fact that in the case of many 'art
centres' the sign was posted on the entrance doors: FOR ADULTS ONLY.

Let it be borne in mind that these precautions had to be taken in regard to institutions
whose main purpose should have been to promote the education of the youth and not
merely to provide amusement for sophisticated adults. What would the great
dramatists of other times have said of such measures and, above all, of the conditions
which made these measures necessary? How exasperated Schiller would have been,
and how Goethe would have turned away in disgust!

But what are Schiller, Goethe and Shakespeare when confronted with the heroes of our
modern German literature? Old and frowsy and outmoded and finished. For it was

typical of this epoch that not only were its own products bad but that the authors of
such products and their backers reviled everything that had really been great in the
past. This is a phenomenon that is very characteristic of such epochs. The more vile and
miserable are the men and products of an epoch, the more they will hate and denigrate
the ideal achievements of former generations. What these people would like best would
be completely to destroy every vestige of the past, in order to do away with that sole
standard of comparison which prevents their own daubs from being looked upon as art.
Therefore the more lamentable and wretched are the products of each new era, the
more it will try to obliterate all the memorials of the past. But any real innovation that is
for the benefit of mankind can always face comparison with the best of what has gone
before; and frequently it happens that those monuments of the past guarantee the
acceptance of those modern productions. There is no fear that modern productions of
real worth will look pale and worthless beside the monuments of the past. What is
contributed to the general treasury of human culture often fulfils a part that is necessary
in order to keep the memory of old achievements alive, because this memory alone is
the standard whereby our own works are properly appreciated. Only those who have
nothing of value to give to the world will oppose everything that already exists and
would have it destroyed at all costs.

And this holds good not only for new phenomena in the cultural domain but also in
politics. The more inferior new revolutionary movements are, the more will they try to
denigrate the old forms. Here again the desire to pawn off their shoddy products as
great and original achievements leads them into a blind hatred against everything
which belongs to the past and which is superior to their own work. As long as the
historical memory of Frederick the Great, for instance, still lives, Frederick Ebert can
arouse only a problematic admiration. The relation of the hero of Sans Souci to the
former republican of Bremen may be compared to that of the sun to the moon; for the
moon can shine only after the direct rays of the sun have left the earth. Thus we can
readily understand why it is that all the new moons in human history have hated the
fixed stars. In the field of politics, if Fate should happen temporarily to place the ruling
power in the hands of those nonentities they are not only eager to defile and revile the
past but at the same time they will use all means to evade criticism of their own acts.
The Law for the Protection of the Republic, which the new German State enacted, may
be taken as one example of this truth.

One has good grounds to be suspicious in regard to any new idea, or any doctrine or
philosophy, any political or economical movement, which tries to deny everything that
the past has produced or to present it as inferior and worthless. Any renovation which
is really beneficial to human progress will always have to begin its constructive work at
the level where the last stones of the structure have been laid. It need not blush to
utilize those truths which have already been established; for all human culture, as well
as man himself, is only the result of one long line of development, where each
generation has contributed but one stone to the building of the whole structure. The

meaning and purpose of revolutions cannot be to tear down the whole building but to
take away what has not been well fitted into it or is unsuitable, and to rebuild the free
space thus caused, after which the main construction of the building will be carried on.

Thus alone will it be possible to talk of human progress; for otherwise the world would
never be free of chaos, since each generation would feel entitled to reject the past and to
destroy all the work of the past, as the necessary preliminary to any new work of its

The saddest feature of the condition in which our whole civilization found itself before
the War was the fact that it was not only barren of any creative force to produce its own
works of art and civilization but that it hated, defiled and tried to efface the memory of
the superior works produced in the past. About the end of the last century people were
less interested in producing new significant works of their own--particularly in the
fields of dramatic art and literature--than in defaming the best works of the past and in
presenting them as inferior and antiquated. As if this period of disgraceful decadence
had the slightest capacity to produce anything of superior quality! The efforts made to
conceal the past from the eyes of the present afforded clear evidence of the fact that
these apostles of the future acted from an evil intent. These symptoms should have
made it clear to all that it was not a question of new, though wrong, cultural ideas but
of a process which was undermining the very foundations of civilization. It threw the
artistic feeling which had hitherto been quite sane into utter confusion, thus spiritually
preparing the way for political Bolshevism. If the creative spirit of the Periclean age be
manifested in the Parthenon, then the Bolshevist era is manifested through its cubist

In this connection attention must be drawn once again to the want of courage displayed
by one section of our people, namely, by those who, in virtue of their education and
position, ought to have felt themselves obliged to take up a firm stand against this
outrage on our culture. But they refrained from offering serious resistance and
surrendered to what they considered the inevitable. This abdication of theirs was due,
however, to sheer funk lest the apostles of Bolshevist art might raise a rumpus; for those
apostles always violently attacked everyone who was not ready to recognize them as
the choice spirits of artistic creation, and they tried to strangle all opposition by saying
that it was the product of philistine and backwater minds. People trembled in fear lest
they might be accused by these yahoos and swindlers of lacking artistic appreciation, as
if it would have been a disgrace not to be able to understand and appreciate the
effusions of those mental degenerates or arrant rogues. Those cultural disciples,
however, had a very simple way of presenting their own effusions as works of the
highest quality. They offered incomprehensible and manifestly crazy productions to
their amazed contemporaries as what they called 'an inner experience'. Thus they
forestalled all adverse criticism at very little cost indeed. Of course nobody ever
doubted that there could have been inner experiences like that, but some doubt ought to

have arisen as to whether or not there was any justification for exposing these
hallucinations of psychopaths or criminals to the sane portion of human society. The
works produced by a Moritz von Schwind or a Böcklin were also externalizations of an
inner experience, but these were the experiences of divinely gifted artists and not of

This situation afforded a good opportunity of studying the miserable cowardliness of
our so-called intellectuals who shirked the duty of offering serious resistance to the
poisoning of the sound instincts of our people. They left it to the people themselves to
formulate their own attitude towards his impudent nonsense. Lest they might be
considered as understanding nothing of art, they accepted every caricature of art, until
they finally lost the power of judging what is really good or bad.

Taken all in all, there were superabundant symptoms to show that a diseased epoch
had begun.

Still another critical symptom has to be considered. In the course of the nineteenth
century our towns and cities began more and more to lose their character as centres of
civilization and became more and more centres of habitation. In our great modern cities
the proletariat does not show much attachment to the place where it lives. This feeling
results from the fact that their dwelling-place is nothing but an accidental abode, and
that feeling is also partly due to the frequent change of residence which is forced upon
them by social conditions. There is no time for the growth of any attachment to the
town in which they live. But another reason lies in the cultural barrenness and
superficiality of our modern cities. At the time of the German Wars of Liberation our
German towns and cities were not only small in number but also very modest in size.
The few that could really be called great cities were mostly the residential cities of
princes; as such they had almost always a definite cultural value and also a definite
cultural aspect. Those few towns which had more than fifty thousand inhabitants were,
in comparison with modern cities of the same size, rich in scientific and artistic
treasures. At the time when Munich had not more than sixty thousand souls it was
already well on the way to become one of the first German centres of art. Nowadays
almost every industrial town has a population at least as large as that, without having
anything of real value to call its own. They are agglomerations of tenement houses and
congested dwelling barracks, and nothing else. It would be a miracle if anybody should
grow sentimentally attached to such a meaningless place. Nobody can grow attached to
a place which offers only just as much or as little as any other place would offer, which
has no character of its own and where obviously pains have been taken to avoid
everything that might have any resemblance to an artistic appearance.

But this is not all. Even the great cities become more barren of real works of art the more
they increase in population. They assume more and more a neutral atmosphere and
present the same aspect, though on a larger scale, as the wretched little factory towns.

Everything that our modern age has contributed to the civilization of our great cities is
absolutely deficient. All our towns are living on the glory and the treasures of the past.
If we take away from the Munich of to-day everything that was created under Ludwig
II we should be horror-stricken to see how meagre has been the output of important
artistic creations since that time. One might say much the same of Berlin and most of
our other great towns.

But the following is the essential thing to be noticed: Our great modern cities have no
outstanding monuments that dominate the general aspect of the city and could be
pointed to as the symbols of a whole epoch. Yet almost every ancient town had a
monument erected to its glory. It was not in private dwellings that the characteristic art
of ancient cities was displayed but in the public monuments, which were not meant to
have a transitory interest but an enduring one. And this was because they did not
represent the wealth of some individual citizen but the greatness and importance of the
community. It was under this inspiration that those monuments arose which bound the
individual inhabitants to their own town in a manner that is often almost
incomprehensible to us to-day. What struck the eye of the individual citizen was not a
number of mediocre private buildings, but imposing structures that belonged to the
whole community. In contradistinction to these, private dwellings were of only very
secondary importance indeed.

When we compare the size of those ancient public buildings with that of the private
dwellings belonging to the same epoch then we can understand the great importance
which was given to the principle that those works which reflected and affected the life
of the community should take precedence of all others.

Among the broken arches and vast spaces that are covered with ruins from the ancient
world the colossal riches that still arouse our wonder have not been left to us from the
commercial palaces of these days but from the temples of the Gods and the public
edifices that belonged to the State. The community itself was the owner of those great
edifices. Even in the pomp of Rome during the decadence it was not the villas and
palaces of some citizens that filled the most prominent place but rather the temples and
the baths, the stadia, the circuses, the aqueducts, the basilicas, etc., which belonged to
the State and therefore to the people as a whole.

In medieval Germany also the same principle held sway, although the artistic outlook
was quite different. In ancient times the theme that found its expression in the
Acropolis or the Pantheon was now clothed in the forms of the Gothic Cathedral. In the
medieval cities these monumental structures towered gigantically above the swarm of
smaller buildings with their framework walls of wood and brick. And they remain the
dominant feature of these cities even to our own day, although they are becoming more
and more obscured by the apartment barracks. They determine the character and

appearance of the locality. Cathedrals, city-halls, corn exchanges, defence towers, are
the outward expression of an idea which has its counterpart only in the ancient world.

The dimensions and quality of our public buildings to-day are in deplorable contrast to
the edifices that represent private interests. If a similar fate should befall Berlin as befell
Rome future generations might gaze upon the ruins of some Jewish department stores
or joint-stock hotels and think that these were the characteristic expressions of the
culture of our time. In Berlin itself, compare the shameful disproportion between the
buildings which belong to the REICH and those which have been erected for the
accommodation of trade and finance.

The credits that are voted for public buildings are in most cases inadequate and really
ridiculous. They are not built as structures that were meant to last but mostly for the
purpose of answering the need of the moment. No higher idea influenced those who
commissioned such buildings. At the time the Berlin Schloss was built it had a quite
different significance from what the new library has for our time, seeing that one
battleship alone represents an expenditure of about sixty million marks, whereas less
than half that sum was allotted for the building of the Reichstag, which is the most
imposing structure erected for the REICH and which should have been built to last for
ages. Yet, in deciding the question of internal decoration, the Upper House voted
against the use of stone and ordered that the walls should be covered with stucco. For
once, however, the parliamentarians made an appropriate decision on that occasion; for
plaster heads would be out of place between stone walls.

The community as such is not the dominant characteristic of our contemporary cities,
and therefore it is not to be wondered at if the community does not find itself
architecturally represented. Thus we must eventually arrive at a veritable civic desert
which will at last be reflected in the total indifference of the individual citizen towards
his own country.

This is also a sign of our cultural decay and general break-up. Our era is entirely
preoccupied with little things which are to no purpose, or rather it is entirely
preoccupied in the service of money. Therefore it is not to be wondered at if, with the
worship of such an idol, the sense of heroism should entirely disappear. But the present
is only reaping what the past has sown.

All these symptoms which preceded the final collapse of the Second Empire must be
attributed to the lack of a definite and uniformly accepted WELTANSCHAUUNG and
the general uncertainty of outlook consequent on that lack. This uncertainty showed
itself when the great questions of the time had to be considered one after another and a
decisive policy adopted towards them. This lack is also accountable for the habit of
doing everything by halves, beginning with the educational system, the shilly-shally,
the reluctance to undertake responsibilites and, finally, the cowardly tolerance of evils

that were even admitted to be destructive. Visionary humanitarianisms became the
fashion. In weakly submitting to these aberrations and sparing the feelings of the
individual, the future of millions of human beings was sacrificed.

An examination of the religious situation before the War shows that the general process
of disruption had extended to this sphere also. A great part of the nation itself had for a
long time already ceased to have any convictions of a uniform and practical character in
their ideological outlook on life. In this matter the point of primary importance was by
no means the number of people who renounced their church membership but rather the
widespread indifference. While the two Christian denominations maintained missions
in Asia and Africa, for the purpose of securing new adherents to the Faith, these same
denominations were losing millions and millions of their adherents at home in Europe.
These former adherents either gave up religion wholly as a directive force in their lives
or they adopted their own interpretation of it. The consequences of this were specially
felt in the moral life of the country. In parenthesis it may be remarked that the progress
made by the missions in spreading the Christian Faith abroad was only quite modest in
comparison with the spread of Mohammedanism.

It must be noted too that the attack on the dogmatic principles underlying ecclesiastical
teaching increased steadily in violence. And yet this human world of ours would be
inconceivable without the practical existence of a religious belief. The great masses of a
nation are not composed of philosophers. For the masses of the people, especially faith
is absolutely the only basis of a moral outlook on life. The various substitutes that have
been offered have not shown any results that might warrant us in thinking that they
might usefully replace the existing denominations. But if religious teaching and
religious faith were once accepted by the broad masses as active forces in their lives,
then the absolute authority of the doctrines of faith would be the foundation of all
practical effort. There may be a few hundreds of thousands of superior men who can
live wisely and intelligently without depending on the general standards that prevail in
everyday life, but the millions of others cannot do so. Now the place which general
custom fills in everyday life corresponds to that of general laws in the State and dogma
in religion. The purely spiritual idea is of itself a changeable thing that may be subjected
to endless interpretations. It is only through dogma that it is given a precise and
concrete form without which it could not become a living faith. Otherwise the spiritual
idea would never become anything more than a mere metaphysical concept, or rather a
philosophical opinion. Accordingly the attack against dogma is comparable to an attack
against the general laws on which the State is founded. And so this attack would finally
lead to complete political anarchy if it were successful, just as the attack on religion
would lead to a worthless religious nihilism.

The political leader should not estimate the worth of a religion by taking some of its
shortcomings into account, but he should ask himself whether there be any practical

substitute in a view which is demonstrably better. Until such a substitute be available
only fools and criminals would think of abolishing the existing religion.

Undoubtedly no small amount of blame for the present unsatisfactory religious
situation must be attributed to those who have encumbered the ideal of religion with
purely material accessories and have thus given rise to an utterly futile conflict between
religion and science. In this conflict victory will nearly always be on the side of science,
even though after a bitter struggle, while religion will suffer heavily in the eyes of those
who cannot penetrate beneath the mere superficial aspects of science.

But the greatest damage of all has come from the practice of debasing religion as a
means that can be exploited to serve political interests, or rather commercial interests.
The impudent and loud-mouthed liars who do this make their profession of faith before
the whole world in stentorian tones so that all poor mortals may hear--not that they are
ready to die for it if necessary but rather that they may live all the better. They are ready
to sell their faith for any political QUID PRO QUO. For ten parliamentary mandates
they would ally themselves with the Marxists, who are the mortal foes of all religion.
And for a seat in the Cabinet they would go the length of wedlock with the devil, if the
latter had not still retained some traces of decency.

If religious life in pre-war Germany had a disagreeable savour for the mouths of many
people this was because Christianity had been lowered to base uses by political parties
that called themselves Christian and because of the shameful way in which they tried to
identify the Catholic Faith with a political party.

This substitution was fatal. It procured some worthless parliamentary mandates for the
party in question, but the Church suffered damage thereby.

The consequences of that situation had to be borne by the whole nation; for the laxity
that resulted in religious life set in at a juncture when everything was beginning to lose
hold and vacillate and the traditional foundations of custom and of morality were
threatening to fall asunder.

Yet all those cracks and clefts in the social organism might not have been dangerous if
no grave burdens had been laid upon it; but they became disastrous when the internal
solidarity of the nation was the most important factor in withstanding the storm of big

In the political field also observant eyes might have noticed certain anomalies of the
REICH which foretold disaster unless some alteration and correction took place in time.
The lack of orientation in German policy, both domestic and foreign, was obvious to
everyone who was not purposely blind. The best thing that could be said about the
practice of making compromises is that it seemed outwardly to be in harmony with

Bismarck's axiom that 'politics is the art of the possible'. But Bismarck was a slightly
different man from the Chancellors who followed him. This difference allowed the
former to apply that formula to the very essence of his policy, while in the mouths of
the others it took on an utterly different significance. When he uttered that phrase
Bismarck meant to say that in order to attain a definite political end all possible means
should be employed or at least that all possibilities should be tried. But his successors
see in that phrase only a solemn declaration that one is not necessarily bound to have
political principles or any definite political aims at all. And the political leaders of the
REICH at that time had no far-seeing policy. Here, again, the necessary foundation was
lacking, namely, a definite WELTANSCHAUUNG, and these leaders also lacked that
clear insight into the laws of political evolution which is a necessary quality in political

Many people who took a gloomy view of things at that time condemned the lack of
ideas and lack of orientation which were evident in directing the policy of the REICH.
They recognized the inner weakness and futility of this policy. But such people played
only a secondary role in politics. Those who had the Government of the country in their
hands were quite as indifferent to principles of civil wisdom laid down by thinkers like
Houston Stewart Chamberlain as our political leaders now are. These people are too
stupid to think for themselves, and they have too much self-conceit to take from others
the instruction which they need. Oxenstierna (Note 14a) gave expression to a truth
which has lasted since time immemorial, when he said that the world is governed by
only a particle of wisdom. Almost every civil servant of councillor rank might naturally
be supposed to possess only an atom or so belonging to this particle. But since Germany
became a Republic even this modicum is wanting. And that is why they had to
promulgate the Law for the Defence of the Republic, which prohibits the holding of
such views or expressing them. It was fortunate for Oxenstierna that he lived at that
time and not in this wise Republic of our time.

Already before the War that institution which should have represented the strength of
the Reich--the Parliament, the Reichstag--was widely recognized as its weakest feature.
Cowardliness and fear of shouldering responsibilities were associated together there in
a perfect fashion.

One of the silliest notions that one hears expressed to-day is that in Germany the
parliamentary institution has ceased to function since the Revolution. This might easily
be taken to imply that the case was different before the Revolution. But in reality the
parliamentary institution never functioned except to the detriment of the country. And
it functioned thus in those days when people saw nothing or did not wish to see
anything. The German downfall is to be attributed in no small degree to this institution.
But that the catastrophe did not take place sooner is not to be credited to the Parliament
but rather to those who opposed the influence of this institution which, during peace
times, was digging the grave of the German Nation and the German REICH.

From the immense mass of devastating evils that were due either directly or indirectly
to the Parliament I shall select one the most intimately typical of this institution which
was the most irresponsible of all time. The evil I speak of was seen in the appalling
shilly-shally and weakness in conducting the internal and external affairs of the REICH.
It was attributable in the first place to the action of the Reichstag and was one of the
principal causes of the political collapse.

Everything subject to the influence of Parliament was done by halves, no matter from
what aspect you may regard it.

The foreign policy of the REICH in the matter of alliances was an example of shilly-
shally. They wished to maintain peace, but in doing so they steered straight. into war.

Their Polish policy was also carried out by half-measures. It resulted neither in a
German triumph nor Polish conciliation, and it made enemies of the Russians.

They tried to solve the Alsace-Lorraine question through half-measures. Instead of
crushing the head of the French hydra once and for all with the mailed fist and granting
Alsace-Lorraine equal rights with the other German States, they did neither the one nor
the other. Anyhow, it was impossible for them to do otherwise, for they had among
their ranks the greatest traitors to the country, such as Herr Wetterlé of the Centre

But still the country might have been able to bear with all this provided the half-
measure policy had not victimized that force in which, as the last resort, the existence of
the Empire depended: namely, the Army.

The crime committed by the so-called German Reichstag in this regard was sufficient of
itself to draw down upon it the curses of the German Nation for all time. On the most
miserable of pretexts these parliamentary party henchmen filched from the hands of the
nation and threw away the weapons which were needed to maintain its existence and
therewith defend the liberty and independence of our people. If the graves on the plains
of Flanders were to open to-day the bloodstained accusers would arise, hundreds of
thousands of our best German youth who were driven into the arms of death by those
conscienceless parliamentary ruffians who were either wrongly educated for their task
or only half-educated. Those youths, and other millions of the killed and mutilated,
were lost to the Fatherland simply and solely in order that a few hundred deceivers of
the people might carry out their political manoeuvres and their exactions or even
treasonably pursue their doctrinaire theories.

By means of the Marxist and democratic Press, the Jews spread the colossal falsehood
about 'German Militarism' throughout the world and tried to inculpate Germany by

every possible means, while at the same time the Marxist and democratic parties
refused to assent to the measures that were necessary for the adequate training of our
national defence forces. The appalling crime thus committed by these people ought to
have been obvious to everybody who foresaw that in case of war the whole nation
would have to be called to arms and that, because of the mean huckstering of these
noble 'representatives of the people', as they called themselves, millions of Germans
would have to face the enemy ill-equipped and insufficiently trained. But even apart
from the consequences of the crude and brutal lack of conscience which these
parliamentarian rascals displayed, it was quite clear that the lack of properly trained
soldiers at the beginning of a war would most probably lead to the loss of such a war;
and this probability was confirmed in a most terrible way during the course of the
world war.

Therefore the German people lost the struggle for the freedom and independence of
their country because of the half-hearted and defective policy employed during times of
peace in the organization and training of the defensive strength of the nation.

The number of recruits trained for the land forces was too small; but the same half-
heartedness was shown in regard to the navy and made this weapon of national self-
preservation more or less ineffective. Unfortunately, even the naval authorities
themselves were contaminated with this spirit of half-heartedness. The tendency to
build the ship on the stocks somewhat smaller than that just launched by the British did
not show much foresight and less genius. A fleet which cannot be brought to the same
numerical strength as that of the probable enemy ought to compensate for this
inferiority by the superior fighting power of the individual ship. It is the weight of the
fighting power that counts and not any sort of traditional quality. As a matter of fact,
modern technical development is so advanced and so well proportioned among the
various civilized States that it must be looked on as practically impossible for one
Power to build vessels which would have a superior fighting quality to that of the
vessels of equal size built by the other Powers. But it is even less feasible to build
vessels of smaller displacement which will be superior in action to those of larger

As a matter of fact, the smaller proportions of the German vessels could be maintained
only at the expense of speed and armament. The phrase used to justify this policy was
in itself an evidence of the lack of logical thinking on the part of the naval authorities
who were in charge of these matters in times of peace. They declared that the German
guns were definitely superior to the British 30.5 cm. as regards striking efficiency.

But that was just why they should have adopted the policy of building 30.5 cm. guns
also; for it ought to have been their object not to achieve equality but superiority in
fighting strength. If that were not so then it would have been superfluous to equip the
land forces with 42 cm. mortars; for the German 21 cm. mortar could be far superior to

any high-angle guns which the French possessed at that time and since the fortresses
could probably have been taken by means of 30.5 cm. mortars. The army authorities
unfortunately failed to do so. If they refrained from assuring superior efficiency in the
artillery as in the velocity, this was because of the fundamentally false 'principle of risk'
which they adopted. The naval authorities, already in times of peace, renounced the
principle of attack and thus had to follow a defensive policy from the very beginning of
the War. But by this attitude they renounced also the chances of final success, which can
be achieved only by an offensive policy.

A vessel with slower speed and weaker armament will be crippled and battered by an
adversary that is faster and stronger and can frequently shoot from a favourable
distance. A large number of cruisers have been through bitter experiences in this matter.
How wrong were the ideas prevalent among the naval authorities in times of peace was
proved during the War. They were compelled to modify the armament of the old
vessels and to equip the new ones with better armament whenever there was a chance
to do so. If the German vessels in the Battle of the Skagerrak had been of equal size, the
same armament and the same speed as the English, the British Fleet would have gone
down under the tempest of the German 38 centimeter shells, which hit their aims more
accurately and were more effective.

Japan had followed a different kind of naval policy. There, care was principally taken to
create with every single new vessel a fighting force that would be superior to those of
the eventual adversaries. But, because of this policy, it was afterwards possible to use
the fleet for the offensive.

While the army authorities refused to adopt such fundamentally erroneous principles,
the navy--which unfortunately had more representatives in Parliament--succumbed to
the spirit that ruled there. The navy was not organized on a strong basis, and it was
later used in an unsystematic and irresolute way. The immortal glory which the navy
won, in spite of these drawbacks, must be entirely credited to the good work and the
efficiency and incomparable heroism of officers and crews. If the former commanders-
in-chief had been inspired with the same kind of genius all the sacrifices would not
have been in vain.

It was probably the very parliamentarian skill displayed by the chief of the navy during
the years of peace which later became the cause of the fatal collapse, since
parliamentarian considerations had begun to play a more important role in the
construction of the navy than fighting considerations. The irresolution, the weakness
and the failure to adopt a logically consistent policy, which is typical of the
parliamentary system, contaminated the naval authorities.

As I have already emphasized, the military authorities did not allow themselves to be
led astray by such fundamentally erroneous ideas. Ludendorff, who was then a Colonel

in the General Staff, led a desperate struggle against the criminal vacillations with
which the Reichstag treated the most vital problems of the nation and in most cases
voted against them. If the fight which this officer then waged remained unsuccessful
this must be debited to the Parliament and partly also to the wretched and weak
attitude of the Chancellor, Bethmann-Hollweg.

Yet those who are responsible for Germany's collapse do not hesitate now to lay all the
blame on the shoulders of the one man who took a firm stand against the neglectful
manner in which the interests of the nation were managed. But one falsehood more or
less makes no difference to these congenital tricksters.

Anybody who thinks of all the sacrifices which this nation has had to bear, as a result of
the criminal neglect of those irresponsible individuals; anybody who thinks of the
number of those who died or were maimed unnecessarily; anybody who thinks of the
deplorable shame and dishonour which has been heaped upon us and of the illimitable
distress into which our people are now plunged--anybody who realizes that in order to
prepare the way to a few seats in Parliament for some unscrupulous place-hunters and
arrivists will understand that such hirelings can be called by no other name than that of
rascal and criminal; for otherwise those words could have no meaning. In comparison
with traitors who betrayed the nation's trust every other kind of twister may be looked
upon as an honourable man.

It was a peculiar feature of the situation that all the real faults of the old Germany were
exposed to the public gaze only when the inner solidarity of the nation could be injured
by doing so. Then, indeed, unpleasant truths were openly proclaimed in the ears of the
broad masses, while many other things were at other times shamefully hushed up or
their existence simply denied, especially at times when an open discussion of such
problems might have led to an improvement in their regard. The higher government
authorities knew little or nothing of the nature and use of propaganda in such matters.
Only the Jew knew that by an able and persistent use of propaganda heaven itself can
be presented to the people as if it were hell and, vice versa, the most miserable kind of
life can be presented as if it were paradise. The Jew knew this and acted accordingly.
But the German, or rather his Government, did not have the slightest suspicion of it.
During the War the heaviest of penalties had to be paid for that ignorance.

Over against the innumerable drawbacks which I have mentioned here and which
affected German life before the War there were many outstanding features on the
positive side. If we take an impartial survey we must admit that most of our drawbacks
were in great measure prevalent also in other countries and among the other nations,
and very often in a worse form than with us; whereas among us there were many real
advantages which the other did not have.

The leading phase of Germany's superiority arose from the fact that, almost alone
among all the other European nations, the German nation had made the strongest effort
to preserve the national character of its economic structure and for this reason was less
subject than other countries to the power of international finance, though indeed there
were many untoward symptoms in this regard also.

And yet this superiority was a perilous one and turned out later to be one of the chief
causes of the world war.

But even if we disregard this advantage of national independence in economic matters
there were certain other positive features of our social and political life which were of
outstanding excellence. These features were represented by three institutions which
were constant sources of regeneration. In their respective spheres they were models of
perfection and were partly unrivalled.

The first of these was the statal form as such and the manner in which it had been
developed for Germany in modern times. Of course we must except those monarchs
who, as human beings, were subject to the failings which afflict this life and its children.
If we were not so tolerant in these matters, then the case of the present generation
would be hopeless; for if we take into consideration the personal capabilities and
character of the representative figures in our present regime it would be difficult to
imagine a more modest level of intelligence and moral character. If we measure the
'value' of the German Revolution by the personal worth and calibre of the individuals
whom this revolution has presented to the German people since November 1918 then
we may feel ashamed indeed in thinking of the judgment which posterity will pass on
these people, when the Law for the Protection of the Republic can no longer silence
public opinion. Coming generations will surely decide that the intelligence and
integrity of our new German leaders were in adverse ratio to their boasting and their

It must be admitted that the monarchy had become alien in spirit to many citizens and
especially the broad masses. This resulted from the fact that the monarchs were not
always surrounded by the highest intelligence--so to say--and certainly not always by
persons of the most upright character. Unfortunately many of them preferred flatterers
to honest-spoken men and hence received their 'information' from the former. This was
a source of grave danger at a time when the world was passing through a period in
which many of the old conditions were changing and when this change was affecting
even the traditions of the Court.

The average man or woman could not have felt a wave of enthusiasm surging within
the breast when, for example, at the turn of the century, a princess in uniform and on
horseback had the soldiers file past her on parade. Those high circles had apparently no
idea of the impression which such a parade made on the minds of ordinary people; else

such unfortunate occurrences would not have taken place. The sentimental
humanitarianism--not always very sincere--which was professed in those high circles
was often more repulsive than attractive. When, for instance, the Princess X
condescended to taste the products of a soup kitchen and found them excellent, as
usual, such a gesture might have made an excellent impression in times long past, but
on this occasion it had the opposite effect to what was intended. For even if we take it
for granted that Her Highness did not have the slightest idea, that on the day she
sampled it, the food was not quite the same as on other days, it sufficed that the people
knew it. Even the best of intentions thus became an object of ridicule or a cause of

Descriptions of the proverbial frugality practised by the monarch, his much too early
rise in the morning and the drudgery he had to go through all day long until late at
night, and especially the constantly expressed fears lest he might become
undernourished--all this gave rise to ominous expression on the part of the people.
Nobody was keen to know what and how much the monarch ate or drank. Nobody
grudged him a full meal, or the necessary amount of sleep. Everybody was pleased
when the monarch, as a man and a personality, brought honour on his family and his
country and fulfilled his duties as a sovereign. All the legends which were circulated
about him helped little and did much damage.

These and such things, however, are only mere bagatelle. What was much worse was
the feeling, which spread throughout large sections of the nation, that the affairs of the
individual were being taken care of from above and that he did not need to bother
himself with them. As long as the Government was really good, or at least moved by
goodwill, no serious objections could be raised.

But the country was destined to disaster when the old Government, which had at least
striven for the best, became replaced by a new regime which was not of the same
quality. Then the docile obedience and infantile credulity which formerly offered no
resistance was bound to be one of the most fatal evils that can be imagined.

But against these and other defects there were certain qualities which undoubtedly had
a positive effect.

First of all the monarchical form of government guarantees stability in the direction of
public affairs and safeguards public offices from the speculative turmoil of ambitious
politicians. Furthermore, the venerable tradition which this institution possesses
arouses a feeling which gives weight to the monarchical authority. Beyond this there is
the fact that the whole corps of officials, and the army in particular, are raised above the
level of political party obligations. And still another positive feature was that the
supreme rulership of the State was embodied in the monarch, as an individual person,
who could serve as the symbol of responsibility, which a monarch has to bear more

seriously than any anonymous parliamentary majority. Indeed, the proverbial honesty
and integrity of the German administration must be attributed chiefly to this fact.
Finally, the monarchy fulfilled a high cultural function among the German people,
which made amends for many of its defects. The German residential cities have
remained, even to our time, centres of that artistic spirit which now threatens to
disappear and is becoming more and more materialistic. The German princes gave a
great deal of excellent and practical encouragement to art and science, especially during
the nineteenth century. Our present age certainly has nothing of equal worth.

During that process of disintegration which was slowly extending throughout the social
order the most positive force of resistance was that offered by the army. This was the
strongest source of education which the German people possessed. For that reason all
the hatred of our enemies was directed against the paladin of our national self-
preservation and our liberty. The strongest testimony in favour of this unique
institution is the fact that it was derided, hated and fought against, but also feared, by
worthless elements all round. The fact that the international profiteers who gathered at
Versailles, further to exploit and plunder the nations directed their enmity specially
against the old German army proved once again that it deserved to be regarded as the
institution which protected the liberties of our people against the forces of the
international stock-exchange. If the army had not been there to sound the alarm and
stand on guard, the purposes of the Versailles representatives would have been carried
out much sooner. There is only one word to express what the German people owe to
this army--Everything!

It was the army that still inculcated a sense of responsibility among the people when
this quality had become very rare and when the habit of shirking every kind of
responsibility was steadily spreading. This habit had grown up under the evil
influences of Parliament, which was itself the very model of irresponsibility. The army
trained the people to personal courage at a time when the virtue of timidity threatened
to become an epidemic and when the spirit of sacrificing one's personal interests for the
good of the community was considered as something that amounted almost to weak-
mindedness. At a time when only those were estimated as intelligent who knew how to
safeguard and promote their own egotistic interests, the army was the school through
which individual Germans were taught not to seek the salvation of their nation in the
false ideology of international fraternization between negroes, Germans, Chinese,
French and English, etc., but in the strength and unity of their own national being.

The army developed the individual's powers of resolute decision, and this at a time
when a spirit of indecision and scepticism governed human conduct. At a time when
the wiseacres were everywhere setting the fashion it needed courage to uphold the
principle that any command is better than none. This one principle represents a robust
and sound style of thought, of which not a trace would have been left in the other
branches of life if the army had not furnished a constant rejuvenation of this

fundamental force. A sufficient proof of this may be found in the appalling lack of
decision which our present government authorities display. They cannot shake off their
mental and moral lethargy and decide on some definite line of action except when they
are forced to sign some new dictate for the exploitation of the German people. In that
case they decline all responsibility while at the same time they sign everything which
the other side places before them; and they sign with the readiness of an official
stenographer. Their conduct is here explicable on the ground that in this case they are
not under the necessity of coming to a decision; for the decision is dictated to them.

The army imbued its members with a spirit of idealism and developed their readiness
to sacrifice themselves for their country and its honour, while greed and materialism
dominated in all the other branches of life. The army united a people who were split up
into classes: and in this respect had only one defect, which was the One Year Military
Service, a privilege granted to those who had passed through the high schools. It was a
defect, because the principle of absolute equality was thereby violated; and those who
had a better education were thus placed outside the cadres to which the rest of their
comrades belonged. The reverse would have been better. Since our upper classes were
really ignorant of what was going on in the body corporate of the nation and were
becoming more and more estranged from the life of the people, the army would have
accomplished a very beneficial mission if it had refused to discriminate in favour of the
so-called intellectuals, especially within its own ranks. It was a mistake that this was not
done; but in this world of ours can we find any institution that has not at least one
defect? And in the army the good features were so absolutely predominant that the few
defects it had were far below the average that generally rises from human weakness.

But the greatest credit which the army of the old Empire deserves is that, at a time when
the person of the individual counted for nothing and the majority was everything, it
placed individual personal values above majority values. By insisting on its faith in
personality, the army opposed that typically Jewish and democratic apotheosis of the
power of numbers. The army trained what at that time was most surely needed:
namely, real men. In a period when men were falling a prey to effeminacy and laxity,
350,000 vigorously trained young men went from the ranks of the army each year to
mingle with their fellow-men. In the course of their two years' training they had lost the
softness of their young days and had developed bodies as tough as steel. The young
man who had been taught obedience for two years was now fitted to command. The
trained soldier could be recognized already by his walk.

This was the great school of the German nation; and it was not without reason that it
drew upon its head all the bitter hatred of those who wanted the Empire to be weak and
defenceless, because they were jealous of its greatness and were themselves possessed
by a spirit of rapacity and greed. The rest of the world recognized a fact which many
Germans did not wish to see, either because they were blind to facts or because out of
malice they did not wish to see it. This fact was that the German Army was the most

powerful weapon for the defence and freedom of the German nation and the best
guarantee for the livelihood of its citizens.

There was a third institution of positive worth, which has to be placed beside that of the
monarchy and the army. This was the civil service.

German administration was better organized and better carried out than the
administration of other countries. There may have been objections to the bureaucratic
routine of the officials, but from this point of view the state of affairs was similar, if not
worse, in the other countries. But the other States did not have the wonderful solidarity
which this organization possessed in Germany, nor were their civil servants of that
same high level of scrupulous honesty. It is certainly better to be a trifle over-
bureaucratic and honest and loyal than to be over-sophisticated and modern, the latter
often implying an inferior type of character and also ignorance and inefficiency. For if it
be insinuated to-day that the German administration of the pre-War period may have
been excellent so far as bureaucratic technique goes, but that from the practical business
point of view it was incompetent, I can only give the following reply: What other
country in the world possessed a better-organized and administered business enterprise
than the German State Railways, for instance? It was left to the Revolution to destroy
this standard organization, until a time came when it was taken out of the hands of the
nation and socialized, in the sense which the founders of the Republic had given to that
word, namely, making it subservient to the international stock-exchange capitalists,
who were the wire-pullers of the German Revolution.

The most outstanding trait in the civil service and the whole body of the civil
administration was its independence of the vicissitudes of government, the political
mentality of which could exercise no influence on the attitude of the German State
officials. Since the Revolution this situation has been completely changed. Efficiency
and capability have been replaced by the test of party-adherence; and independence of
character and initiative are no longer appreciated as positive qualities in a public
official. They rather tell against him.

The wonderful might and power of the old Empire was based on the monarchical form
of government, the army and the civil service. On these three foundations rested that
great strength which is now entirely lacking; namely, the authority of the State. For the
authority of the State cannot be based on the babbling that goes on in Parliament or in
the provincial diets and not upon laws made to protect the State, or upon sentences
passed by the law courts to frighten those who have had the hardihood to deny the
authority of the State, but only on the general confidence which the management and
administration of the community establishes among the people. This confidence is in its
turn, nothing else than the result of an unshakable inner conviction that the government
and administration of a country is inspired by disinterested and honest goodwill and on
the feeling that the spirit of the law is in complete harmony with the moral convictions

of the people. In the long run, systems of government are not maintained by terrorism
but on the belief of the people in the merits and sincerity of those who administer and
promote the public interests.

Though it be true that in the period preceding the War certain grave evils tended to
infect and corrode the inner strength of the nation, it must be remembered that the
other States suffered even more than Germany from these drawbacks and yet those
other States did not fail and break down when the time of crisis came. If we remember
further that those defects in pre-War Germany were outweighed by great positive
qualities we shall have to look elsewhere for the effective cause of the collapse. And
elsewhere it lay.

The ultimate and most profound reason of the German downfall is to be found in the
fact that the racial problem was ignored and that its importance in the historical
development of nations was not grasped. For the events that take place in the life of
nations are not due to chance but are the natural results of the effort to conserve and
multiply the species and the race, even though men may not be able consciously to
picture to their minds the profound motives of their conduct.


[Note 14. Probably the author has two separate incidents in mind. The first happened in
390 B.C., when, as the victorious Gauls descended on Rome, the Senators ordered their
ivory chairs to be placed in the Forum before the Temples ofthe Gods. There, clad in
their robes of state, they awaited the invader, hoping to save the city by sacrificing
themselves. This noble gesture failed for the time being; but it had an inspiring
influence on subsequent generations. The second incident, which has more historical
authenticity, occurred after the Roman defeat at Cannae in 216 B.C. On that occasion
Varro, the Roman commander, who, though in great part responsible for the disaster,
made an effort to carry on the struggle, was, on his return to Rome, met by the citizens
of all ranks and publicly thanked because he had not despaired of the Republic. The
consequence was that the Republic refused to make peace with the victorious

[Note 14a. Swedish Chancellor who took over the reins of Government after the death
of Gustavus Adolphus]

Chapter 11

Race And People

THERE ARE certain truths which stand out so openly on the roadsides of life, as it
were, that every passer-by may see them. Yet, because of their very obviousness, the
general run of people disregard such truths or at least they do not make them the object
of any conscious knowledge. People are so blind to some of the simplest facts in every-
day life that they are highly surprised when somebody calls attention to what
everybody ought to know. Examples of The Columbus Egg lie around us in hundreds
of thousands; but observers like Columbus are rare.

Walking about in the garden of Nature, most men have the self-conceit to think that
they know everything; yet almost all are blind to one of the outstanding principles that
Nature employs in her work. This principle may be called the inner isolation which
characterizes each and every living species on this earth.

Even a superficial glance is sufficient to show that all the innumerable forms in which
the life-urge of Nature manifests itself are subject to a fundamental law--one may call it
an iron law of Nature--which compels the various species to keep within the definite
limits of their own life-forms when propagating and multiplying their kind. Each
animal mates only with one of its own species. The titmouse cohabits only with the
titmouse, the finch with the finch, the stork with the stork, the field-mouse with the
field-mouse, the house-mouse with the house-mouse, the wolf with the she-wolf, etc.

Deviations from this law take place only in exceptional circumstances. This happens
especially under the compulsion of captivity, or when some other obstacle makes
procreative intercourse impossible between individuals of the same species. But then
Nature abhors such intercourse with all her might; and her protest is most clearly
demonstrated by the fact that the hybrid is either sterile or the fecundity of its
descendants is limited. In most cases hybrids and their progeny are denied the ordinary
powers of resistance to disease or the natural means of defence against outer attack.

Such a dispensation of Nature is quite logical. Every crossing between two breeds
which are not quite equal results in a product which holds an intermediate place
between the levels of the two parents. This means that the offspring will indeed be
superior to the parent which stands in the biologically lower order of being, but not so

high as the higher parent. For this reason it must eventually succumb in any struggle
against the higher species. Such mating contradicts the will of Nature towards the
selective improvements of life in general. The favourable preliminary to this
improvement is not to mate individuals of higher and lower orders of being but rather
to allow the complete triumph of the higher order. The stronger must dominate and not
mate with the weaker, which would signify the sacrifice of its own higher nature. Only
the born weakling can look upon this principle as cruel, and if he does so it is merely
because he is of a feebler nature and narrower mind; for if such a law did not direct the
process of evolution then the higher development of organic life would not be
conceivable at all.

This urge for the maintenance of the unmixed breed, which is a phenomenon that
prevails throughout the whole of the natural world, results not only in the sharply
defined outward distinction between one species and another but also in the internal
similarity of characteristic qualities which are peculiar to each breed or species. The fox
remains always a fox, the goose remains a goose, and the tiger will retain the character
of a tiger. The only difference that can exist within the species must be in the various
degrees of structural strength and active power, in the intelligence, efficiency,
endurance, etc., with which the individual specimens are endowed. It would be
impossible to find a fox which has a kindly and protective disposition towards geese,
just as no cat exists which has a friendly disposition towards mice.

That is why the struggle between the various species does not arise from a feeling of
mutual antipathy but rather from hunger and love. In both cases Nature looks on
calmly and is even pleased with what happens. The struggle for the daily livelihood
leaves behind in the ruck everything that is weak or diseased or wavering; while the
fight of the male to possess the female gives to the strongest the right, or at least, the
possibility to propagate its kind. And this struggle is a means of furthering the health
and powers of resistance in the species. Thus it is one of the causes underlying the
process of development towards a higher quality of being.

If the case were different the progressive process would cease, and even retrogression
might set in. Since the inferior always outnumber the superior, the former would
always increase more rapidly if they possessed the same capacities for survival and for
the procreation of their kind; and the final consequence would be that the best in
quality would be forced to recede into the background. Therefore a corrective measure
in favour of the better quality must intervene. Nature supplies this by establishing
rigorous conditions of life to which the weaker will have to submit and will thereby be
numerically restricted; but even that portion which survives cannot indiscriminately
multiply, for here a new and rigorous selection takes place, according to strength and

If Nature does not wish that weaker individuals should mate with the stronger, she
wishes even less that a superior race should intermingle with an inferior one; because in
such a case all her efforts, throughout hundreds of thousands of years, to establish an
evolutionary higher stage of being, may thus be rendered futile.

History furnishes us with innumerable instances that prove this law. It shows, with a
startling clarity, that whenever Aryans have mingled their blood with that of an inferior
race the result has been the downfall of the people who were the standard-bearers of a
higher culture. In North America, where the population is prevalently Teutonic, and
where those elements intermingled with the inferior race only to a very small degree,
we have a quality of mankind and a civilization which are different from those of
Central and South America. In these latter countries the immigrants--who mainly
belonged to the Latin races--mated with the aborigines, sometimes to a very large extent
indeed. In this case we have a clear and decisive example of the effect produced by the
mixture of races. But in North America the Teutonic element, which has kept its racial
stock pure and did not mix it with any other racial stock, has come to dominate the
American Continent and will remain master of it as long as that element does not fall a
victim to the habit of adulterating its blood.

In short, the results of miscegenation are always the following:

(a) The level of the superior race becomes lowered;

(b) physical and mental degeneration sets in, thus leading slowly but steadily towards a
progressive drying up of the vital sap.

The act which brings about such a development is a sin against the will of the Eternal
Creator. And as a sin this act will be avenged.

Man's effort to build up something that contradicts the iron logic of Nature brings him
into conflict with those principles to which he himself exclusively owes his own
existence. By acting against the laws of Nature he prepares the way that leads to his

Here we meet the insolent objection, which is Jewish in its inspiration and is typical of
the modern pacifist. It says: "Man can control even Nature."

There are millions who repeat by rote that piece of Jewish babble and end up by
imagining that somehow they themselves are the conquerors of Nature. And yet their
only weapon is just a mere idea, and a very preposterous idea into the bargain; because
if one accepted it, then it would be impossible even to imagine the existence of the

The real truth is that, not only has man failed to overcome Nature in any sphere
whatsoever but that at best he has merely succeeded in getting hold of and lifting a tiny
corner of the enormous veil which she has spread over her eternal mysteries and secret.
He never creates anything. All he can do is to discover something. He does not master
Nature but has only come to be the master of those living beings who have not gained
the knowledge he has arrived at by penetrating into some of Nature's laws and
mysteries. Apart from all this, an idea can never subject to its own sway those
conditions which are necessary for the existence and development of mankind; for the
idea itself has come only from man. Without man there would be no human idea in this
world. The idea as such is therefore always dependent on the existence of man and
consequently is dependent on those laws which furnish the conditions of his existence.

And not only that. Certain ideas are even confined to certain people. This holds true
with regard to those ideas in particular which have not their roots in objective scientific
truth but in the world of feeling. In other words, to use a phrase which is current to-day
and which well and clearly expresses this truth: THEY REFLECT AN INNER
EXPERIENCE. All such ideas, which have nothing to do with cold logic as such but
represent mere manifestations of feeling, such as ethical and moral conceptions, etc., are
inextricably bound up with man's existence. It is to the creative powers of man's
imagination that such ideas owe their existence.

Now, then, a necessary condition for the maintenance of such ideas is the existence of
certain races and certain types of men. For example, anyone who sincerely wishes that
the pacifist idea should prevail in this world ought to do all he is capable of doing to
help the Germans conquer the world; for in case the reverse should happen it may
easily be that the last pacifist would disappear with the last German. I say this because,
unfortunately, only our people, and no other people in the world, fell a prey to this
idea. Whether you like it or not, you would have to make up your mind to forget wars
if you would achieve the pacifist ideal. Nothing less than this was the plan of the
American world-redeemer, Woodrow Wilson. Anyhow that was what our visionaries
believed, and they thought that through his plans their ideals would be attained.

The pacifist-humanitarian idea may indeed become an excellent one when the most
superior type of manhood will have succeeded in subjugating the world to such an
extent that this type is then sole master of the earth. This idea could have an injurious
effect only in the measure according to which its application would become difficult
and finally impossible. So, first of all, the fight and then pacifism. If the case were
different it would mean that mankind has already passed the zenith of its development,
and accordingly the end would not be the supremacy of some moral ideal but
degeneration into barbarism and consequent chaos. People may laugh at this statement;
but our planet has been moving through the spaces of ether for millions and millions of
years, uninhabited by men, and at some future date may easily begin to do so again--if
men should forget that wherever they have reached a superior level of existence, it was

not the result of following the ideas of crazy visionaries but by acknowledging and
rigorously observing the iron laws of Nature.

All that we admire in the world to-day, its science, its art, its technical developments
and discoveries, are the products of the creative activities of a few peoples, and it may
be true that their first beginnings must be attributed to one race. The maintenance of
civilization is wholly dependent on such peoples. Should they perish, all that makes this
earth beautiful will descend with them into the grave.

However great, for example, be the influence which the soil exerts on men, this
influence will always vary according to the race in which it produces its effect. Dearth
of soil may stimulate one race to the most strenuous efforts and highest achievement;
while, for another race, the poverty of the soil may be the cause of misery and finally of
undernourishment, with all its consequences. The internal characteristics of a people are
always the causes which determine the nature of the effect that outer circumstances
have on them. What reduces one race to starvation trains another race to harder work.

All the great civilizations of the past became decadent because the originally creative
race died out, as a result of contamination of the blood.

The most profound cause of such a decline is to be found in the fact that the people
ignored the principle that all culture depends on men, and not the reverse. In other
words, in order to preserve a certain culture, the type of manhood that creates such a
culture must be preserved. But such a preservation goes hand-in-hand with the
inexorable law that it is the strongest and the best who must triumph and that they
have the right to endure.

He who would live must fight. He who does not wish to fight in this world, where
permanent struggle is the law of life, has not the right to exist.

Such a saying may sound hard; but, after all, that is how the matter really stands. Yet far
harder is the lot of him who believes that he can overcome Nature and thus in reality
insults her. Distress, misery, and disease are her rejoinders.

Whoever ignores or despises the laws of race really deprives himself of the happiness to
which he believes he can attain. For he places an obstacle in the victorious path of the
superior race and, by so doing, he interferes with a prerequisite condition of all human
progress. Loaded with the burden of humanitarian sentiment, he falls back to the level
of those who are unable to raise themselves in the scale of being.

It would be futile to attempt to discuss the question as to what race or races were the
original standard-bearers of human culture and were thereby the real founders of all
that we understand by the word humanity. It is much simpler to deal with this question

in so far as it relates to the present time. Here the answer is simple and clear. Every
manifestation of human culture, every product of art, science and technical skill, which
we see before our eyes to-day, is almost exclusively the product of the Aryan creative
power. This very fact fully justifies the conclusion that it was the Aryan alone who
founded a superior type of humanity; therefore he represents the architype of what we
understand by the term: MAN. He is the Prometheus of mankind, from whose shining
brow the divine spark of genius has at all times flashed forth, always kindling anew
that fire which, in the form of knowledge, illuminated the dark night by drawing aside
the veil of mystery and thus showing man how to rise and become master over all the
other beings on the earth. Should he be forced to disappear, a profound darkness will
descend on the earth; within a few thousand years human culture will vanish and the
world will become a desert.

If we divide mankind into three categories--founders of culture, bearers of culture, and
destroyers of culture--the Aryan alone can be considered as representing the first
category. It was he who laid the groundwork and erected the walls of every great
structure in human culture. Only the shape and colour of such structures are to be
attributed to the individual characteristics of the various nations. It is the Aryan who
has furnished the great building-stones and plans for the edifices of all human progress;
only the way in which these plans have been executed is to be attributed to the qualities
of each individual race. Within a few decades the whole of Eastern Asia, for instance,
appropriated a culture and called such a culture its own, whereas the basis of that
culture was the Greek mind and Teutonic skill as we know it. Only the external form--at
least to a certain degree--shows the traits of an Asiatic inspiration. It is not true, as some
believe, that Japan adds European technique to a culture of her own. The truth rather is
that European science and technics are just decked out with the peculiar characteristics
of Japanese civilization. The foundations of actual life in Japan to-day are not those of
the native Japanese culture, although this characterizes the external features of the
country, which features strike the eye of European observers on account of their
fundamental difference from us; but the real foundations of contemporary Japanese life
are the enormous scientific and technical achievements of Europe and America, that is
to say, of Aryan peoples. Only by adopting these achievements as the foundations of
their own progress can the various nations of the Orient take a place in contemporary
world progress. The scientific and technical achievements of Europe and America
provide the basis on which the struggle for daily livelihood is carried on in the Orient.
They provide the necessary arms and instruments for this struggle, and only the outer
forms of these instruments have become gradually adapted to Japanese ways of life.

If, from to-day onwards, the Aryan influence on Japan would cease--and if we suppose
that Europe and America would collapse--then the present progress of Japan in science
and technique might still last for a short duration; but within a few decades the
inspiration would dry up, and native Japanese character would triumph, while the
present civilization would become fossilized and fall back into the sleep from which it

was aroused about seventy years ago by the impact of Aryan culture. We may therefore
draw the conclusion that, just as the present Japanese development has been due to
Aryan influence, so in the immemorial past an outside influence and an outside culture
brought into existence the Japanese culture of that day. This opinion is very strongly
supported by the fact that the ancient civilization of Japan actually became fossilizied
and petrified. Such a process of senility can happen only if a people loses the racial cell
which originally had been creative or if the outside influence should be withdrawn after
having awakened and maintained the first cultural developments in that region. If it be
shown that a people owes the fundamental elements of its culture to foreign races,
assimilating and elaborating such elements, and if subsequently that culture becomes
fossilized whenever the external influence ceases, then such a race may be called the
depository but never the creator of a culture.

If we subject the different peoples to a strict test from this standpoint we shall find that
scarcely any one of them has originally created a culture, but almost all have been
merely the recipients of a culture created elsewhere.

This development may be depicted as always happening somewhat in the following

Aryan tribes, often almost ridiculously small in number, subjugated foreign peoples
and, stimulated by the conditions of life which their new country offered them (fertility,
the nature of the climate, etc.), and profiting also by the abundance of manual labour
furnished them by the inferior race, they developed intellectual and organizing faculties
which had hitherto been dormant in these conquering tribes. Within the course of a few
thousand years, or even centuries, they gave life to cultures whose primitive traits
completely corresponded to the character of the founders, though modified by
adaptation to the peculiarities of the soil and the characteristics of the subjugated
people. But finally the conquering race offended against the principles which they first
had observed, namely, the maintenance of their racial stock unmixed, and they began to
intermingle with the subjugated people. Thus they put an end to their own separate
existence; for the original sin committed in Paradise has always been followed by the
expulsion of the guilty parties.

After a thousand years or more the last visible traces of those former masters may then
be found in a lighter tint of the skin which the Aryan blood had bequeathed to the
subjugated race, and in a fossilized culture of which those Aryans had been the original
creators. For just as the blood. of the conqueror, who was a conqueror not only in body
but also in spirit, got submerged in the blood of the subject race, so the substance
disappeared out of which the torch of human culture and progress was kindled. In so
far as the blood of the former ruling race has left a light nuance of colour in the blood of
its descendants, as a token and a memory, the night of cultural life is rendered less dim
and dark by a mild light radiated from the products of those who were the bearers of

the original fire. Their radiance shines across the barbarism to which the subjected race
has reverted and might often lead the superficial observer to believe that he sees before
him an image of the present race when he is really looking into a mirror wherein only
the past is reflected.

It may happen that in the course of its history such a people will come into contact a
second time, and even oftener, with the original founders of their culture and may not
even remember that distant association. Instinctively the remnants of blood left from
that old ruling race will be drawn towards this new phenomenon and what had
formerly been possible only under compulsion can now be successfully achieved in a
voluntary way. A new cultural wave flows in and lasts until the blood of its standard-
bearers becomes once again adulterated by intermixture with the originally conquered

It will be the task of those who set themselves to the study of a universal history of
civilization to investigate history from this point of view instead of allowing themselves
to be smothered under the mass of external data, as is only too often the case with our
present historical science.

This short sketch of the changes that take place among those races that are only the
depositories of a culture also furnishes a picture of the development and the activity
and the disappearance of those who are the true founders of culture on this earth,
namely the Aryans themselves.

Just as in our daily life the so-called man of genius needs a particular occasion, and
sometimes indeed a special stimulus, to bring his genius to light, so too in the life of the
peoples the race that has genius in it needs the occasion and stimulus to bring that
genius to expression. In the monotony and routine of everyday life even persons of
significance seem just like the others and do not rise beyond the average level of their
fellow-men. But as soon as such men find themselves in a special situation which
disconcerts and unbalances the others, the humble person of apparently common
qualities reveals traits of genius, often to the amazement of those who have hitherto
known him in the small things of everyday life. That is the reason why a prophet only
seldom counts for something in his own country. War offers an excellent occasion for
observing this phenomenon. In times of distress, when the others despair, apparently
harmless boys suddenly spring up and become heroes, full of determination,
undaunted in the presence of Death and manifesting wonderful powers of calm
reflection under such circumstances. If such an hour of trial did not come nobody
would have thought that the soul of a hero lurked in the body of that beardless youth.
A special impulse is almost always necessary to bring a man of genius into the
foreground. The sledge-hammer of Fate which strikes down the one so easily suddenly
finds the counter-impact of steel when it strikes at the other. And, after the common
shell of everyday life is broken, the core that lay hidden in it is displayed to the eyes of

an astonished world. This surrounding world then grows obstinate and will not believe
that what had seemed so like itself is really of that different quality so suddenly
displayed. This is a process which is repeated probably every time a man of
outstanding significance appears.

Though an inventor, for example, does not establish his fame until the very day that he
carries through his invention, it would be a mistake to believe that the creative genius
did not become alive in him until that moment. From the very hour of his birth the
spark of genius is living within the man who has been endowed with the real creative
faculty. True genius is an innate quality. It can never be the result of education or

As I have stated already, this holds good not merely of the individual but also of the
race. Those peoples who manifest creative abilities in certain periods of their history
have always been fundamentally creative. It belongs to their very nature, even though
this fact may escape the eyes of the superficial observer. Here also recognition from
outside is only the consequence of practical achievement. Since the rest of the world is
incapable of recognizing genius as such, it can only see the visible manifestations of
genius in the form of inventions, discoveries, buildings, painting, etc.; but even here a
long time passes before recognition is given. Just as the individual person who has been
endowed with the gift of genius, or at least talent of a very high order, cannot bring that
endowment to realization until he comes under the urge of special circumstances, so in
the life of the nations the creative capacities and powers frequently have to wait until
certain conditions stimulate them to action.

The most obvious example of this truth is furnished by that race which has been, and
still is, the standard-bearer of human progress: I mean the Aryan race. As soon as Fate
brings them face to face with special circumstances their powers begin to develop
progressively and to be manifested in tangible form. The characteristic cultures which
they create under such circumstances are almost always conditioned by the soil, the
climate and the people they subjugate. The last factor--that of the character of the
people--is the most decisive one. The more primitive the technical conditions under
which the civilizing activity takes place, the more necessary is the existence of manual
labour which can be organized and employed so as to take the place of mechanical
power. Had it not been possible for them to employ members of the inferior race which
they conquered, the Aryans would never have been in a position to take the first steps
on the road which led them to a later type of culture; just as, without the help of certain
suitable animals which they were able to tame, they would never have come to the
invention of mechanical power which has subsequently enabled them to do without
these beasts. The phrase, 'The Moor has accomplished his function, so let him now
depart', has, unfortunately, a profound application. For thousands of years the horse
has been the faithful servant of man and has helped him to lay the foundations of
human progress, but now motor power has dispensed with the use of the horse. In a

few years to come the use of the horse will cease entirely; and yet without its
collaboration man could scarcely have come to the stage of development which he has
now created.

For the establishment of superior types of civilization the members of inferior races
formed one of the most essential pre-requisites. They alone could supply the lack of
mechanical means without which no progress is possible. It is certain that the first
stages of human civilization were not based so much on the use of tame animals as on
the employment of human beings who were members of an inferior race.

Only after subjugated races were employed as slaves was a similar fate allotted to
animals, and not vice versa, as some people would have us believe. At first it was the
conquered enemy who had to draw the plough and only afterwards did the ox and
horse take his place. Nobody else but puling pacifists can consider this fact as a sign of
human degradation. Such people fail to recognize that this evolution had to take place
in order that man might reach that degree of civilization which these apostles now
exploit in an attempt to make the world pay attention to their rigmarole.

The progress of mankind may be compared to the process of ascending an infinite
ladder. One does not reach the higher level without first having climbed the lower
rungs. The Aryan therefore had to take that road which his sense of reality pointed out
to him and not that which the modern pacifist dreams of. The path of reality is,
however, difficult and hard to tread; yet it is the only one which finally leads to the goal
where the others envisage mankind in their dreams. But the real truth is that those
dreamers help only to lead man away from his goal rather than towards it.

It was not by mere chance that the first forms of civilization arose there where the
Aryan came into contact with inferior races, subjugated them and forced them to obey
his command. The members of the inferior race became the first mechanical tools in the
service of a growing civilization.

Thereby the way was clearly indicated which the Aryan had to follow. As a conqueror,
he subjugated inferior races and turned their physical powers into organized channels
under his own leadership, forcing them to follow his will and purpose. By imposing on
them a useful, though hard, manner of employing their powers he not only spared the
lives of those whom he had conquered but probably made their lives easier than these
had been in the former state of so-called 'freedom'. While he ruthlessly maintained his
position as their master, he not only remained master but he also maintained and
advanced civilization. For this depended exclusively on his inborn abilities and,
therefore, on the preservation of the Aryan race as such. As soon, however, as his
subject began to rise and approach the level of their conqueror, a phase of which
ascension was probably the use of his language, the barriers that had distinguished
master from servant broke down. The Aryan neglected to maintain his own racial stock

unmixed and therewith lost the right to live in the paradise which he himself had
created. He became submerged in the racial mixture and gradually lost his cultural
creativeness, until he finally grew, not only mentally but also physically, more like the
aborigines whom he had subjected rather than his own ancestors. For some time he
could continue to live on the capital of that culture which still remained; but a condition
of fossilization soon set in and he sank into oblivion.

That is how cultures and empires decline and yield their places to new formations.

The adulteration of the blood and racial deterioration conditioned thereby are the only
causes that account for the decline of ancient civilizations; for it is never by war that
nations are ruined, but by the loss of their powers of resistance, which are exclusively a
characteristic of pure racial blood. In this world everything that is not of sound racial
stock is like chaff. Every historical event in the world is nothing more nor less than a
manifestation of the instinct of racial self-preservation, whether for weal or woe.

The question as to the ground reasons for the predominant importance of Aryanism can
be answered by pointing out that it is not so much that the Aryans are endowed with a
stronger instinct for self-preservation, but rather that this manifests itself in a way
which is peculiar to themselves. Considered from the subjective standpoint, the will-to-
live is of course equally strong all round and only the forms in which it is expressed are
different. Among the most primitive organisms the instinct for self-preservation does
not extend beyond the care of the individual ego. Egotism, as we call this passion, is so
predominant that it includes even the time element; which means that the present
moment is deemed the most important and that nothing is left to the future. The animal
lives only for itself, searching for food only when it feels hunger and fighting only for
the preservation of its own life. As long as the instinct for self-preservation manifests
itself exclusively in such a way, there is no basis for the establishment of a community;
not even the most primitive form of all, that is to say the family. The society formed by
the male with the female, where it goes beyond the mere conditions of mating, calls for
the extension of the instinct of self-preservation, since the readiness to fight for one's
own ego has to be extended also to the mate. The male sometimes provides food for the
female, but in most cases both parents provide food for the offspring. Almost always
they are ready to protect and defend each other; so that here we find the first, though
infinitely simple, manifestation of the spirit of sacrifice. As soon as this spirit extends
beyond the narrow limits of the family, we have the conditions under which larger
associations and finally even States can be formed.

The lowest species of human beings give evidence of this quality only to a very small
degree, so that often they do not go beyond the formation of the family society. With an
increasing readiness to place their immediate personal interests in the background, the
capacity for organizing more extensive communities develops.

The readiness to sacrifice one's personal work and, if necessary, even one's life for
others shows its most highly developed form in the Aryan race. The greatness of the
Aryan is not based on his intellectual powers, but rather on his willingness to devote all
his faculties to the service of the community. Here the instinct for self-preservation has
reached its noblest form; for the Aryan willingly subordinates his own ego to the
common weal and when necessity calls he will even sacrifice his own life for the

The constructive powers of the Aryan and that peculiar ability he has for the building
up of a culture are not grounded in his intellectual gifts alone. If that were so they might
only be destructive and could never have the ability to organize; for the latter
essentially depends on the readiness of the individual to renounce his own personal
opinions and interests and to lay both at the service of the human group. By serving the
common weal he receives his reward in return. For example, he does not work directly
for himself but makes his productive work a part of the activity of the group to which
he belongs, not only for his own benefit but for the general. The spirit underlying this
attitude is expressed by the word: WORK, which to him does not at all signify a means
of earning one's daily livelihood but rather a productive activity which cannot clash
with the interests of the community. Whenever human activity is directed exclusively to
the service of the instinct for self-preservation it is called theft or usury, robbery or
burglary, etc.

This mental attitude, which forces self-interest to recede into the background in favour
of the common weal, is the first prerequisite for any kind of really human civilization. It
is out of this spirit alone that great human achievements have sprung for which the
original doers have scarcely ever received any recompense but which turns out to be the
source of abundant benefit for their descendants. It is this spirit alone which can explain
why it so often happens that people can endure a harsh but honest existence which
offers them no returns for their toil except a poor and modest livelihood. But such a
livelihood helps to consolidate the foundations on which the community exists. Every
worker and every peasant, every inventor, state official, etc., who works without ever
achieving fortune or prosperity for himself, is a representative of this sublime idea, even
though he may never become conscious of the profound meaning of his own activity.

Everything that may be said of that kind of work which is the fundamental condition of
providing food and the basic means of human progress is true even in a higher sense of
work that is done for the protection of man and his civilization. The renunciation of
one's own life for the sake of the community is the crowning significance of the idea of
all sacrifice. In this way only is it possible to protect what has been built up by man and
to assure that this will not be destroyed by the hand of man or of nature.

In the German language we have a word which admirably expresses this underlying
spirit of all work: It is Pflichterfüllung, which means the service of the common weal

before the consideration of one's own interests. The fundamental spirit out of which this
kind of activity springs is the contradistinction of 'Egotism' and we call it 'Idealism'. By
this we mean to signify the willingness of the individual to make sacrifices for the
community and his fellow-men.

It is of the utmost importance to insist again and again that idealism is not merely a
superfluous manifestation of sentiment but rather something which has been, is and
always will be, a necessary precondition of human civilization; it is even out of this that
the very idea of the word 'Human' arises. To this kind of mentality the Aryan owes his
position in the world. And the world is indebted to the Aryan mind for having
developed the concept of 'mankind'; for it is out of this spirit alone that the creative
force has come which in a unique way combined robust muscular power with a first-
class intellect and thus created the monuments of human civilization.

Were it not for idealism all the faculties of the intellect, even the most brilliant, would
be nothing but intellect itself, a mere external phenomenon without inner value and
never a creative force.

Since true idealism, however, is essentially the subordination of the interests and life of
the individual to the interests and life of the community, and since the community on
its part represents the pre-requisite condition of every form of organization, this
idealism accords in its innermost essence with the final purpose of Nature. This feeling
alone makes men voluntarily acknowledge that strength and power are entitled to take
the lead and thus makes them a constituent particle in that order out of which the
whole universe is shaped and formed.

Without being conscious of it, the purest idealism is always associated with the most
profound knowledge. How true this is and how little genuine idealism has to do with
fantastic self-dramatization will become clear the moment we ask an unspoilt child, a
healthy boy for example, to give his opinion. The very same boy who listens to the
rantings of an 'idealistic' pacifist without understanding them, and even rejects them,
would readily sacrifice his young life for the ideal of his people.

Unconsciously his instinct will submit to the knowledge that the preservation of the
species, even at the cost of the individual life, is a primal necessity and he will protest
against the fantasies of pacifist ranters, who in reality are nothing better than cowardly
egoists, even though camouflaged, who contradict the laws of human development. For
it is a necessity of human evolution that the individual should be imbued with the spirit
of sacrifice in favour of the common weal, and that he should not be influenced by the
morbid notions of those knaves who pretend to know better than Nature and who have
the impudencc to criticize her decrees.

It is just at those junctures when the idealistic attitude threatens to disappear that we
notice a weakening of this force which is a necessary constituent in the founding and
maintenance of the community and is thereby a necessary condition of civilization. As
soon as the spirit of egotism begins to prevail among a people then the bonds of the
social order break and man, by seeking his own personal happiness, veritably tumbles
out of heaven and falls into hell.

Posterity will not remember those who pursued only their own individual interests, but
it will praise those heroes who renounced their own happiness.

The Jew offers the most striking contrast to the Aryan. There is probably no other
people in the world who have so developed the instinct of self-preservation as the so-
called 'chosen' people. The best proof of this statement is found in the simple fact that
this race still exists. Where can another people be found that in the course of the last two
thousand years has undergone so few changes in mental outlook and character as the
Jewish people? And yet what other people has taken such a constant part in the great
revolutions? But even after having passed through the most gigantic catastrophes that
have overwhelmed mankind, the Jews remain the same as ever. What an infinitely
tenacious will-to-live, to preserve one's kind, is demonstrated by that fact!

The intellectual faculties of the Jew have been trained through thousands of years. To-
day the Jew is looked upon as specially 'cunning'; and in a certain sense he has been so
throughout the ages. His intellectual powers, however, are not the result of an inner
evolution but rather have been shaped by the object-lessons which the Jew has received
from others. The human spirit cannot climb upwards without taking successive steps.
For every step upwards it needs the foundation of what has been constructed before--
the past--which in, the comprehensive sense here employed, can have been laid only in
a general civilization. All thinking originates only to a very small degree in personal
experience. The largest part is based on the accumulated experiences of the past. The
general level of civilization provides the individual, who in most cases is not
consciously aware of the fact, with such an abundance of preliminary knowledge that
with this equipment he can more easily take further steps on the road of progress. The
boy of to-day, for example, grows up among such an overwhelming mass of technical
achievement which has accumulated during the last century that he takes as granted
many things which a hundred years ago were still mysteries even to the greatest minds
of those times. Yet these things that are not so much a matter of course are of enormous
importance to those who would understand the progress we have made in these
matters and would carry on that progress a step farther. If a man of genius belonging to
the 'twenties of the last century were to arise from his grave to-day he would find it
more difficult to understand our present age than the contemporary boy of fifteen years
of age who may even have only an average intelligence. The man of genius, thus come
back from the past, would need to provide himself with an extraordinary amount of
preliminary information which our contemporary youth receive automatically, so to

speak, during the time they are growing up among the products of our modern

Since the Jew--for reasons that I shall deal with immediately--never had a civilization of
his own, he has always been furnished by others with a basis for his intellectual work.
His intellect has always developed by the use of those cultural achievements which he
has found ready-to-hand around him.

The process has never been the reverse.

For, though among the Jews the instinct of self-preservation has not been weaker but
has been much stronger than among other peoples, and though the impression may
easily be created that the intellectual powers of the Jew are at least equal to those of
other races, the Jews completely lack the most essential pre-requisite of a cultural
people, namely the idealistic spirit. With the Jewish people the readiness for sacrifice
does not extend beyond the simple instinct of individual preservation. In their case the
feeling of racial solidarity which they apparently manifest is nothing but a very
primitive gregarious instinct, similar to that which may be found among other
organisms in this world. It is a remarkable fact that this herd instinct brings individuals
together for mutual protection only as long as there is a common danger which makes
mutual assistance expedient or inevitable. The same pack of wolves which a moment
ago joined together in a common attack on their victim will dissolve into individual
wolves as soon as their hunger has been satisfied. This is also sure of horses, which
unite to defend themselves against any aggressor but separate the moment the danger
is over.

It is much the same with the Jew. His spirit of sacrifice is only apparent. It manifests
itself only so long as the existence of the individual makes this a matter of absolute
necessity. But as soon as the common foe is conquered and the danger which threatened
the individual Jews is overcome and the prey secured, then the apparent harmony
disappears and the original conditions set in again. Jews act in concord only when a
common danger threatens them or a common prey attracts them. Where these two
motives no longer exist then the most brutal egotism appears and these people who
before had lived together in unity will turn into a swarm of rats that bitterly fight
against each other.

If the Jews were the only people in the world they would be wallowing in filth and mire
and would exploit one another and try to exterminate one another in a bitter struggle,
except in so far as their utter lack of the ideal of sacrifice, which shows itself in their
cowardly spirit, would prevent this struggle from developing.

Therefore it would be a complete mistake to interpret the mutual help which the Jews
render one another when they have to fight--or, to put it more accurately, to exploit--
their fellow being, as the expression of a certain idealistic spirit of sacrifice.

Here again the Jew merely follows the call of his individual egotism. That is why the
Jewish State, which ought to be a vital organization to serve the purpose of preserving
or increasing the race, has absolutely no territorial boundaries. For the territorial
delimitation of a State always demands a certain idealism of spirit on the part of the
race which forms that State and especially a proper acceptance of the idea of work. A
State which is territorially delimited cannot be established or maintained unless the
general attitude towards work be a positive one. If this attitude be lacking, then the
necessary basis of a civilization is also lacking.

That is why the Jewish people, despite the intellectual powers with which they are
apparently endowed, have not a culture--certainly not a culture of their own. The
culture which the Jew enjoys to-day is the product of the work of others and this
product is debased in the hands of the Jew.

In order to form a correct judgment of the place which the Jew holds in relation to the
whole problem of human civilization, we must bear in mind the essential fact that there
never has been any Jewish art and consequently that nothing of this kind exists to-day.
We must realize that especially in those two royal domains of art, namely architecture
and music, the Jew has done no original creative work. When the Jew comes to
producing something in the field of art he merely bowdler-izes something already in
existence or simply steals the intellectual word, of others. The Jew essentially lacks
those qualities which are characteristic of those creative races that are the founders of

To what extent the Jew appropriates the civilization built up by others--or rather
corrupts it, to speak more accurately--is indicated by the fact that he cultivates chiefly
the art which calls for the smallest amount of original invention, namely the dramatic
art. And even here he is nothing better than a kind of juggler or, perhaps more correctly
speaking, a kind of monkey imitator; for in this domain also he lacks the creative elan
which is necessary for the production of all really great work. Even here, therefore, he is
not a creative genius but rather a superficial imitator who, in spite of all his retouching
and tricks, cannot disguise the fact that there is no inner vitality in the shape he gives
his products. At this juncture the Jewish Press comes in and renders friendly assistance
by shouting hosannas over the head of even the most ordinary bungler of a Jew, until
the rest of the world is stampeded into thinking that the object of so much praise must
really be an artist, whereas in reality he may be nothing more than a low-class mimic.

No; the Jews have not the creative abilities which are necessary to the founding of a
civilization; for in them there is not, and never has been, that spirit of idealism which is

an absolutely necessary element in the higher development of mankind. Therefore the
Jewish intellect will never be constructive but always destructive. At best it may serve
as a stimulus in rare cases but only within the meaning of the poet's lines: 'THE POWER
through his help but in spite of his help that mankind makes any progress.

Since the Jew has never had a State which was based on territorial delimitations, and
therefore never a civilization of his own, the idea arose that here we were dealing with a
people who had to be considered as Nomads. That is a great and mischievous mistake.
The true nomad does actually possess a definite delimited territory where he lives. It is
merely that he does not cultivate it, as the settled farmer does, but that he lives on the
products of his herds, with which he wanders over his domain. The natural reason for
this mode of existence is to be found in the fact that the soil is not fertile and that it does
not give the steady produce which makes a fixed abode possible. Outside of this natural
cause, however, there is a more profound cause: namely, that no mechanical civilization
is at hand to make up for the natural poverty of the region in question. There are
territories where the Aryan can establish fixed settlements by means of the technical
skill which he has developed in the course of more than a thousand years, even though
these territories would otherwise have to be abandoned, unless the Aryan were willing
to wander about them in nomadic fashion; but his technical tradition and his age-long
experience of the use of technical means would probably make the nomadic life
unbearable for him. We ought to remember that during the first period of American
colonization numerous Aryans earned their daily livelihood as trappers and hunters,
etc., frequently wandering about in large groups with their women and children, their
mode of existence very much resembling that of ordinary nomads. The moment,
however, that they grew more numerous and were able to accumulate larger resources,
they cleared the land and drove out the aborigines, at the same time establishing
settlements which rapidly increased all over the country.

The Aryan himself was probably at first a nomad and became a settler in the course of
ages. But yet he was never of the Jewish kind. The Jew is not a nomad; for the nomad
has already a definite attitude towards the concept of 'work', and this attitude served as
the basis of a later cultural development, when the necessary intellectual conditions
were at hand. There is a certain amount of idealism in the general attitude of the
nomad, even though it be rather primitive. His whole character may, therefore, be
foreign to Aryan feeling but it will never be repulsive. But not even the slightest trace of
idealism exists in the Jewish character. The Jew has never been a nomad, but always a
parasite, battening on the substance of others. If he occasionally abandoned regions
where he had hitherto lived he did not do it voluntarily. He did it because from time to
time he was driven out by people who were tired of having their hospitality abused by
such guests. Jewish self-expansion is a parasitic phenomenon--since the Jew is always
looking for new pastures for his race.

But this has nothing to do with nomadic life as such; because the Jew does not ever
think of leaving a territory which he has once occupied. He sticks where he is with such
tenacity that he can hardly be driven out even by superior physical force. He expands
into new territories only when certain conditions for his existence are provided therein;
but even then--unlike the nomad--he will not change his former abode. He is and
remains a parasite, a sponger who, like a pernicious bacillus, spreads over wider and
wider areas according as some favourable area attracts him. The effect produced by his
presence is also like that of the vampire; for wherever he establishes himself the people
who grant him hospitality are bound to be bled to death sooner or later. Thus the Jew
has at all times lived in States that have belonged to other races and within the
organization of those States he had formed a State of his own, which is, however,
hidden behind the mask of a 'religious community', as long as external circumstances
do not make it advisable for this community to declare its true nature. As soon as the
Jew feels himself sufficiently established in his position to be able to hold it without a
disguise, he lifts the mask and suddenly appears in the character which so many did
not formerly believe or wish to see: namely that of the Jew.

The life which the Jew lives as a parasite thriving on the substance of other nations and
States has resulted in developing that specific character which Schopenhauer once
described when he spoke of the Jew as 'The Great Master of Lies'. The kind of existence
which he leads forces the Jew to the systematic use of falsehood, just as naturally as the
inhabitants of northern climates are forced to wear warm clothes.

He can live among other nations and States only as long as he succeeds in persuading
them that the Jews are not a distinct people but the representatives of a religious faith
who thus constitute a 'religious community', though this be of a peculiar character.

As a matter of fact, however, this is the first of his great falsehoods.

He is obliged to conceal his own particular character and mode of life that he may be
allowed to continue his existence as a parasite among the nations. The greater the
intelligence of the individual Jew, the better will he succeed in deceiving others. His
success in this line may even go so far that the people who grant him hospitality may be
led to believe that the Jew among them is a genuine Frenchman, for instance, or
Englishman or German or Italian, who just happens to belong to a religious
denomination which is different from that prevailing in these countries. Especially in
circles concerned with the executive administration of the State, where the officials
generally have only a minimum of historical sense, the Jew is able to impose his
infamous deception with comparative ease. In these circles independent thinking is
considered a sin against the sacred rules according to which official promotion takes
place. It is therefore not surprising that even to-day in the Bavarian government offices,
for example, there is not the slightest suspicion that the Jews form a distinct nation

themselves and are not merely the adherents of a 'Confession', though one glance at the
Press which belongs to the Jews ought to furnish sufficient evidence to the contrary
even for those who possess only the smallest degree of intelligence. The JEWISH ECHO,
however, is not an official gazette and therefore not authoritative in the eyes of those
government potentates.

Jewry has always been a nation of a definite racial character and never differentiated
merely by the fact of belonging to a certain religion. At a very early date, urged on by
the desire to make their way in the world, the Jews began to cast about for a means
whereby they might distract such attention as might prove inconvenient for them. What
could be more effective and at the same time more above suspicion than to borrow and
utilize the idea of the religious community? Here also everything is copied, or rather
stolen; for the Jew could not possess any religious institution which had developed out
of his own consciousness, seeing that he lacks every kind of idealism; which means that
belief in a life beyond this terrestrial existence is foreign to him. In the Aryan mind no
religion can ever be imagined unless it embodies the conviction that life in some form or
other will continue after death. As a matter of fact, the Talmud is not a book that lays
down principles according to which the individual should prepare for the life to come.
It only furnishes rules for a practical and convenient life in this world.

The religious teaching of the Jews is principally a collection of instructions for
maintaining the Jewish blood pure and for regulating intercourse between Jews and the
rest of the world: that is to say, their relation with non-Jews. But the Jewish religious
teaching is not concerned with moral problems. It is rather concerned with economic
problems, and very petty ones at that. In regard to the moral value of the religious
teaching of the Jews there exist and always have existed quite exhaustive studies (not
from the Jewish side; for whatever the Jews have written on this question has naturally
always been of a tendentious character) which show up the kind of religion that the
Jews have in a light that makes it look very uncanny to the Aryan mind. The Jew
himself is the best example of the kind of product which this religious training evolves.
His life is of this world only and his mentality is as foreign to the true spirit of
Christianity as his character was foreign to the great Founder of this new creed two
thousand years ago. And the Founder of Christianity made no secret indeed of His
estimation of the Jewish people. When He found it necessary He drove those enemies of
the human race out of the Temple of God; because then, as always, they used religion as
a means of advancing their commercial interests. But at that time Christ was nailed to
the Cross for his attitude towards the Jews; whereas our modern Christians enter into
party politics and when elections are being held they debase themselves to beg for
Jewish votes. They even enter into political intrigues with the atheistic Jewish parties
against the interests of their own Christian nation.

On this first and fundamental lie, the purpose of which is to make people believe that
Jewry is not a nation but a religion, other lies are subsequently based. One of those

further lies, for example, is in connection with the language spoken by the Jew. For him
language is not an instrument for the expression of his inner thoughts but rather a
means of cloaking them. When talking French his thoughts are Jewish and when
writing German rhymes he only gives expression to the character of his own race.

As long as the Jew has not succeeded in mastering other peoples he is forced to speak
their language whether he likes it or not. But the moment that the world would become
the slave of the Jew it would have to learn some other language (Esperanto, for
example) so that by this means the Jew could dominate all the more easily.

How much the whole existence of this people is based on a permanent falsehood is
proved in a unique way by 'The Protocols of the Elders of Zion', which are so violently
repudiated by the Jews. With groans and moans, the FRANKFURTER ZEITUNG
repeats again and again that these are forgeries. This alone is evidence in favour of their
authenticity. What many Jews unconsciously wish to do is here clearly set forth. It is not
necessary to ask out of what Jewish brain these revelations sprang; but what is of vital
interest is that they disclose, with an almost terrifying precision, the mentality and
methods of action characteristic of the Jewish people and these writings expound in all
their various directions the final aims towards which the Jews are striving. The study of
real happenings, however, is the best way of judging the authenticity of those
documents. If the historical developments which have taken place within the last few
centuries be studied in the light of this book we shall understand why the Jewish Press
incessantly repudiates and denounces it. For the Jewish peril will be stamped out the
moment the general public come into possession of that book and understand it.

In order to get to know the Jew properly it is necessary to study the road which he has
been following among the other peoples during the last few centuries. One example
will suffice to give a clear insight here. Since his career has been the same at all epochs--
just as the people at whose expense he has lived have remained the same--for the
purposes of making the requisite analysis it will be best to mark his progress by stages.
For the sake of simplicity we shall indicate these stages by letters of the alphabet.

The first Jews came into what was then called Germania during the period of the
Roman invasion; and, as usual, they came as merchants. During the turmoil caused by
the great migrations of the German tribes the Jews seem to have disappeared. We may
therefore consider the period when the Germans formed the first political communities
as the beginning of that process whereby Central and Northern Europe was again, and
this time permanently, Judaized. A development began which has always been the
same or similar wherever and whenever Jews came into contact with Aryan peoples.

(a) As soon as the first permanent settlements had been established the Jew was
suddenly 'there'. He arrived as a merchant and in the beginning did not trouble to
disguise his nationality. He still remained openly a Jew, partly it may be because he

knew too little of the language. It may also be that people of other races refused to mix
with him, so that he could not very well adopt any other appearance than that of a
foreign merchant. Because of his subtlety and cunning and the lack of experience on the
part of the people whose guest he became, it was not to his disadvantage openly to
retain his Jewish character. This may even have been advantageous to him; for the
foreigner was received kindly.

(b) Slowly but steadily he began to take part in the economic life around him; not as a
producer, however, but only as a middleman. His commercial cunning, acquired
through thousands of years of negotiation as an intermediary, made him superior in
this field to the Aryans, who were still quite ingenuous and indeed clumsy and whose
honesty was unlimited; so that after a short while commerce seemed destined to
become a Jewish monopoly. The Jew began by lending out money at usurious interest,
which is a permanent trade of his. It was he who first introduced the payment of
interest on borrowed money. The danger which this innovation involved was not at
first recognized; indeed the innovation was welcomed, because it offered momentary

(c) At this stage the Jew had become firmly settled down; that is to say, he inhabited
special sections of the cities and towns and had his own quarter in the market-places.
Thus he gradually came to form a State within a State. He came to look upon the
commercial domain and all money transactions as a privilege belonging exclusively to
himself and he exploited it ruthlessly.

(d) At this stage finance and trade had become his complete monopoly. Finally, his
usurious rate of interest aroused opposition and the increasing impudence which the
Jew began to manifest all round stirred up popular indignation, while his display of
wealth gave rise to popular envy. The cup of his iniquity became full to the brim when
he included landed property among his commercial wares and degraded the soil to the
level of a market commodity. Since he himself never cultivated the soil but considered it
as an object to be exploited, on which the peasant may still remain but only on
condition that he submits to the most heartless exactions of his new master, public
antipathy against the Jew steadily increased and finally turned into open animosity. His
extortionate tyranny became so unbearable that people rebelled against his control and
used physical violence against him. They began to scrutinize this foreigner somewhat
more closely, and then began to discover the repulsive traits and characteristics inherent
in him, until finally an abyss opened between the Jews and their hosts, across which
abyss there could be no further contact.

In times of distress a wave of public anger has usually arisen against the Jew; the
masses have taken the law into their own hands; they have seized Jewish property and
ruined the Jew in their urge to protect themselves against what they consider to be a
scourge of God. Having come to know the Jew intimately through the course of

centuries, in times of distress they looked upon his presence among them as a public
danger comparable only to the plague.

(e) But then the Jew began to reveal his true character. He paid court to governments,
with servile flattery, used his money to ingratiate himself further and thus regularly
secured for himself once again the privilege of exploiting his victim. Although public
wrath flared up against this eternal profiteer and drove him out, after a few years he
reappeared in those same places and carried on as before. No persecution could force
him to give up his trade of exploiting other people and no amount of harrying
succeeded in driving him out permanently. He always returned after a short time and it
was always the old story with him.

In an effort to save at least the worst from happening, legislation was passed which
debarred the Jew from obtaining possession of the land.

(f) In proportion as the powers of kings and princes increased, the Jew sidled up to
them. He begged for 'charters' and 'privileges' which those gentlemen, who were
generally in financial straits, gladly granted if they received adequate payment in
return. However high the price he has to pay, the Jew will succeed in getting it back
within a few years from operating the privilege he has acquired, even with interest and
compound interest. He is a real leech who clings to the body of his unfortunate victims
and cannot be removed; so that when the princes found themselves in need once again
they took the blood from his swollen veins with their own hands.

This game was repeated unendingly. In the case of those who were called 'German
Princes', the part they played was quite as contemptible as that played by the Jew. They
were a real scourge for their people. Their compeers may be found in some of the
government ministers of our time.

It was due to the German princes that the German nation could not succeed in
definitely freeing itself from the Jewish peril. Unfortunately the situation did not change
at a later period. The princes finally received the reward which they had a thousand-
fold deserved for all the crimes committed by them against their own people. They had
allied themselves with Satan and later on they discovered that they were in Satan's

(g) By permitting themselves to be entangled in the toils of the Jew, the princes
prepared their own downfall. The position which they held among their people was
slowly but steadily undermined not only by their continued failure to guard the
interests of their subjects but by the positive exploitation of them. The Jew calculated
exactly the time when the downfall of the princes was approaching and did his best to
hasten it. He intensified their financial difficulties by hindering them in the exercise of
their duty towards their people, by inveigling them through the most servile flatteries

into further personal display, whereby he made himself more and more indispensable
to them. His astuteness, or rather his utter unscrupulousness, in money affairs enabled
him to exact new income from the princes, to squeeze the money out of them and then
have it spent as quickly as possible. Every Court had its 'Court Jews', as this plague was
called, who tortured the innocent victims until they were driven to despair; while at the
same time this Jew provided the means which the princes squandered on their own
pleasures. It is not to be wondered at that these ornaments of the human race became
the recipients of official honours and even were admitted into the ranks of the
hereditary nobility, thus contributing not only to expose that social institution to
ridicule but also to contaminate it from the inside.

Naturally the Jew could now exploit the position to which he had attained and push
himself forward even more rapidly than before. Finally he became baptized and thus
entitled to all the rights and privileges which belonged to the children of the nation on
which he preyed. This was a high-class stroke of business for him, and he often availed
himself of it, to the great joy of the Church, which was proud of having gained a new
child in the Faith, and also to the joy of Israel, which was happy at seeing the trick
pulled off successfully.

(h) At this stage a transformation began to take place in the world of Jewry. Up to now
they had been Jews--that is to say, they did not hitherto set any great value on
pretending to be something else; and anyhow the distinctive characteristics which
separated them from other races could not be easily overcome. Even as late as the time
of Frederick the Great nobody looked upon the Jews as other than a 'foreign' people,
and Goethe rose up in revolt against the failure legally to prohibit marriage between
Christians and Jews. Goethe was certainly no reactionary and no time-server. What he
said came from the voice of the blood and the voice of reason. Notwithstanding the
disgraceful happenings taking place in Court circles, the people recognized instinctively
that the Jew was the foreign body in their own flesh and their attitude towards him was
directed by recognition of that fact.

But a change was now destined to take place. In the course of more than a thousand
years the Jew had learned to master the language of his hosts so thoroughly that he
considered he might now lay stress on his Jewish character and emphasize the
'Germanism' a bit more. Though it must have appeared ridiculous and absurd at first
sight, he was impudent enough to call himself a 'Teuton', which in this case meant a
German. In that way began one of the most infamous impositions that can be imagined.
The Jew did not possess the slightest traces of the German character. He had only
acquired the art of twisting the German language to his own uses, and that in a
disgusting way, without having assimilated any other feature of the German character.
Therefore his command of the language was the sole ground on which he could pretend
to be a German. It is not however by the tie of language, but exclusively by the tie of
blood that the members of a race are bound together. And the Jew himself knows this

better than any other, seeing that he attaches so little importance to the preservation of
his own language while at the same time he strives his utmost to maintain his blood
free from intermixture with that of other races. A man may acquire and use a new
language without much trouble; but it is only his old ideas that he expresses through
the new language. His inner nature is not modified thereby. The best proof of this is
furnished by the Jew himself. He may speak a thousand tongues and yet his Jewish
nature will remain always one and the same. His distinguishing characteristics were the
same when he spoke the Latin language at Ostia two thousand years ago as a merchant
in grain, as they are to-day when he tries to sell adulterated flour with the aid of his
German gibberish. He is always the same Jew. That so obvious a fact is not recognized
by the average head-clerk in a German government department, or by an officer in the
police administration, is also a self-evident and natural fact; since it would be difficult
to find another class of people who are so lacking in instinct and intelligence as the civil
servants employed by our modern German State authorities.

The reason why, at the stage I am dealing with, the Jew so suddenly decided to
transform himself into a German is not difficult to discover. He felt the power of the
princes slowly crumbling and therefore looked about to find a new social plank on
which he might stand. Furthermore, his financial domination over all the spheres of
economic life had become so powerful that he felt he could no longer sustain that
enormous structure or add to it unless he were admitted to the full enjoyment of the
'rights of citizenship.' He aimed at both, preservation and expansion; for the higher he
could climb the more alluring became the prospect of reaching the old goal, which was
promised to him in ancient times, namely world-rulership, and which he now looked
forward to with feverish eyes, as he thought he saw it visibly approaching. Therefore all
his efforts were now directed to becoming a fully-fledged citizen, endowed with all civil
and political rights.

That was the reason for his emancipation from the Ghetto.

(i) And thus the Court Jew slowly developed into the national Jew. But naturally he still
remained associated with persons in higher quarters and he even attempted to push his
way further into the inner circles of the ruling set. But at the same time some other
representatives of his race were currying favour with the people. If we remember the
crimes the Jew had committed against the masses of the people in the course of so many
centuries, how repeatedly and ruthlessly he exploited them and how he sucked out
even the very marrow of their substance, and when we further remember how they
gradually came to hate him and finally considered him as a public scourge--then we
may well understand how difficult the Jew must have found this final transformation.
Yes, indeed, it must tax all their powers to be able to present themselves as 'friends of
humanity' to the poor victims whom they have skinned raw.

Therefore the Jew began by making public amends for the crimes which he had
committed against the people in the past. He started his metamorphosis by first
appearing as the 'benefactor' of humanity. Since his new philanthropic policy had a
very concrete aim in view, he could not very well apply to himself the biblical counsel,
not to allow the left hand to know what the right hand is giving. He felt obliged to let as
many people as possible know how deeply the sufferings of the masses grieved him
and to what excesses of personal sacrifice he was ready to go in order to help them.
With this manifestation of innate modesty, so typical of the Jew, he trumpeted his
virtues before the world until finally the world actually began to believe him. Those
who refused to share this belief were considered to be doing him an injustice. Thus after
a little while he began to twist things around, so as to make it appear that it was he who
had always been wronged, and vice versa. There were really some particularly foolish
people who could not help pitying this poor unfortunate creature of a Jew.

Attention may be called to the fact that, in spite of his proclaimed readiness to make
personal sacrifices, the Jew never becomes poor thereby. He has a happy knack of
always making both ends meet. Occasionally his benevolence might be compared to the
manure which is not spread over the field merely for the purpose of getting rid of it, but
rather with a view to future produce. Anyhow, after a comparatively short period of
time, the world was given to know that the Jew had become a general benefactor and
philanthropist. What a transformation!

What is looked upon as more or less natural when done by other people here became an
object of astonishment, and even sometimes of admiration, because it was considered so
unusual in a Jew. That is why he has received more credit for his acts of benevolence
than ordinary mortals.

And something more: The Jew became liberal all of a sudden and began to talk
enthusiastically of how human progress must be encouraged. Gradually he assumed
the air of being the herald of a new age.

Yet at the same time he continued to undermine the ground-work of that part of the
economic system in which the people have the most practical interest. He bought up
stock in the various national undertakings and thus pushed his influence into the circuit
of national production, making this latter an object of buying and selling on the stock
exchange, or rather what might be called the pawn in a financial game of chess, and
thus ruining the basis on which personal proprietorship alone is possible. Only with the
entrance of the Jew did that feeling of estrangement, between employers and employees
begin which led at a later date to the political class-struggle.

Finally the Jew gained an increasing influence in all economic undertakings by means
of his predominance in the stock-exchange. If not the ownership, at least he secured
control of the working power of the nation.

In order to strengthen his political position, he directed his efforts towards removing
the barrier of racial and civic discrimination which had hitherto hindered his advance at
every turn. With characteristic tenacity he championed the cause of religious tolerance
for this purpose; and in the freemason organization, which had fallen completely into
his hands, he found a magnificent weapon which helped him to achieve his ends.
Government circles, as well as the higher sections of the political and commercial
bourgeoisie, fell a prey to his plans through his manipulation of the masonic net,
though they themselves did not even suspect what was happening.

Only the people as such, or rather the masses which were just becoming conscious of
their own power and were beginning to use it in the fight for their rights and liberties,
had hitherto escaped the grip of the Jew. At least his influence had not yet penetrated to
the deeper and wider sections of the people. This was unsatisfactory to him. The most
important phase of his policy was therefore to secure control over the people. The Jew
realized that in his efforts to reach the position of public despot he would need a 'peace-
maker.' And he thought he could find a peace-maker if he could whip-in sufficient
extensive sections of the bourgeois. But the freemasons failed to catch the glove-
manufacturers and the linen-weavers in the frail meshes of their net. And so it became
necessary to find a grosser and withal a more effective means. Thus another weapon
beside that of freemasonry would have to be secured. This was the Press. The Jew
exercised all his skill and tenacity in getting hold of it. By means of the Press he began
gradually to control public life in its entirety. He began to drive it along the road which
he had chosen to reach his own ends; for he was now in a position to create and direct
that force which, under the name of 'public opinion' is better known to-day than it was
some decades ago.

Simultaneously the Jew gave himself the air of thirsting after knowledge. He lauded
every phase of progress, particularly those phases which led to the ruin of others; for he
judges all progress and development from the standpoint of the advantages which
these bring to his own people. When it brings him no such advantages he is the deadly
enemy of enlightenment and hates all culture which is real culture as such. All the
knowledge which he acquires in the schools of others is exploited by him exclusively in
the service of his own race.

Even more watchfully than ever before, he now stood guard over his Jewish nationality.
Though bubbling over with 'enlightenment', 'progress', 'liberty', 'humanity', etc., his first
care was to preserve the racial integrity of his own people. He occasionally bestowed
one of his female members on an influential Christian; but the racial stock of his male
descendants was always preserved unmixed fundamentally. He poisons the blood of
others but preserves his own blood unadulterated. The Jew scarcely ever marries a
Christian girl, but the Christian takes a Jewess to wife. The mongrels that are a result of
this latter union always declare themselves on the Jewish side. Thus a part of the higher

nobility in particular became completely degenerate. The Jew was well aware of this
fact and systematically used this means of disarming the intellectual leaders of the
opposite race. To mask his tactics and fool his victims, he talks of the equality of all
men, no matter what their race or colour may be. And the simpletons begin to believe

Since his whole nature still retains too foreign an odour for the broad masses of the
people to allow themselves to be caught in his snare, he uses the Press to put before the
public a picture of himself which is entirely untrue to life but well designed to serve his
purpose. In the comic papers special efforts are made to represent the Jews as an
inoffensive little race which, like all others, has its peculiarities. In spite of their
manners, which may seem a bit strange, the comic papers present the Jews as
fundamentally good-hearted and honourable. Attempts are generally made to make
them appear insignificant rather than dangerous.

During this phase of his progress the chief goal of the Jew was the victory of democracy,
or rather the supreme hegemony of the parliamentary system, which embodies his
concept of democracy. This institution harmonises best with his purposes; for thus the
personal element is eliminated and in its place we have the dunder-headed majority,
inefficiency and, last but by no means least, knavery.

The final result must necessarily have been the overthrow of the monarchy, which had
to happen sooner or later.

(j) A tremendous economic development transformed the social structure of the nation.
The small artisan class slowly disappeared and the factory worker, who took its place,
had scarcely any chance of establishing an independent existence of his own but sank
more and more to the level of a proletariat. An essential characteristic of the factory
worker is that he is scarcely ever able to provide for an independent source of
livelihood which will support him in later life. In the true sense of the word, he is
'disinherited'. His old age is a misery to him and can hardly be called life at all.

In earlier times a similar situation had been created, which had imperatively demanded
a solution and for which a solution was found. Side by side with the peasant and the
artisan, a new class was gradually developed, namely that of officials and employees,
especially those employed in the various services of the State. They also were a
'disinherited' class, in the true sense of the word. But the State found a remedy for this
unhealthy situation by taking upon itself the duty of providing for the State official who
could establish nothing that would be an independent means of livelihood for himself
in his old age. Thus the system of pensions and retiring allowances was introduced.
Private enterprises slowly followed this example in increasing numbers; so that to-day
every permanent non-manual worker receives a pension in his later years, if the firm
which he has served is one that has reached or gone beyond a certain size. It was only

by virtue of the assurance given of State officials, that they would be cared for in their
old age. that such a high degree of unselfish devotion to duty was developed, which in
pre-war times was one of the distinguising characteristics of German officials.

Thus a whole class which had no personal property was saved from destitution by an
intelligent system of provision, and found a place in the social structure of the national

The problem is now put before the State and nation, but this time in a much larger form.
When the new industries sprang up and developed, millions of people left the
countryside and the villages to take up employment in the big factories. The conditions
under which this new class found itself forced to live were worse than miserable. The
more or less mechanical transformation of the methods of work hitherto in vogue
among the artisans and peasants did not fit in well with the habits or mentality of this
new working-class. The way in which the peasants and artisans had formerly worked
had nothing comparable to the intensive labour of the new factory worker. In the old
trades time did not play a highly important role, but it became an essential element in
the new industrial system. The formal taking over of the old working hours into the
mammoth industrial enterprises had fatal results. The actual amount of work hitherto
accomplished within a certain time was comparatively small, because the modern
methods of intensive production were then unknown. Therefore, though in the older
system a working day of fourteen or even fifteen hours was not unendurable, now it
was beyond the possibilities of human endurance because in the new system every
minute was utilized to the extreme. This absurd transference of the old working hours
to the new industrial system proved fatal in two directions. First, it ruined the health of
the workers; secondly, it destroyed their faith in a superior law of justice. Finally, on the
one hand a miserable wage was received and, on the other, the employer held a much
more lucrative position than before. Hence a striking difference between the ways of life
on the one side and on the other.

In the open country there could be no social problem, because the master and the farm-
hand were doing the same kind of work and doing it together. They ate their food in
common, and sometimes even out of the same dish. But in this sphere also the new
system introduced an entirely different set of conditions between masters and men.

The division created between employer and employees seems not to have extended to
all branches of life. How far this Judaizing process has been allowed to take effect
among our people is illustrated by the fact that manual labour not only receives
practically no recognition but is even considered degrading. That is not a natural
German attitude. It is due to the introduction of a foreign element into our lives, and
that foreign element is the Jewish spirit, one of the effects of which has been to
transform the high esteem in which our handicrafts once were held into a definite
feeling that all physical labour is something base and unworthy.

Thus a new social class has grown up which stands in low esteem; and the day must
come when we shall have to face the question of whether the nation will be able to
make this class an integral part of the social community or whether the difference of
status now existing will become a permanent gulf separating this class from the others.

One thing, however, is certain: This class does not include the worst elements of the
community in its ranks. Rather the contrary is the truth: it includes the most energetic
parts of the nation. The sophistication which is the result of a so-called civilization has
not yet exercised its disintegrating and degenerating influence on this class. The broad
masses of this new lower class, constituted by the manual labourers, have not yet fallen
a prey to the morbid weakness of pacifism. These are still robust and, if necessary, they
can be brutal.

While our bourgeoisie middle class paid no attention at all to this momentous problem
and indifferently allowed events to take their course, the Jew seized upon the manifold
possibilities which the situation offered him for the future. While on the one hand he
organized capitalistic methods of exploitation to their ultimate degree of efficiency, he
curried favour with the victims of his policy and his power and in a short while became
the leader of their struggle against himself. 'Against himself' is here only a figurative
way of speaking; for this 'Great Master of Lies' knows how to appear in the guise of the
innocent and throw the guilt on others. Since he had the impudence to take a personal
lead among the masses, they never for a moment suspected that they were falling a
prey to one of the most infamous deceits ever practised. And yet that is what it actually

The moment this new class had arisen out of the general economic situation and taken
shape as a definite body in the social order, the Jew saw clearly where he would find
the necessary pacemaker for his own progressive march. At first he had used the
bourgeois class as a battering-ram against the feudal order; and now he used the
worker against the bourgeois world. Just as he succeeded in obtaining civic rights by
intrigues carried on under the protection of the bourgeois class, he now hoped that by
joining in the struggle which the workers were waging for their own existence he
would be able to obtain full control over them.

When that moment arrives, then the only objective the workers will have to fight for
will be the future of the Jewish people. Without knowing it, the worker is placing
himself at the service of the very power against which he believes he is fighting.
Apparently he is made to fight against capital and thus he is all the more easily brought
to fight for capitalist interests. Outcries are systematically raised against international
capital but in reality it is against the structure of national economics that these slogans
are directed. The idea is to demolish this structure and on its ruins triumphantly erect
the structure of the International Stock Exchange.

In this line of action the procedure of the Jew was as follows:

He kowtowed to the worker, hypocritically pretended to feel pity for him and his lot,
and even to be indignant at the misery and poverty which the worker had to endure.
That is the way in which the Jew endeavoured to gain the confidence of the working
class. He showed himself eager to study their various hardships, whether real or
imaginary, and strove to awaken a yearning on the part of the workers to change the
conditions under which they lived. The Jew artfully enkindled that innate yearning for
social justice which is a typical Aryan characteristic. Once that yearning became alive it
was transformed into hatred against those in more fortunate circumstances of life. The
next stage was to give a precise philosophical aspect to the struggle for the elimination
of social wrongs. And thus the Marxist doctrine was invented.

By presenting his doctrine as part and parcel of a just revindication of social rights, the
Jew propagated the doctrine all the more effectively. But at the same time he provoked
the opposition of decent people who refused to admit these demands which, because of
the form and pseudo-philosophical trimmings in which they are presented, seemed
fundamentally unjust and impossible for realization. For, under the cloak of purely
social concepts there are hidden aims which are of a Satanic character. These aims are
even expounded in the open with the clarity of unlimited impudence. This Marxist
doctrine is an individual mixture of human reason and human absurdity; but the
combination is arranged in such a way that only the absurd part of it could ever be put
into practice, but never the reasonable part of it. By categorically repudiating the
personal worth of the individual and also the nation and its racial constituent, this
doctrine destroys the fundamental basis of all civilization; for civilization essentially
depends on these very factors. Such is the true essence of the Marxist
WELTANSCHAUUNG, so far as the word WELTANSCHAUUNG can be applied at all
to this phantom arising from a criminal brain. The destruction of the concept of
personality and of race removes the chief obstacle which barred the way to domination
of the social body by its inferior elements, which are the Jews.

The very absurdity of the economic and political theories of Marxism gives the doctrine
its peculiar significance. Because of its pseudo-logic, intelligent people refuse to support
it, while all those who are less accustomed to use their intellectual faculties, or who
have only a rudimentary notion of economic principles, join the Marxist cause with
flying banners. The intelligence behind the movement--for even this movement needs
intelligence if it is to subsist--is supplied by the Jews themselves, naturally of course as a
gratuitous service which is at the same time a sacrifice on their part.

Thus arose a movement which was composed exclusively of manual workers under the
leadership of Jews. To all external appearances, this movement strives to ameliorate the

conditions under which the workers live; but in reality its aim is to enslave and thereby
annihilate the non-Jewish races.

The propaganda which the freemasons had carried on among the so-called
intelligentsia, whereby their pacifist teaching paralysed the instinct for national self-
preservation, was now extended to the broad masses of the workers and bourgeoisie by
means of the Press, which was almost everywhere in Jewish hands. To those two
instruments of disintegration a third and still more ruthless one was added, namely, the
organization of brute physical force among the masses. As massed columns of attacks,
the Marxist troops stormed those parts of the social order which had been left standing
after the two former undermining operations had done their work.

The combined activity of all these forces has been marvellously managed. And it will
not be surprising if it turns out that those institutions which have always appeared as
the organs of the more or less traditional authority of the State should now fall before
the Marxist attack. Among our higher and highest State officials, with very few
exceptions, the Jew has found the cost complacent backers in his work of destruction.
An attitude of sneaking servility towards 'superiors' and supercilious arrogance
towards 'inferiors' are the characteristics of this class of people, as well as a grade of
stupidity which is really frightening and at the same time a towering self-conceit, which
has been so consistently developed to make it amusing.

But these qualities are of the greatest utility to the Jew in his dealings with our
authorities. Therefore they are qualities which he appreciates most in the officials.

If I were to sketch roughly the actual struggle which is now beginning I should describe
it somewhat thus:

Not satisfied with the economic conquest of the world, but also demanding that it must
come under his political control, the Jew subdivides the organized Marxist power into
two parts, which correspond to the ultimate objectives that are to be fought for in this
struggle which is carried on under the direction of the Jew. To outward appearance,
these seem to be two independent movements, but in reality they constitute an
indivisible unity. The two divisions are: The political movement and the trades union

The trades union movement has to gather in the recruits. It offers assistance and
protection to the workers in the hard struggle which they have to wage for the bare
means of existence, a struggle which has been occasioned by the greediness and
narrow-mindedness of many of the industrialists. Unless the workers be ready to
surrender all claims to an existence which the dignity of human nature itself demands,
and unless they are ready to submit their fate to the will of employers who in many
cases have no sense of human responsibilities and are utterly callous to human wants,

then the worker must necessarily take matters into his own hands, seeing that the
organized social community--that is to say, the State--pays no attention to his needs.

The so-called national-minded bourgeoisie, blinded by its own material interests,
opposes this life-or-death struggle of the workers and places the most difficult obstacles
in their way. Not only does this bourgeoisie hinder all efforts to enact legislation which
would shorten the inhumanly long hours of work, prohibit child-labour, grant security
and protection to women and improve the hygienic conditions of the workshops and
the dwellings of the working-class, but while the bourgeoisie hinders all this the shrewd
Jew takes the cause of the oppressed into his own hands. He gradually becomes the
leader of the trades union movements, which is an easy task for him, because he does
not genuinely intend to find remedies for the social wrong: he pursues only one
objective, namely, to gather and consolidate a body of followers who will act under his
commands as an armed weapon in the economic war for the destruction of national
economic independence. For, while a sound social policy has to move between the two
poles of securing a decent level of public health and welfare on the one hand and, on
the other, that of safeguarding the independence of the economic life of the nation, the
Jew does not take these poles into account at all. The destruction of both is one of his
main objects. He would ruin, rather than safeguard, the independence of the national
economic system. Therefore, as the leader of the trades union movement, he has no
scruples about putting forward demands which not only go beyond the declared
purpose of the movement but could not be carried into effect without ruining the
national economic structure. On the other hand, he has no interest in seeing a healthy
and sturdy population develop; he would be more content to see the people degenerate
into an unthinking herd which could be reduced to total subjection. Because these are
his final objectives, he can afford to put forward the most absurd claims. He knows very
well that these claims can never be realized and that therefore nothing in the actual state
of affairs could be altered by them, but that the most they can do is to arouse the spirit
of unrest among the masses. That is exactly the purpose which he wishes such
propaganda to serve and not a real and honest improvement of the social conditions.

The Jews will therefore remain the unquestioned leaders of the trades union movement
so long as a campaign is not undertaken, which must be carried out on gigantic lines,
for the enlightenment of the masses; so that they will be enabled better to understand
the causes of their misery. Or the same end might be achieved if the government
authorities would get rid of the Jew and his work. For as long as the masses remain so
ill-informed as they actually are to-day, and as long as the State remains as indifferent
to their lot as it now is, the masses will follow whatever leader makes them the most
extravagant promises in regard to economic matters. The Jew is a past master at this art
and his activities are not hampered by moral considerations of any kind.

Naturally it takes him only a short time to defeat all his competitors in this field and
drive them from the scene of action. In accordance with the general brutality and

rapacity of his nature, he turns the trades union movement into an organization for the
exercise of physical violence. The resistance of those whose common sense has hitherto
saved them from surrendering to the Jewish dictatorship is now broken down by
terrorization. The success of that kind of activity is enormous.

Parallel with this, the political organization advances. It operates hand-in-hand with the
trades union movement, inasmuch as the latter prepares the masses for the political
organization and even forces them into it. This is also the source that provides the
money which the political organization needs to keep its enormous apparatus in action.
The trades union organization is the organ of control for the political activity of its
members and whips in the masses for all great political demonstrations. In the end it
ceases to struggle for economic interests but places its chief weapon, the refusal to
continue work--which takes the form of a general strike--at the disposal of the political

By means of a Press whose contents are adapted to the level of the most ignorant
readers, the political and trades union organizations are provided with an instrument
which prepares the lowest stratum of the nation for a campaign of ruthless destruction.
It is not considered part of the purpose of this Press to inspire its readers with ideals
which might help them to lift their minds above the sordid conditions of their daily
lives; but, on the contrary, it panders to their lowest instincts. Among the lazy-minded
and self-seeking sections of the masses this kind of speculation turns out lucrative.

It is this Press above all which carries on a fanatical campaign of calumny, strives to tear
down everything that might be considered as a mainstay of national independence and
to sabotage all cultural values as well as to destroy the autonomy of the national
economic system.

It aims its attack especially against all men of character who refuse to fall into line with
the Jewish efforts to obtain control over the State or who appear dangerous to the Jews
merely because of their superior intelligence. For in order to incur the enmity of the Jew
it is not necessary to show any open hostility towards him. It is quite sufficient if one be
considered capable of opposing the Jew some time in the future or using his abilities
and character to enhance the power and position of a nation which the Jew finds hostile
to himself.

The Jewish instinct, which never fails where these problems have to be dealt with,
readily discerns the true mentality of those whom the Jew meets in everyday life; and
those who are not of a kindred spirit with him may be sure of being listed among his
enemies. Since the Jew is not the object of aggression but the aggressor himself, he
considers as his enemies not only those who attack him but also those who may be
capable of resisting him. The means which he employs to break people of this kind, who

may show themselves decent and upright, are not the open means generally used in
honourable conflict, but falsehood and calumny.

He will stop at nothing. His utterly low-down conduct is so appalling that one really
cannot be surprised if in the imagination of our people the Jew is pictured as the
incarnation of Satan and the symbol of evil.

The ignorance of the broad masses as regards the inner character of the Jew, and the
lack of instinct and insight that our upper classes display, are some of the reasons which
explain how it is that so many people fall an easy prey to the systematic campaign of
falsehood which the Jew carries on.

While the upper classes, with their innate cowardliness, turn away from anyone whom
the Jew thus attacks with lies and calumny, the common people are credulous of
everything, whether because of their ignorance or their simple-mindedness.
Government authorities wrap themselves up in a robe of silence, but more frequently
they persecute the victims of Jewish attacks in order to stop the campaign in the Jewish
Press. To the fatuous mind of the government official such a line of conduct appears to
belong to the policy of upholding the authority of the State and preserving public order.
Gradually the Marxist weapon in the hands of the Jew becomes a constant bogy to
decent people. Sometimes the fear of it sticks in the brain or weighs upon them as a
kind of nightmare. People begin to quail before this fearful foe and therewith become
his victims.

(k) The Jewish domination in the State seems now so fully assured that not only can he
now afford to call himself a Jew once again, but he even acknowledges freely and
openly what his ideas are on racial and political questions. A section of the Jews avows
itself quite openly as an alien people, but even here there is another falsehood. When
the Zionists try to make the rest of the world believe that the new national
consciousness of the Jews will be satisfied by the establishment of a Jewish State in
Palestine, the Jews thereby adopt another means to dupe the simple-minded Gentile.
They have not the slightest intention of building up a Jewish State in Palestine so as to
live in it. What they really are aiming at is to establish a central organization for their
international swindling and cheating. As a sovereign State, this cannot be controlled by
any of the other States. Therefore it can serve as a refuge for swindlers who have been
found out and at the same time a high-school for the training of other swindlers.

As a sign of their growing presumption and sense of security, a certain section of them
openly and impudently proclaim their Jewish nationality while another section
hypocritically pretend that they are German, French or English as the case may be.
Their blatant behaviour in their relations with other people shows how clearly they
envisage their day of triumph in the near future.

The black-haired Jewish youth lies in wait for hours on end, satanically glaring at and
spying on the unsuspicious girl whom he plans to seduce, adulterating her blood and
removing her from the bosom of her own people. The Jew uses every possible means to
undermine the racial foundations of a subjugated people. In his systematic efforts to
ruin girls and women he strives to break down the last barriers of discrimination
between him and other peoples. The Jews were responsible for bringing negroes into
the Rhineland, with the ultimate idea of bastardizing the white race which they hate
and thus lowering its cultural and political level so that the Jew might dominate. For as
long as a people remain racially pure and are conscious of the treasure of their blood,
they can never be overcome by the Jew. Never in this world can the Jew become master
of any people except a bastardized people.

That is why the Jew systematically endeavours to lower the racial quality of a people by
permanently adulterating the blood of the individuals who make up that people.

In the field of politics he now begins to replace the idea of democracy by introducing
the dictatorship of the proletariat. In the masses organized under the Marxist banners
he has found a weapon which makes it possible for him to discard democracy, so as to
subjugate and rule in a dictatorial fashion by the aid of brute force. He is systematically
working in two ways to bring about this revolution. These ways are the economic and
the political respectively.

Aided by international influences, he forms a ring of enemies around those nations
which have proved themselves too sturdy for him in withstanding attacks from within.
He would like to force them into war and then, if it should be necessary to his plans, he
will unfurl the banners of revolt even while the troops are actually fighting at the front.

Economically he brings about the destruction of the State by a systematic method of
sabotaging social enterprises until these become so costly that they are taken out of the
hands of the State and then submitted to the control of Jewish finance. Politically he
works to withdraw from the State its means of susbsistence, inasmuch as he
undermines the foundations of national resistance and defence, destroys the confidence
which the people have in their Government, reviles the past and its history and drags
everything national down into the gutter.

Culturally his activity consists in bowdlerizing art, literature and the theatre, holding
the expressions of national sentiment up to scorn, overturning all concepts of the
sublime and beautiful, the worthy and the good, finally dragging the people to the level
of his own low mentality.

Of religion he makes a mockery. Morality and decency are described as antiquated
prejudices and thus a systematic attack is made to undermine those last foundations on

which the national being must rest if the nation is to struggle for its existence in this

(l) Now begins the great and final revolution. As soon as the Jew is in possession of
political power he drops the last few veils which have hitherto helped to conceal his
features. Out of the democratic Jew, the Jew of the People, arises the 'Jew of the Blood',
the tyrant of the peoples. In the course of a few years he endeavours to exterminate all
those who represent the national intelligence. And by thus depriving the peoples of
their natural intellectual leaders he fits them for their fate as slaves under a lasting

Russia furnishes the most terrible example of such a slavery. In that country the Jew
killed or starved thirty millions of the people, in a bout of savage fanaticism and partly
by the employment of inhuman torture. And he did this so that a gang of Jewish literati
and financial bandits should dominate over a great people.

But the final consequence is not merely that the people lose all their freedom under the
domination of the Jews, but that in the end these parasites themselves disappear. The
death of the victim is followed sooner or later by that of the vampire.

If we review all the causes which contributed to bring about the downfall of the
German people we shall find that the most profound and decisive cause must be
attributed to the lack of insight into the racial problem and especially in the failure to
recognize the Jewish danger.

It would have been easy enough to endure the defeats suffered on the battlefields in
August 1918. They were nothing when compared with the military victories which our
nation had achieved. Our downfall was not the result of those defeats; but we were
overthrown by that force which had prepared those defeats by systematically operating
for several decades to destroy those political instincts and that moral stamina which
alone enable a people to struggle for its existence and therewith secure the right to exist.

By neglecting the problem of preserving the racial foundations of our national life, the
old Empire abrogated the sole right which entitles a people to live on this planet.
Nations that make mongrels of their people, or allow their people to be turned into
mongrels, sin against the Will of Eternal Providence. And thus their overthrow at the
hands of a stronger opponent cannot be looked upon as a wrong but, on the contrary, as
a restoration of justice. If a people refuses to guard and uphold the qualities with which
it has been endowed by Nature and which have their roots in the racial blood, then such
a people has no right to complain over the loss of its earthly existence.

Everything on this earth can be made into something better. Every defeat may be made
the foundation of a future victory. Every lost war may be the cause of a later resurgence.

Every visitation of distress can give a new impetus to human energy. And out of every
oppression those forces can develop which bring about a new re-birth of the national
soul--provided always that the racial blood is kept pure.

But the loss of racial purity will wreck inner happiness for ever. It degrades men for all
time to come. And the physical and moral consequences can never be wiped out.

If this unique problem be studied and compared with the other problems of life we
shall easily recognize how small is their importance in comparison with this. They are
all limited to time; but the problem of the maintenance or loss of the purity of the racial
blood will last as long as man himself lasts.

All the symptoms of decline which manifested themselves already in pre-war times can
be traced back to the racial problem.

Whether one is dealing with questions of general law, or monstrous excrescences in
economic life, of phenomena which point to a cultural decline or political degeneration,
whether it be a question of defects in the school-system or of the evil influence which
the Press exerts over the adult population--always and everywhere these phenomena
are at bottom caused by a lack of consideration for the interests of the race to which
one's own nation belongs, or by the failure to recognize the danger that comes from
allowing a foreign race to exist within the national body.

That is why all attempts at reform, all institutions for social relief, all political striving,
all economic progress and all apparent increase in the general stock of knowledge, were
doomed to be unproductive of any significant results. The nation, as well as the
organization which enables it to exist--namely, the State--were not developing in inner
strength and stability, but, on the contrary, were visibly losing their vitality. The false
brilliance of the Second Empire could not disguise the inner weakness. And every
attempt to invigorate it anew failed because the main and most important problem was
left out of consideration.

It would be a mistake to think that the followers of the various political parties which
tried to doctor the condition of the German people, or even all their leaders, were bad in
themselves or meant wrong. Their activity even at best was doomed to fail, merely
because of the fact that they saw nothing but the symptoms of our general malady and
they tried to doctor the symptoms while they overlooked the real cause of the disease. If
one makes a methodical study of the lines along which the old Empire developed one
cannot help seeing, after a careful political analysis, that a process of inner degeneration
had already set in even at the time when the united Empire was formed and the
German nation began to make rapid external progress. The general situation was
declining, in spite of the apparent political success and in spite of the increasing
economic wealth. At the elections to the Reichstag the growing number of Marxist votes

indicated that the internal breakdown and the political collapse were then rapidly
approaching. All the victories of the so-called bourgeois parties were fruitless, not only
because they could not prevent the numerical increase in the growing mass of Marxist
votes, even when the bourgeois parties triumphed at the polls, but mainly because they
themselves were already infected with the germs of decay. Though quite unaware of it,
the bourgeois world was infected from within with the deadly virus of Marxist ideas.
The fact that they sometimes openly resisted was to be explained by the competitive
strife among ambitious political leaders, rather than by attributing it to any opposition
in principle between adversaries who were determined to fight one another to the bitter
end. During all those years only one protagonist was fighting with steadfast
perseverance. This was the Jew. The Star of David steadily ascended as the will to
national self-preservation declined.

Therefore it was not a solid national phalanx that, of itself and out of its own feeling of
solidarity, rushed to the battlefields in August 1914. But it was rather the manifestation
of the last flicker from the instinct of national self-preservation against the progress of
the paralysis with which the pacifist and Marxist doctrine threatened our people. Even
in those days when the destinies of the nation were in the balance the internal enemy
was not recognized; therefore all efforts to resist the external enemy were bound to be
in vain. Providence did not grant the reward to the victorious sword, but followed the
eternal law of retributive justice. A profound recognition of all this was the source of
those principles and tendencies which inspire our new movement. We were convinced
that only by recognizing such truths could we stop the national decline in Germany and
lay a granite foundation on which the State could again be built up, a State which
would not be a piece of mechanism alien to our people, constituted for economic
purposes and interests, but an organism created from the soul of the people themselves.



[Note 15. When Mephistopheles first appears to Faust, in the latter's study, Faust
inquires: "What is thy name?" To which Mephistopheles replies: "A part ofthe Power
which always wills the Bad and always works the Good." And when Faust asks him
what is meant by this riddle and why he should call himself'a part,' the gist of
Mephistopheles' reply is that he is the Spirit of Negation and exists through opposition
to the positive Truth and Order and Beauty which proceed from the never-ending
creative energy of the Deity. In the Prologue to Faust the Lord declares that man's active
nature would grow sluggishin working the good and that therefore he has to be
aroused by the Spirit of Opposition. This Spirit wills the Bad, but of itself it can do
nothing positive, and by its opposition always works the opposite of what it wills.]

Chapter 12

The First Stage In The Development Of
The German National Socialist Labour Party

HERE AT the close of the volume I shall describe the first stage in the progress of our
movement and shall give a brief account of the problems we had to deal with during
that period. In doing this I have no intention of expounding the ideals which we have
set up as the goal of our movement; for these ideals are so momentous in their
significance that an exposition of them will need a whole volume. Therefore I shall
devote the second volume of this book to a detailed survey of the principles which form
the programme of our movement and I shall attempt to draw a picture of what we
mean by the word 'State'. When I say 'we' in this connection I mean to include all those
hundreds of thousands who have fundamentally the same longing, though in the
individual cases they cannot find adequate words to describe the vision that hovers
before their eyes. It is a characteristic feature of all great reforms that in the beginning
there is only one single protagonist to come forward on behalf of several millions of
people. The final goal of a great reformation has often been the object of profound
longing on the parts of hundreds of thousands for many centuries before, until finally
one among them comes forward as a herald to announce the will of that multitude and
become the standard-bearer of the old yearning, which he now leads to a realization in
a new idea.

The fact that millions of our people yearn at heart for a radical change in our present
conditions is proved by the profound discontent which exists among them. This feeling
is manifested in a thousand ways. Some express it in a form of discouragement and
despair. Others show it in resentment and anger and indignation. Among some the
profound discontent calls forth an attitude of indifference, while it urges others to
violent manifestations of wrath. Another indication of this feeling may be seen on the
one hand in the attitude of those who abstain from voting at elections and, on the other,
in the large numbers of those who side with the fanatical extremists of the left wing.

To these latter people our young movement had to appeal first of all. It was not meant
to be an organization for contented and satisfied people, but was meant to gather in all
those who were suffering from profound anxiety and could find no peace, those who

were unhappy and discontented. It was not meant to float on the surface of the nation
but rather to push its roots deep among the masses.

Looked at from the purely political point of view, the situation in 1918 was as follows: A
nation had been torn into two parts. One part, which was by far the smaller of the two,
contained the intellectual classes of the nation from which all those employed in
physical labour were excluded. On the surface these intellectual classes appeared to be
national-minded, but that word meant nothing else to them except a very vague and
feeble concept of the duty to defend what they called the interests of the State, which in
turn seemed identical with those of the dynastic regime. This class tried to defend its
ideas and reach its aims by carrying on the fight with the aid of intellectual weapons,
which could be used only here and there and which had only a superficial effect against
the brutal measures employed by the adversaries, in the face of which the intellectual
weapons were of their very nature bound to fail. With one violent blow the class which
had hitherto governed was now struck down. It trembled with fear and accepted every
humiliation imposed on it by the merciless victor.

Over against this class stood the broad masses of manual labourers who were organized
in movements with a more or less radically Marxist tendency. These organized masses
were firmly determined to break any kind of intellectual resistance by the use of brute
force. They had no nationalist tendencies whatsoever and deliberately repudiated the
idea of advancing the interests of the nation as such. On the contrary, they promoted
the interests of the foreign oppressor. Numerically this class embraced the majority of
the population and, what is more important, included all those elements of the nation
without whose collaboration a national resurgence was not only a practical
impossibility but was even inconceivable.

For already in 1918 one thing had to be clearly recognized; namely, that no resurgence
of the German nation could take place until we had first restored our national strength
to face the outside world. For this purpose arms are not the preliminary necessity,
though our bourgeois 'statesmen' always blathered about it being so; what was wanted
was will-power. At one time the German people had more than sufficient military
armament. And yet they were not able to defend their liberty because they lacked those
energies which spring from the instinct of national self-preservation and the will to hold
on to one's own. The best armament is only dead and worthless material as long as the
spirit is wanting which makes men willing and determined to avail themselves of such
weapons. Germany was rendered defenceless not because she lacked arms, but because
she lacked the will to keep her arms for the maintenance of her people.

To-day our Left-wing politicians in particular are constantly insisting that their craven-
hearted and obsequious foreign policy necessarily results from the disarmament of
Germany, whereas the truth is that this is the policy of traitors. To all that kind of talk
the answer ought to be: No, the contrary is the truth. Your action in delivering up the

arms was dictated by your anti-national and criminal policy of abandoning the interests
of the nation. And now you try to make people believe that your miserable whining is
fundamentally due to the fact that you have no arms. Just like everything else in your
conduct, this is a lie and a falsification of the true reason.

But the politicians of the Right deserve exactly the same reproach. It was through their
miserable cowardice that those ruffians of Jews who came into power in 1918 were able
to rob the nation of its arms. The conservative politicians have neither right nor reason
on their side when they appeal to disarmament as the cause which compelled them to
adopt a policy of prudence (that is to say, cowardice). Here, again, the contrary is the
truth. Disarmament is the result of their lack of spirit.

Therefore the problem of restoring Germany's power is not a question of how can we
manufacture arms but rather a question of how we can produce that spirit which
enables a people to bear arms. Once this spirit prevails among a people then it will find
a thousand ways, each of which leads to the necessary armament. But a coward will not
fire even a single shot when attacked though he may be armed with ten pistols. For him
they are of less value than a blackthorn in the hands of a man of courage.

The problem of re-establishing the political power of our nation is first of all a problem
of restoring the instinct of national self-preservation for if no other reason than that
every preparatory step in foreign policy and every foreign judgment on the worth of a
State has been proved by experience to be grounded not on the material size of the
armament such a State may possess but rather on the moral capacity for resistance
which such a State has or is believed to have. The question whether or not a nation be
desirable as an ally is not so much determined by the inert mass of arms which it has at
hand but by the obvious presence of a sturdy will to national self-preservation and a
heroic courage which will fight through to the last breath. For an alliance is not made
between arms but between men.

The British nation will therefore be considered as the most valuable ally in the world as
long as it can be counted upon to show that brutality and tenacity in its government, as
well as in the spirit of the broad masses, which enables it to carry through to victory any
struggle that it once enters upon, no matter how long such a struggle may last, or
however great the sacrifice that may be necessary or whatever the means that have to be
employed; and all this even though the actual military equipment at hand may be
utterly inadequate when compared with that of other nations.

Once it is understood that the restoration of Germany is a question of reawakening the
will to political self-preservation we shall see quite clearly that it will not be enough to
win over those elements that are already national-minded but that the deliberately anti-
national masses must be converted to believe in the national ideals.

A young movement that aims at re-establishing a German State with full sovereign
powers will therefore have to make the task of winning over the broad masses a special
objective of its plan of campaign. Our so-called 'national bourgeoisie' are so lamentably
supine, generally speaking, and their national spirit appears so feckless, that we may
feel sure they will offer no serious resistance against a vigorous national foreign--or
domestic policy. Even though the narrow-minded German bourgeoisie should keep up
a passive resistance when the hour of deliverance is at hand, as they did in Bismarck's
time, we shall never have to fear any active resistance on their part, because of their
recognized proverbial cowardice.

It is quite different with the masses of our population, who are imbued with ideas of
internationalism. Through the primitive roughness of their natures they are disposed to
accept the preaching of violence, while at the same time their Jewish leaders are more
brutal and ruthless. They will crush any attempt at a German revival, just as they
smashed the German Army by striking at it from the rear. Above all, these organized
masses will use their numerical majority in this Parliamentarian State not only to hinder
any national foreign policy, but also to prevent Germany from restoring her political
power and therewith her prestige abroad. Thus she becomes excluded from the ranks of
desirable allies. For it is not we ourselves alone who are aware of the handicap that
results from the existence of fifteen million Marxists, democrats, pacifists and followers
of the Centre, in our midst, but foreign nations also recognize this internal burden
which we have to bear and take it into their calculations when estimating the value of a
possible alliance with us. Nobody would wish to form an alliance with a State where
the active portion of the population is at least passively opposed to any resolute foreign

The situation is made still worse by reason of the fact that the leaders of those parties
which were responsible for the national betrayal are ready to oppose any and every
attempt at a revival, simply because they want to retain the positions they now hold.
According to the laws that govern human history it is inconceivable that the German
people could resume the place they formerly held without retaliating on those who
were both cause and occasion of the collapse that involved the ruin of our State. Before
the judgment seat of posterity November 1918 will not be regarded as a simple rebellion
but as high treason against the country.

Therefore it is not possible to think of re-establishing German sovereignty and political
independence without at the same time reconstructing a united front within the nation,
by a peaceful conversion of the popular will.

Looked at from the standpoint of practical ways and means, it seems absurd to think of
liberating Germany from foreign bondage as long as the masses of the people are not
willing to support such an ideal of freedom. After carefully considering this problem
from the purely military point of view, everybody, and in particular every officer, will

agree that a war cannot be waged against an outside enemy by battalions of students;
but that, together with the brains of the nation, the physical strength of the nation is also
necessary. Furthermore it must be remembered that the nation would be robbed of its
irreplaceable assets by a national defence in which only the intellectual circles, as they
are called, were engaged. The young German intellectuals who joined the volunteer
regiments and fell on the battlefields of Flanders in the autumn of 1914 were bitterly
missed later on. They were the dearest treasure which the nation possessed and their
loss could not be made good in the course of the war. And it is not only the struggle
itself which could not be waged if the working masses of the nation did not join the
storm battalions, but the necessary technical preparations could not be made without a
unified will and a common front within the nation itself. Our nation which has to exist
disarmed, under the thousand eyes appointed by the Versailles Peace Treaty, cannot
make any technical preparations for the recovery of its freedom and human
independence until the whole army of spies employed within the country is cut down
to those few whose inborn baseness would lead them to betray anything and
everything for the proverbial thirty pieces of silver. But we can deal with such people.
The millions, however, who are opposed to every kind of national revival simply
because of their political opinions, constitute an insurmountable obstacle. At least the
obstacle will remain insurmountable as long as the cause of their opposition, which is
international Marxism, is not overcome and its teachings banished from both their
hearts and heads.

From whatever point of view we may examine the possibility of recovering our
independence as a State and a people, whether we consider the problem from the
standpoint of technical rearmament or from that of the actual struggle itself, the
necessary pre-requisite always remains the same. This pre-requisite is that the broad
masses of the people must first be won over to accept the principle of our national

If we do not regain our external freedom every step forward in domestic reform will at
best be an augmentation of our productive powers for the benefit of those nations that
look upon us as a colony to be exploited. The surplus produced by any so-called
improvement would only go into the hands of our international controllers and any
social betterment would at best increase the product of our labour in favour of those
people. No cultural progress can be made by the German nation, because such progress
is too much bound up with the political independence and dignity of a people.

Therefore, as we can find a satisfactory solution for the problem of Germany's future
only by winning over the broad masses of our people for the support of the national
idea, this work of education must be considered the highest and most important task to
be accomplished by a movement which does not strive merely to satisfy the needs of the
moment but considers itself bound to examine in the light of future results everything it
decides to do or refrain from doing.

As early as 1919 we were convinced that the nationalization of the masses would have
to constitute the first and paramount aim of the new movement. From the tactical
standpoint, this decision laid a certain number of obligations on our shoulders.

(1) No social sacrifice could be considered too great in this effort to win over the masses
for the national revival.

In the field of national economics, whatever concessions are granted to-day to the
employees are negligible when compared with the benefit to be reaped by the whole
nation if such concessions contribute to bring back the masses of the people once more
to the bosom of their own nation. Nothing but meanness and shortsightedness, which
are characteristics that unfortunately are only too prevalent among our employers,
could prevent people from recognizing that in the long run no economic improvement
and therefore no rise in profits are possible unless internal solidarity be restored among
the bulk of the people who make up our nation.

If the German trades unions had defended the interests of the working-classes
uncompromisingly during the War; if even during the War they had used the weapon
of the strike to force the industrialists--who were greedy for higher dividends--to grant
the demands of the workers for whom the unions acted; if at the same time they had
stood up as good Germans for the defence of the nation as stoutly as for their own
claims, and if they had given to their country what was their country's due--then the
War would never have been lost. How ludicrously insignificant would all, and even the
greatest, economic concession have been in face of the tremendous importance of such a

For a movement which would restore the German worker to the German people it is
therefore absolutely necessary to understand clearly that economic sacrifices must be
considered light in such cases, provided of course that they do not go the length of
endangering the independence and stability of the national economic system.

(2) The education of the masses along national lines can be carried out only indirectly,
by improving their social conditions; for only by such a process can the economic
conditions be created which enable everybody to share in the cultural life of the nation.

(3) The nationalization of the broad masses can never be achieved by half-measures--
that is to say, by feebly insisting on what is called the objective side of the question--but
only by a ruthless and devoted insistence on the one aim which must be achieved. This
means that a people cannot be made 'national' according to the signification attached to
that word by our bourgeois class to-day--that is to say, nationalism with many
reservations--but national in the vehement and extreme sense. Poison can be overcome

only by a counter-poison, and only the supine bourgeois mind could think that the
Kingdom of Heaven can be attained by a compromise.

The broad masses of a nation are not made up of professors and diplomats. Since these
masses have only a poor acquaintance with abstract ideas, their reactions lie more in the
domain of the feelings, where the roots of their positive as well as their negative
attitudes are implanted. They are susceptible only to a manifestation of strength which
comes definitely either from the positive or negative side, but they are never susceptible
to any half-hearted attitude that wavers between one pole and the other. The emotional
grounds of their attitude furnish the reason for their extraordinary stability. It is always
more difficult to fight successfully against Faith than against knowledge. Love is less
subject to change than respect. Hatred is more lasting than mere aversion. And the
driving force which has brought about the most tremendous revolutions on this earth
has never been a body of scientific teaching which has gained power over the masses,
but always a devotion which has inspired them, and often a kind of hysteria which has
urged them to action.

Whoever wishes to win over the masses must know the key that will open the door to
their hearts. It is not objectivity, which is a feckless attitude, but a determined will,
backed up by force, when necessary.

(4) The soul of the masses can be won only if those who lead the movement for that
purpose are determined not merely to carry through the positive struggle for their own
aims but are also determined to destroy the enemy that opposes them.

When they see an uncompromising onslaught against an adversary the people have at
all times taken this as a proof that right is on the side of the active aggressor; but if the
aggressor should go only half-way and fail to push home his success by driving his
opponent entirely from the scene of action, the people will look upon this as a sign that
the aggressor is uncertain of the justice of his own cause and his half-way policy may
even be an acknowledgment that his cause is unjust.

The masses are but a part of Nature herself. Their feeling is such that they cannot
understand mutual hand-shakings between men who are declared enemies. Their wish
is to see the stronger side win and the weaker wiped out or subjected unconditionally to
the will of the stronger.

The nationalization of the masses can be successfully achieved only if, in the positive
struggle to win the soul of the people, those who spread the international poison among
them are exterminated.

(5) All the great problems of our time are problems of the moment and are only the
results of certain definite causes. And among all those there is only one that has a

profoundly causal significance. This is the problem of preserving the pure racial stock
among the people. Human vigour or decline depends on the blood. Nations that are not
aware of the importance of their racial stock, or which neglect to preserve it, are like
men who would try to educate the pug-dog to do the work of the greyhound, not
understanding that neither the speed of the greyhound nor the imitative faculties of the
poodle are inborn qualities which cannot be drilled into the one or the other by any
form of training. A people that fails to preserve the purity of its racial blood thereby
destroys the unity of the soul of the nation in all its manifestations. A disintegrated
national character is the inevitable consequence of a process of disintegration in the
blood. And the change which takes place in the spiritual and creative faculties of a
people is only an effect of the change that has modified its racial substance.

If we are to free the German people from all those failings and ways of acting which do
not spring from their original character, we must first get rid of those foreign germs in
the national body which are the cause of its failings and false ways.

The German nation will never revive unless the racial problem is taken into account and
dealt with. The racial problem furnishes the key not only to the understanding of
human history but also to the understanding of every kind of human culture.

(6) By incorporating in the national community the masses of our people who are now
in the international camp we do not thereby mean to renounce the principle that the
interests of the various trades and professions must be safeguarded. Divergent interests
in the various branches of labour and in the trades and professions are not the same as a
division between the various classes, but rather a feature inherent in the economic
situation. Vocational grouping does not clash in the least with the idea of a national
community, for this means national unity in regard to all those problems that affect the
life of the nation as such.

To incorporate in the national community, or simply the State, a stratum of the people
which has now formed a social class the standing of the higher classes must not be
lowered but that of the lower classes must be raised. The class which carries through
this process is never the higher class but rather the lower one which is fighting for
equality of rights. The bourgeoisie of to-day was not incorporated in the State through
measures enacted by the feudal nobility but only through its own energy and a
leadership that had sprung from its own ranks.

The German worker cannot be raised from his present standing and incorporated in the
German folk-community by means of goody-goody meetings where people talk about
the brotherhood of the people, but rather by a systematic improvement in the social and
cultural life of the worker until the yawning abyss between him and the other classes
can be filled in. A movement which has this for its aim must try to recruit its followers
mainly from the ranks of the working class. It must include members of the intellectual

classes only in so far as such members have rightly understood and accepted without
reserve the ideal towards which the movement is striving. This process of
transformation and reunion cannot be completed within ten or twenty years. It will take
several generations, as the history of such movements has shown.

The most difficult obstacle to the reunion of our contemporary worker in the national
folk-community does not consist so much in the fact that he fights for the interests of his
fellow-workers, but rather in the international ideas with which he is imbued and
which are of their nature at variance with the ideas of nationhood and fatherland. This
hostile attitude to nation and fatherland has been inculcated by the leaders of the
working class. If they were inspired by the principle of devotion to the nation in all that
concerns its political and social welfare, the trades unions would make those millions of
workers most valuable members of the national community, without thereby affecting
their own constant struggle for their economic demands.

A movement which sincerely endeavours to bring the German worker back into his
folk-community, and rescue him from the folly of internationalism, must wage a
vigorous campaign against certain notions that are prevalent among the industrialists.
One of these notions is that according to the concept of the folk-community, the
employee is obliged to surrender all his economic rights to the employer and, further,
that the workers would come into conflict with the folk-community if they should
attempt to defend their own just and vital interests. Those who try to propagate such a
notion are deliberate liars. The idea of a folk-community does not impose any
obligations on the one side that are not imposed on the other.

A worker certainly does something which is contrary to the spirit of folk-community if
he acts entirely on his own initiative and puts forward exaggerated demands without
taking the common good into consideration or the maintenance of the national
economic structure. But an industrialist also acts against the spirit of the folk-
community if he adopts inhuman methods of exploitation and misuses the working
forces of the nation to make millions unjustly for himself from the sweat of the workers.
He has no right to call himself 'national' and no right to talk of a folk-community, for he
is only an unscrupulous egoist who sows the seeds of social discontent and provokes a
spirit of conflict which sooner or later must be injurious to the interests of the country.

The reservoir from which the young movement has to draw its members will first of all
be the working masses. Those masses must be delivered from the clutches of the
international mania. Their social distress must be eliminated. They must be raised
above their present cultural level, which is deplorable, and transformed into a resolute
and valuable factor in the folk-community, inspired by national ideas and national

If among those intellectual circles that are nationalist in their outlook men can be found
who genuinely love the people and look forward eagerly to the future of Germany, and
at the same time have a sound grasp of the importance of a struggle whose aim is to
win over the soul of the masses, such men are cordially welcomed in the ranks of our
movement, because they can serve as a valuable intellectual force in the work that has
to be done. But this movement can never aim at recruiting its membership from the
unthinking herd of bourgeois voters. If it did so the movement would be burdened with
a mass of people whose whole mentality would only help to paralyse the effort of our
campaign to win the mass of the people. In theory it may be very fine to say that the
broad masses ought to be influenced by a combined leadership of the upper and lower
social strata within the framework of the one movement; but, notwithstanding all this,
the fact remains that though it may be possible to exercise a psychological influence on
the bourgeois classes and to arouse some enthusiasm or even awaken some
understanding among them by our public demonstrations, their traditional
characteristics cannot be changed. In other words, we could not eliminate from the
bourgeois classes the inefficiency and supineness which are part of a tradition that has
developed through centuries. The difference between the cultural levels of the two
groups and between their respective attitudes towards social-economic questions is still
so great that it would turn out a hindrance to the movement the moment the first
enthusiasm aroused by our demonstrations calmed down.

Finally, it is not part of our programme to transform the nationalist camp itself, but
rather to win over those who are anti-national in their outlook. It is from this viewpoint
that the strategy of the whole movement must finally be decided.

(7) This one-sided but accordingly clear and definite attitude must be manifested in the
propaganda of the movement; and, on the other hand, this is absolutely necessary to
make the propaganda itself effective.

If propaganda is to be of service to the movement it must be addressed to one side
alone; for if it should vary the direction of its appeal it will not be understood in the one
camp or may be rejected by the other, as merely insisting on obvious and uninteresting
truisms; for the intellectual training of the two camps that come into question here has
been very different.

Even the manner in which something is presented and the tone in which particular
details are emphasized cannot have the same effect in those two strata that belong
respectively to the opposite extremes of the social structure. If the propaganda should
refrain from using primitive forms of expression it will not appeal to the sentiments of
the masses. If, on the other hand, it conforms to the crude sentiments of the masses in its
words and gestures the intellectual circles will be averse to it because of its roughness
and vulgarity. Among a hundred men who call themselves orators there are scarcely
ten who are capable of speaking with effect before an audience of street-sweepers,

locksmiths and navvies, etc., to-day and expound the same subject with equal effect to-
morrow before an audience of university professors and students. Among a thousand
public speakers there may be only one who can speak before a composite audience of
locksmiths and professors in the same hall in such a way that his statements can be fully
comprehended by each group while at the same time he effectively influences both and
awakens enthusiasm, on the one side as well as on the other, to hearty applause. But it
must be remembered that in most cases even the most beautiful idea embodied in a
sublime theory can be brought home to the public only through the medium of smaller
minds. The thing that matters here is not the vision of the man of genius who created
the great idea but rather the success which his apostles achieve in shaping the
expression of this idea so as to bring it home to the minds of the masses.

Social-Democracy and the whole Marxist movement were particularly qualified to
attract the great masses of the nation, because of the uniformity of the public to which
they addressed their appeal. The more limited and narrow their ideas and arguments,
the easier it was for the masses to grasp and assimilate them; for those ideas and
arguments were well adapted to a low level of intelligence.

These considerations led the new movement to adopt a clear and simple line of policy,
which was as follows:

In its message as well as in its forms of expression the propaganda must be kept on a
level with the intelligence of the masses, and its value must be measured only by the
actual success it achieves.

At a public meeting where the great masses are gathered together the best speaker is
not he whose way of approaching a subject is most akin to the spirit of those
intellectuals who may happen to be present, but the speaker who knows how to win the
hearts of the masses.

An educated man who is present and who finds fault with an address because he
considers it to be on an intellectual plane that is too low, though he himself has
witnessed its effect on the lower intellectual groups whose adherence has to be won,
only shows himself completely incapable of rightly judging the situation and therewith
proves that he can be of no use in the new movement. Only intellectuals can be of use to
a movement who understand its mission and its aims so well that they have learned to
judge our methods of propaganda exclusively by the success obtained and never by the
impression which those methods made on the intellectuals themselves. For our
propaganda is not meant to serve as an entertainment for those people who already
have a nationalist outlook, but its purpose is to win the adhesion of those who have
hitherto been hostile to national ideas and who are nevertheless of our own blood and

In general, those considerations of which I have given a brief summary in the chapter
on 'War Propaganda' became the guiding rules and principles which determined the
kind of propaganda we were to adopt in our campaign and the manner in which we
were to put it into practice. The success that has been obtained proves that our decision
was right.

(8) The ends which any political reform movement sets out to attain can never be
reached by trying to educate the public or influence those in power but only by getting
political power into its hands. Every idea that is meant to move the world has not only
the right but also the obligation of securing control of those means which will enable the
idea to be carried into effect. In this world success is the only rule of judgment whereby
we can decide whether such an undertaking was right or wrong. And by the word
'success' in this connection I do not mean such a success as the mere conquest of power
in 1918 but the successful issue whereby the common interests of the nation have been
served. A COUP D'ETAT cannot be considered successful if, as many empty-headed
government lawyers in Germany now believe, the revolutionaries succeeded in getting
control of the State into their hands but only if, in comparison with the state of affairs
under the old regime, the lot of the nation has been improved when the aims and
intentions on which the revolution was based have been put into practice. This certainly
does not apply to the German Revolution, as that movement was called, which brought
a gang of bandits into power in the autumn of 1918.

But if the conquest of political power be a requisite preliminary for the practical
realization of the ideals that inspire a reform movement, then any movement which
aims at reform must, from the very first day of its activity, be considered by its leaders
as a movement of the masses and not as a literary tea club or an association of
philistines who meet to play ninepins.

(9) The nature and internal organization of the new movement make it anti-
parliamentarian. That is to say, it rejects in general and in its own structure all those
principles according to which decisions are to be taken on the vote of the majority and
according to which the leader is only the executor of the will and opinion of others. The
movement lays down the principle that, in the smallest as well as in the greatest
problems, one person must have absolute authority and bear all responsibility.

In our movement the practical consequences of this principle are the following:

The president of a large group is appointed by the head of the group immediately
above his in authority. He is then the responsible leader of his group. All the
committees are subject to his authority and not he to theirs. There is no such thing as
committees that vote but only committees that work. This work is allotted by the
responsible leader, who is the president of the group. The same principle applies to the
higher organizations--the Bezirk (district), the KREIS (urban circuit) and the GAU (the

region). In each case the president is appointed from above and is invested with full
authority and executive power. Only the leader of the whole party is elected at the
general meeting of the members. But he is the sole leader of the movement. All the
committees are responsible to him, but he is not responsible to the committees. His
decision is final, but he bears the whole responsibility of it. The members of the
movement are entitled to call him to account by means of a new election, or to remove
him from office if he has violated the principles of the movement or has not served its
interests adequately. He is then replaced by a more capable man. who is invested with
the same authority and obliged to bear the same responsibility.

One of the highest duties of the movement is to make this principle imperative not only
within its own ranks but also for the whole State.

The man who becomes leader is invested with the highest and unlimited authority, but
he also has to bear the last and gravest responsibility.

The man who has not the courage to shoulder responsibility for his actions is not fitted
to be a leader. Only a man of heroic mould can have the vocation for such a task.

Human progress and human cultures are not founded by the multitude. They are
exclusively the work of personal genius and personal efficiency.

Because of this principle, our movement must necessarily be anti-parliamentarian, and
if it takes part in the parliamentary institution it is only for the purpose of destroying
this institution from within; in other words, we wish to do away with an institution
which we must look upon as one of the gravest symptoms of human decline.

(10) The movement steadfastly refuses to take up any stand in regard to those problems
which are either outside of its sphere of political work or seem to have no fundamental
importance for us. It does not aim at bringing about a religious reformation, but rather a
political reorganization of our people. It looks upon the two religious denominations as
equally valuable mainstays for the existence of our people, and therefore it makes war
on all those parties which would degrade this foundation, on which the religious and
moral stability of our people is based, to an instrument in the service of party interests.

Finally, the movement does not aim at establishing any one form of State or trying to
destroy another, but rather to make those fundamental principles prevail without
which no republic and no monarchy can exist for any length of time. The movement
does not consider its mission to be the establishment of a monarchy or the preservation
of the Republic but rather to create a German State.

The problem concerning the outer form of this State, that is to say, its final shape, is not
of fundamental importance. It is a problem which must be solved in the light of what
seems practical and opportune at the moment.

Once a nation has understood and appreciated the great problems that affect its inner
existence, the question of outer formalities will never lead to any internal conflict.

(11) The problem of the inner organization of the movement is not one of principle but
of expediency.

The best kind of organization is not that which places a large intermediary apparatus
between the leadership of the movement and the individual followers but rather that
which works successfully with the smallest possible intermediary apparatus. For it is
the task of such an organization to transmit a certain idea which originated in the brain
of one individual to a multitude of people and to supervise the manner in which this
idea is being put into practice.

Therefore, from any and every viewpoint, the organization is only a necessary evil. At
best it is only a means of reaching certain ends. The worst happens when it becomes an
end in itself.

Since the world produces more mechanical than intelligent beings, it will always be
easier to develop the form of an organization than its substance; that is to say, the ideas
which it is meant to serve.

The march of any idea which strives towards practical fulfilment, and in particular
those ideas which are of a reformatory character, may be roughly sketched as follows:

A creative idea takes shape in the mind of somebody who thereupon feels himself
called upon to transmit this idea to the world. He propounds his faith before others and
thereby gradually wins a certain number of followers. This direct and personal way of
promulgating one's ideas among one's contemporaries is the most natural and the most
ideal. But as the movement develops and secures a large number of followers it
gradually becomes impossible for the original founder of the doctrine on which the
movement is based to carry on his propaganda personally among his innumerable
followers and at the same time guide the course of the movement.

According as the community of followers increases, direct communication between the
head and the individual followers becomes impossible. This intercourse must then take
place through an intermediary apparatus introduced into the framework of the
movement. Thus ideal conditions of inter-communication cease, and organization has to
be introduced as a necessary evil. Small subsidiary groups come into existence, as in the

political movement, for example, where the local groups represent the germ-cells out of
which the organization develops later on.

But such sub-divisions must not be introduced into the movement until the authority of
the spiritual founder and of the school he has created are accepted without reservation.
Otherwise the movement would run the risk of becoming split up by divergent
doctrines. In this connection too much emphasis cannot be laid on the importance of
having one geographic centre as the chief seat of the movement. Only the existence of
such a seat or centre, around which a magic charm such as that of Mecca or Rome is
woven, can supply a movement with that permanent driving force which has its
sources in the internal unity of the movement and the recognition of one head as
representing this unity.

When the first germinal cells of the organization are being formed care must always be
taken to insist on the importance of the place where the idea originated. The creative,
moral and practical greatness of the place whence the movement went forth and from
which it is governed must be exalted to a supreme symbol, and this must be honoured
all the more according as the original cells of the movement become so numerous that
they have to be regrouped into larger units in the structure of the organization.

When the number of individual followers became so large that direct personal contact
with the head of the movement was out of the question, then we had to form those first
local groups. As those groups multiplied to an extraordinary number it was necessary
to establish higher cadres into which the local groups were distributed. Examples of
such cadres in the political organization are those of the region (GAU) and the district

Though it may be easy enough to maintain the original central authority over the lowest
groups, it is much more difficult to do so in relation to the higher units of organization
which have now developed. And yet we must succeed in doing this, for this is an
indispensable condition if the unity of the movement is to be guaranteed and the idea of
it carried into effect.

Finally, when those larger intermediary organizations have to be combined in new and
still higher units it becomes increasingly difficult to maintain over them the absolute
supremacy of the original seat of the movement and the school attached to it.

Consequently the mechanical forms of an organization must only be introduced if and
in so far as the spiritual authority and the ideals of the central seat of the organization
are shown to be firmly established. In the political sphere it may often happen that this
supremacy can be maintained only when the movement has taken over supreme
political control of the nation.

Having taken all these considerations into account, the following principles were laid
down for the inner structure of the movement:

(a) That at the beginning all activity should be concentrated in one town: namely,
Munich. That a band of absolutely reliable followers should be trained and a school
founded which would subsequently help to propagate the idea of the movement. That
the prestige of the movement, for the sake of its subsequent extension, should first be
established here through gaining as many successful and visible results as possible in
this one place. To secure name and fame for the movement and its leader it was
necessary, not only to give in this one town a striking example to shatter the belief that
the Marxist doctrine was invincible but also to show that a counter-doctrine was

(b) That local groups should not be established before the supremacy of the central
authority in Munich was definitely established and acknowledged.

(c) That District, Regional, and Provincial groups should be formed only after the need
for them has become evident and only after the supremacy of the central authority has
been satisfactorily guaranteed.

Further, that the creation of subordinate organisms must depend on whether or not
those persons can be found who are qualified to undertake the leadership of them.

Here there were only two solutions:

(a) That the movement should acquire the necessary funds to attract and train
intelligent people who would be capable of becoming leaders. The personnel thus
obtained could then be systematically employed according as the tactical situation and
the necessity for efficiency demanded.

This solution was the easier and the more expedite. But it demanded large financial
resources; for this group of leaders could work in the movement only if they could be
paid a salary.

(b) Because the movement is not in a position to employ paid officials it must begin by
depending on honorary helpers. Naturally this solution is slower and more difficult.

It means that the leaders of the movement have to allow vast territories to lie fallow
unless in these respective districts one of the members comes forward who is capable
and willing to place himself at the service of the central authority for the purpose of
organizing and directing the movement in the region concerned.

It may happen that in extensive regions no such leader can be found, but that at the
same time in other regions two or three or even more persons appear whose capabilities
are almost on a level. The difficulty which this situation involves is very great and can
be overcome only with the passing of the years.

For the establishment of any branch of the organization the decisive condition must
always be that a person can be found who is capable of fulfilling the functions of a

Just as the army and all its various units of organization are useless if there are no
officers, so any political organization is worthless if it has not the right kind of leaders.

If an inspiring personality who has the gift of leadership cannot be found for the
organization and direction of a local group it is better for the movement to refrain from
establishing such a group than to run the risk of failure after the group has been

The will to be a leader is not a sufficient qualification for leadership. For the leader must
have the other necessary qualities. Among these qualities will-power and energy must
be considered as more serviceable than the intellect of a genius. The most valuable
association of qualities is to be found in a combination of talent, determination and

(12) The future of a movement is determined by the devotion, and even intolerance,
with which its members fight for their cause. They must feel convinced that their cause
alone is just, and they must carry it through to success, as against other similar
organizations in the same field.

It is quite erroneous to believe that the strength of a movement must increase if it be
combined with other movements of a similar kind. Any expansion resulting from such
a combination will of course mean an increase in external development, which
superficial observers might consider as also an increase of power; but in reality the
movement thus admits outside elements which will subsequently weaken its
constitutional vigour.

Though it may be said that one movement is identical in character with another, in
reality no such identity exists. If it did exist then practically there would not be two
movements but only one. And whatever the difference may be, even if it consist only of
the measure in which the capabilities of the one set of leaders differ from those of the
other, there it is. It is against the natural law of all development to couple dissimilar
organisms, or the law is that the stronger must overcome the weaker and, through the
struggle necessary for such a conquest, increase the constitutional vigour and effective
strength of the victor.

By amalgamating political organizations that are approximately alike, certain
immediate advantages may be gained, but advantages thus gained are bound in the
long run to become the cause of internal weaknesses which will make their appearance
later on.

A movement can become great only if the unhampered development of its internal
strength be safeguarded and steadfastly augmented, until victory over all its
competitors be secured.

One may safely say that the strength of a movement and its right to existence can be
developed only as long as it remains true to the principle that struggle is a necessary
condition of its progress and that its maximum strength will be reached only as soon as
complete victory has been won.

Therefore a movement must not strive to obtain successes that will be only immediate
and transitory, but it must show a spirit of uncompromising perseverance in carrying
through a long struggle which will secure for it a long period of inner growth.

All those movements which owe their expansion to a so-called combination of similar
organisms, which means that their external strength is due to a policy of compromise,
are like plants whose growth is forced in a hothouse. They shoot up externally but they
lack that inner strength which enables the natural plant to grow into a tree that will
withstand the storms of centuries.

The greatness of every powerful organization which embodies a creative idea lies in the
spirit of religious devotion and intolerance with which it stands out against all others,
because it has an ardent faith in its own right. If an idea is right in itself and, furnished
with the fighting weapons I have mentioned, wages war on this earth, then it is
invincible and persecution will only add to its internal strength.

The greatness of Christianity did not arise from attempts to make compromises with
those philosophical opinions of the ancient world which had some resemblance to its
own doctrine, but in the unrelenting and fanatical proclamation and defence of its own

The apparent advance that a movement makes by associating itself with other
movements will be easily reached and surpassed by the steady increase of strength
which a doctrine and its organization acquires if it remains independent and fights its
own cause alone.

(13) The movement ought to educate its adherents to the principle that struggle must
not be considered a necessary evil but as something to be desired in itself. Therefore

they must not be afraid of the hostility which their adversaries manifest towards them
but they must take it as a necessary condition on which their whole right to existence is
based. They must not try to avoid being hated by those who are the enemies of our
people and our philosophy of life, but must welcome such hatred. Lies and calumnies
are part of the method which the enemy employs to express his chagrin.

The man who is not opposed and vilified and slandered in the Jewish Press is not a
staunch German and not a true National Socialist. The best rule whereby the sincerity of
his convictions, his character and strength of will, can be measured is the hostility
which his name arouses among the mortal enemies of our people.

The followers of the movement, and indeed the whole nation, must be reminded again
and again of the fact that, through the medium of his newspapers, the Jew is always
spreading falsehood and that if he tells the truth on some occasions it is only for the
purpose of masking some greater deceit, which turns the apparent truth into a
deliberate falsehood. The Jew is the Great Master of Lies. Falsehood and duplicity are
the weapons with which he fights.

Every calumny and falsehood published by the Jews are tokens of honour which can be
worn by our comrades. He whom they decry most is nearest to our hearts and he whom
they mortally hate is our best friend.

If a comrade of ours opens a Jewish newspaper in the morning and does not find
himself vilified there, then he has spent yesterday to no account. For if he had achieved
something he would be persecuted, slandered, derided and abused. Those who
effectively combat this mortal enemy of our people, who is at the same time the enemy
of all Aryan peoples and all culture, can only expect to arouse opposition on the part of
this race and become the object of its slanderous attacks.

When these truths become part of the flesh and blood, as it were, of our members, then
the movement will be impregnable and invincible.

(14) The movement must use all possible means to cultivate respect for the individual
personality. It must never forget that all human values are based on personal values,
and that every idea and achievement is the fruit of the creative power of one man. We
must never forget that admiration for everything that is great is not only a tribute to one
creative personality but that all those who feel such admiration become thereby united
under one covenant.

Nothing can take the place of the individual, especially if the individual embodies in
himself not the mechanical element but the element of cultural creativeness. No pupil
can take the place of the master in completing a great picture which he has left
unfinished; and just in the same way no substitute can take the place of the great poet or

thinker, or the great statesman or military general. For the source of their power is in
the realm of artistic creativeness. It can never be mechanically acquired, because it is an
innate product of divine grace.

The greatest revolutions and the greatest achievements of this world, its greatest
cultural works and the immortal creations of great statesmen, are inseparably bound up
with one name which stands as a symbol for them in each respective case. The failure to
pay tribute to one of those great spirits signifies a neglect of that enormous source of
power which lies in the remembrance of all great men and women.

The Jew himself knows this best. He, whose great men have always been great only in
their efforts to destroy mankind and its civilization, takes good care that they are
worshipped as idols. But the Jew tries to degrade the honour in which nations hold
their great men and women. He stigmatizes this honour as 'the cult of personality'.

As soon as a nation has so far lost its courage as to submit to this impudent defamation
on the part of the Jews it renounces the most important source of its own inner strength.
This inner force cannot arise from a policy of pandering to the masses but only from the
worship of men of genius, whose lives have uplifted and ennobled the nation itself.

When men's hearts are breaking and their souls are plunged into the depths of despair,
their great forebears turn their eyes towards them from the dim shadows of the past--
those forebears who knew how to triumph over anxiety and affliction, mental servitude
and physical bondage--and extend their eternal hands in a gesture of encouragement to
despairing souls. Woe to the nation that is ashamed to clasp those hands.

During the initial phase of our movement our greatest handicap was the fact that none
of us were known and our names meant nothing, a fact which then seemed to some of
us to make the chances of final success problematical. Our most difficult task then was
to make our members firmly believe that there was a tremendous future in store for the
movement and to maintain this belief as a living faith; for at that time only six, seven or
eight persons came to hear one of our speakers.

Consider that only six or seven poor devils who were entirely unknown came together
to found a movement which should succeed in doing what the great mass-parties had
failed to do: namely, to reconstruct the German REICH, even in greater power and
glory than before. We should have been very pleased if we were attacked or even
ridiculed. But the most depressing fact was that nobody paid any attention to us
whatever. This utter lack of interest in us caused me great mental pain at that time.

When I entered the circle of those men there was not yet any question of a party or a
movement. I have already described the impression which was made on me when I first
came into contact with that small organization. Subsequently I had time, and also the

occasion, to study the form of this so-called party which at first had made such a woeful
impression. The picture was indeed quite depressing and discouraging. There was
nothing, absolutely nothing at all. There was only the name of a party. And the
committee consisted of all the party members. Somehow or other it seemed just the
kind of thing we were about to fight against--a miniature parliament. The voting system
was employed. When the great parliament cried until they were hoarse--at least they
shouted over problems of importance--here this small circle engaged in interminable
discussions as to the form in which they might answer the letters which they were
delighted to have received.

Needless to say, the public knew nothing of all this. In Munich nobody knew of the
existence of such a party, not even by name, except our few members and their small
circle of acquaintances.

Every Wednesday what was called a committee meeting was held in one of the cafés,
and a debate was arranged for one evening each week. In the beginning all the
members of the movement were also members of the committee, therefore the same
persons always turned up at both meetings. The first step that had to be taken was to
extend the narrow limits of this small circle and get new members, but the principal
necessity was to utilize all the means at our command for the purpose of making the
movement known.

We chose the following methods: We decided to hold a monthly meeting to which the
public would be invited. Some of the invitations were typewritten, and some were
written by hand. For the first few meetings we distributed them in the streets and
delivered them personally at certain houses. Each one canvassed among his own
acquaintances and tried to persuade some of them to attend our meetings. The result
was lamentable.

I still remember once how I personally delivered eighty of these invitations and how we
waited in the evening for the crowds to come. After waiting in vain for a whole hour the
chairman finally had to open the meeting. Again there were only seven people present,
the old familiar seven.

We then changed our methods. We had the invitations written with a typewriter in a
Munich stationer's shop and then multigraphed them.

The result was that a few more people attended our next meeting. The number
increased gradually from eleven to thirteen to seventeen, to twenty-three and finally to
thirty-four. We collected some money within our own circle, each poor devil giving a
small contribution, and in that way we raised sufficient funds to be able to advertise
one of our meetings in the MUNICH OBSERVER, which was still an independent

This time we had an astonishing success. We had chosen the Munich HOFBRÄU HAUS
KELLER (which must not be confounded with the Munich HOFBRÄU HAUS
FESTSAAL) as our meeting-place. It was a small hall and would accommodate scarcely
more than 130 people. To me, however, the hall seemed enormous, and we were all
trembling lest this tremendous edifice would remain partly empty on the night of the

At seven o'clock 111 persons were present, and the meeting was opened. A Munich
professor delivered the principal address, and I spoke after him. That was my first
appearance in the role of public orator. The whole thing seemed a very daring
adventure to Herr Harrer, who was then chairman of the party. He was a very decent
fellow; but he had an A PRIORI conviction that, although I might have quite a number
of good qualities, I certainly did not have a talent for public speaking. Even later he
could not be persuaded to change his opinion. But he was mistaken. Twenty minutes
had been allotted to me for my speech on this occasion, which might be looked upon as
our first public meeting.

I talked for thirty minutes, and what I always had felt deep down in my heart, without
being able to put it to the test, was here proved to be true: I could make a good speech.
At the end of the thirty minutes it was quite clear that all the people in the little hall had
been profoundly impressed. The enthusiasm aroused among them found its first
expression in the fact that my appeal to those present brought us donations which
amounted to three hundred marks. That was a great relief for us. Our finances were at
that time so meagre that we could not afford to have our party prospectus printed, or
even leaflets. Now we possessed at least the nucleus of a fund from which we could pay
the most urgent and necessary expenses.

But the success of this first larger meeting was also important from another point of
view. I had already begun to introduce some young and fresh members into the
committee. During the long period of my military service I had come to know a large
number of good comrades whom I was now able to persuade to join our party. All of
them were energetic and disciplined young men who, through their years of military
service, had been imbued with the principle that nothing is impossible and that where
there's a will there's a way.

The need for this fresh blood supply became evident to me after a few weeks of
collaboration with the new members. Herr Harrer, who was then chairman of the party,
was a journalist by profession, and as such he was a man of general knowledge. But as
leader of the party he had one very serious handicap: he could not speak to the crowd.
Though he did his work conscientiously, it lacked the necessary driving force, probably
for the reason that he had no oratorical gifts whatsoever. Herr Drexler, at that time
chairman of the Munich local group, was a simple working man. He, too, was not of

any great importance as a speaker. Moreover, he was not a soldier. He had never done
military service, even during the War. So that this man who was feeble and diffident by
nature had missed the only school which knows how to transform diffident and weakly
natures into real men. Therefore neither of those two men were of the stuff that would
have enabled them to stir up an ardent and indomitable faith in the ultimate triumph of
the movement and to brush aside, with obstinate force and if necessary with brutal
ruthlessness, all obstacles that stood in the path of the new idea. Such a task could be
carried out only by men who had been trained, body and soul, in those military virtues
which make a man, so to speak, agile as a greyhound, tough as leather, and hard as
Krupp steel.

At that time I was still a soldier. Physically and mentally I had the polish of six years of
service, so that in the beginning this circle must have looked on me as quite a stranger.
In common with my army comrades, I had forgotten such phrases as: "That will not go",
or "That is not possible", or "We ought not to take such a risk; it is too dangerous".

The whole undertaking was of its very nature dangerous. At that time there were many
parts of Germany where it would have been absolutely impossible openly to invite
people to a national meeting that dared to make a direct appeal to the masses. Those
who attended such meetings were usually dispersed and driven away with broken
heads. It certainly did not call for any great qualities to be able to do things in that way.
The largest so-called bourgeois mass meetings were accustomed to dissolve, and those
in attendance would run away like rabbits when frightened by a dog as soon as a dozen
communists appeared on the scene. The Reds used to pay little attention to those
bourgeois organizations where only babblers talked. They recognized the inner
triviality of such associations much better than the members themselves and therefore
felt that they need not be afraid of them. On the contrary, however, they were all the
more determined to use every possible means of annihilating once and for all any
movement that appeared to them to be a danger to their own interests. The most
effective means which they always employed in such cases were terror and brute force.

The Marxist leaders, whose business consisted in deceiving and misleading the public,
naturally hated most of all a movement whose declared aim was to win over those
masses which hitherto had been exclusively at the service of international Marxism in
the Jewish and Stock Exchange parties. The title alone, 'German Labour party', irritated
them. It could easily be foreseen that at the first opportune moment we should have to
face the opposition of the Marxist despots, who were still intoxicated with their triumph
in 1918.

People in the small circles of our own movement at that time showed a certain amount
of anxiety at the prospect of such a conflict. They wanted to refrain as much as possible
from coming out into the open, because they feared that they might be attacked and
beaten. In their minds they saw our first public meetings broken up and feared that the

movement might thus be ruined for ever. I found it difficult to defend my own position,
which was that the conflict should not be evaded but that it should be faced openly and
that we should be armed with those weapons which are the only protection against
brute force. Terror cannot be overcome by the weapons of the mind but only by
counter-terror. The success of our first public meeting strengthened my own position.
The members felt encouraged to arrange for a second meeting, even on a larger scale.

Some time in October 1919 the second larger meeting took place in the EBERLBRÄU
KELLER. The theme of our speeches was 'Brest-Litowsk and Versailles'. There were
four speakers. I talked for almost an hour, and the success was even more striking than
at our first meeting. The number of people who attended had grown to more than 130.
An attempt to disturb the proceedings was immediately frustrated by my comrades.
The would-be disturbers were thrown down the stairs, bearing imprints of violence on
their heads.

A fortnight later another meeting took place in the same hall. The number in attendance
had now increased to more than 170, which meant that the room was fairly well filled. I
spoke again, and once more the success obtained was greater than at the previous

Then I proposed that a larger hall should be found. After looking around for some time
we discovered one at the other end of the town, in the 'Deutschen REICH' in the
Dachauer Strasse. The first meeting at this new rendezvous had a smaller attendance
than the previous meeting. There were just less than 140 present. The members of the
committee began to be discouraged, and those who had always been sceptical were
now convinced that this falling-off in the attendance was due to the fact that we were
holding the meetings at too short intervals. There were lively discussions, in which I
upheld my own opinion that a city with 700,000 inhabitants ought to be able not only to
stand one meeting every fortnight but ten meetings every week. I held that we should
not be discouraged by one comparative setback, that the tactics we had chosen were
correct, and that sooner or later success would be ours if we only continued with
determined perseverance to push forward on our road. This whole winter of 1919-20
was one continual struggle to strengthen confidence in our ability to carry the
movement through to success and to intensify this confidence until it became a burning
faith that could move mountains.

Our next meeting in the small hall proved the truth of my contention. Our audience had
increased to more than 200. The publicity effect and the financial success were splendid.
I immediately urged that a further meeting should be held. It took place in less than a
fortnight, and there were more than 270 people present. Two weeks later we invited our
followers and their friends, for the seventh time, to attend our meeting. The same hall
was scarcely large enough for the number that came. They amounted to more than four

During this phase the young movement developed its inner form. Sometimes we had
more or less hefty discussions within our small circle. From various sides--it was then
just the same as it is to-day--objections were made against the idea of calling the young
movement a party. I have always considered such criticism as a demonstration of
practical incapability and narrow-mindedness on the part of the critic. Those objections
have always been raised by men who could not differentiate between external
appearances and inner strength, but tried to judge the movement by the high-sounding
character of the name attached to it. To this end they ransacked the vocabulary of our
ancestors, with unfortunate results.

At that time it was very difficult to make the people understand that every movement is
a party as long as it has not brought its ideals to final triumph and thus achieved its
purpose. It is a party even if it give itself a thousand difterent names.

Any person who tries to carry into practice an original idea whose realization would be
for the benefit of his fellow men will first have to look for disciples who are ready to
fight for the ends he has in view. And if these ends did not go beyond the destruction of
the party system and therewith put a stop to the process of disintegration, then all those
who come forward as protagonists and apostles of such an ideal are a party in
themselves as long as their final goal is reached. It is only hair-splitting and playing
with words when these antiquated theorists, whose practical success is in reverse ratio
to their wisdom, presume to think they can change the character of a movement which
is at the same time a party, by merely changing its name.

On the contrary, it is entirely out of harmony with the spirit of the nation to keep
harping on that far-off and forgotten nomenclature which belongs to the ancient
Germanic times and does not awaken any distinct association in our age. This habit of
borrowing words from the dead past tends to mislead the people into thinking that the
external trappings of its vocabulary are the important feature of a movement. It is really
a mischievous habit; but it is quite prevalent nowadays.

At that time, and subsequently, I had to warn followers repeatedly against these
wandering scholars who were peddling Germanic folk-lore and who never
accomplished anything positive or practical, except to cultivate their own
superabundant self-conceit. The new movement must guard itself against an influx of
people whose only recommendation is their own statement that they have been fighting
for these very same ideals during the last thirty or forty years.

Now if somebody has fought for forty years to carry into effect what he calls an idea,
and if these alleged efforts not only show no positive results but have not even been
able to hinder the success of the opposing party, then the story of those forty years of
futile effort furnishes sufficient proof for the incompetence of such a protagonist. People

of that kind are specially dangerous because they do not want to participate in the
movement as ordinary members. They talk rather of the leading positions which would
be the only fitting posts for them, in view of their past work and also so that they might
be enabled to carry on that work further. But woe to a young movement if the conduct
of it should fall into the hands of such people. A business man who has been in charge
of a great firm for forty years and who has completely ruined it through his
mismanagement is not the kind of person one would recommend for the founding of a
new firm. And it is just the same with a new national movement. Nobody of common
sense would appoint to a leading post in such a movement some Teutonic Methuselah
who had been ineffectively preaching some idea for a period of forty years, until
himself and his idea had entered the stage of senile decay.

Furthermore, only a very small percentage of such people join a new movement with
the intention of serving its end unselfishly and helping in the spread of its principles. In
most cases they come because they think that, under the aegis of the new movement, it
will be possible for them to promulgate their old ideas to the misfortune of their new
listeners. Anyhow, nobody ever seems able to describe what exactly these ideas are.

It is typical of such persons that they rant about ancient Teutonic heroes of the dim and
distant ages, stone axes, battle spears and shields, whereas in reality they themselves
are the woefullest poltroons imaginable. For those very same people who brandish
Teutonic tin swords that have been fashioned carefully according to ancient models and
wear padded bear-skins, with the horns of oxen mounted over their bearded faces,
proclaim that all contemporary conflicts must be decided by the weapons of the mind
alone. And thus they skedaddle when the first communist cudgel appears. Posterity
will have little occasion to write a new epic on these heroic gladiators.

I have seen too much of that kind of people not to feel a profound contempt for their
miserable play-acting. To the masses of the nation they are just an object of ridicule; but
the Jew finds it to his own interest to treat these folk-lore comedians with respect and to
prefer them to real men who are fighting to establish a German State. And yet these
comedians are extremely proud of themselves. Notwithstanding their complete
fecklessness, which is an established fact, they pretend to know everything better than
other people; so much so that they make themselves a veritable nuisance to all sincere
and honest patriots, to whom not only the heroism of the past is worthy of honour but
who also feel bound to leave examples of their own work for the inspiration of the
coming generation.

Among those people there were some whose conduct can be explained by their innate
stupidity and incompetence; but there are others who have a definite ulterior purpose
in view. Often it is difficult to distinguish between the two classes. The impression
which I often get, especially of those so-called religious reformers whose creed is
grounded on ancient Germanic customs, is that they are the missionaries and protégés

of those forces which do not wish to see a national revival taking place in Germany. All
their activities tend to turn the attention of the people away from the necessity of
fighting together in a common cause against the common enemy, namely the Jew.
Moreover, that kind of preaching induces the people to use up their energies, not in
fighting for the common cause, but in absurd and ruinous religious controversies
within their own ranks. There are definite grounds that make it absolutely necessary for
the movement to be dominated by a strong central force which is embodied in the
authoritative leadership. In this way alone is it possible to counteract the activity of
such fatal elements. And that is just the reason why these folk-lore Ahasueruses are
vigorously hostile to any movement whose members are firmly united under one leader
and one discipline. Those people of whom I have spoken hate such a movement
because it is capable of putting a stop to their mischief.

It was not without good reason that when we laid down a clearly defined programme
for the new movement we excluded the word VÖLKISCH from it. The concept
underlying the term VÖLKISCH cannot serve as the basis of a movement, because it is
too indefinite and general in its application. Therefore, if somebody called himself
VÖLKISCH such a designation could not be taken as the hall-mark of some definite,
party affiliation.

Because this concept is so indefinite from the practical viewpoint, it gives rise to various
interpretations and thus people can appeal to it all the more easily as a sort of personal
recommendation. Whenever such a vague concept, which is subject to so many
interpretations, is admitted into a political movement it tends to break up the
disciplined solidarity of the fighting forces. No such solidarity can be maintained if each
individual member be allowed to define for himself what he believes and what he is
willing to do.

One feels it a disgrace when one notices the kind of people who float about nowadays
with the VÖLKISCH symbol stuck in their buttonholes, and at the same time to notice
how many people have various ideas of their own as to the significance of that symbol.
A well-known professor in Bavaria, a famous combatant who fights only with the
weapons of the mind and who boasts of having marched against Berlin--by shouldering
the weapons of the mind, of course--believes that the word VÖLKISCH is synonymous
with 'monarchical'. But this learned authority has hitherto neglected to explain how our
German monarchs of the past can be identified with what we generally mean by the
word VÖLKISCH to-day. I am afraid he will find himself at a loss if he is asked to give a
precise answer. For it would be very difficult indeed to imagine anything less
VÖLKISCH than most of those German monarchical States were. Had they been
otherwise they would not have disappeared; or if they were VÖLKISCH, then the fact
of their downfall may be taken as evidence that the VÖLKISCH outlook on the world
(WELTANSCHAUUNG) is a false outlook.

Everybody interprets this concept in his own way. But such multifarious opinions
cannot be adopted as the basis of a militant political movement. I need not call attention
to the absolute lack of worldly wisdom, and especially the failure to understand the
soul of the nation, which is displayed by these Messianic Precursors of the Twentieth
Century. Sufficient attention has been called to those people by the ridicule which the
left-wing parties have bestowed on them. They allow them to babble on and sneer at

I do not set much value on the friendship of people who do not succeed in getting
disliked by their enemies. Therefore, we considered the friendship of such people as not
only worthless but even dangerous to our young movement. That was the principal
reason why we first called ourselves a PARTY. We hoped that by giving ourselves such
a name we might scare away a whole host of VÖLKISCH dreamers. And that was the
reason also why we named our Party, THE NATIONAL SOCIALIST GERMAN

The first term, Party, kept away all those dreamers who live in the past and all the
lovers of bombastic nomenclature, as well as those who went around beating the big
drum for the VÖLKISCH idea. The full name of the Party kept away all those heroes
whose weapon is the sword of the spirit and all those whining poltroons who take
refuge behind their so-called 'intelligence' as if it were a kind of shield.

It was only to be expected that this latter class would launch a massed attack against us
after our movement had started; but, of course, it was only a pen-and-ink attack, for the
goose-quill is the only weapon which these VÖLKISCH lancers wield. We had declared
one of our principles thus: "We shall meet violence with violence in our own defence".
Naturally that principle disturbed the equanimity of the knights of the pen. They
reproached us bitterly not only for what they called our crude worship of the cudgel
but also because, according to them, we had no intellectual forces on our side. These
charlatans did not think for a moment that a Demosthenes could be reduced to silence
at a mass-meeting by fifty idiots who had come there to shout him down and use their
fists against his supporters. The innate cowardice of the pen-and-ink charlatan prevents
him from exposing himself to such a danger, for he always works in safe retirement and
never dares to make a noise or come forward in public.

Even to-day I must warn the members of our young movement in the strongest possible
terms to guard against the danger of falling into the snare of those who call themselves
'silent workers'. These 'silent workers' are not only a whitelivered lot but are also, and
always will be, ignorant do-nothings. A man who is aware of certain happenings and
knows that a certain danger threatens, and at the same time sees a certain remedy
which can be employed against it, is in duty bound not to work in silence but to come
into the open and publicly fight for the destruction of the evil and the acceptance of his
own remedy. If he does not do so, then he is neglecting his duty and shows that he is

weak in character and that he fails to act either because of his timidity, or indolence or
incompetence. Most of these 'silent workers' generally pretend to know God knows
what. Not one of them is capable of any real achievement, but they keep on trying to
fool the world with their antics. Though quite indolent, they try to create the impression
that their 'silent work' keeps them very busy. To put it briefly, they are sheer swindlers,
political jobbers who feel chagrined by the honest work which others are doing. When
you find one of these VÖLKISCH moths buzzing over the value of his 'silent work' you
may be sure that you are dealing with a fellow who does no productive work at all but
steals from others the fruits of their honest labour.

In addition to all this one ought to note the arrogance and conceited impudence with
which these obscurantist idlers try to tear to pieces the work of other people, criticizing
it with an air of superiority, and thus playing into the hands of the mortal enemy of our

Even the simplest follower who has the courage to stand on the table in some beer-hall
where his enemies are gathered, and manfully and openly defend his position against
them, achieves a thousand times more than these slinking hypocrites. He at least will
convert one or two people to believe in the movement. One can examine his work and
test its effectiveness by its actual results. But those knavish swindlers--who praise their
own 'silent work' and shelter themselves under the cloak of anonymity, are just
worthless drones, in the truest sense of the term, and are utterly useless for the purpose
of our national reconstruction.

In the beginning of 1920 I put forward the idea of holding our first mass meeting. On
this proposal there were differences of opinion amongst us. Some leading members of
our party thought that the time was not ripe for such a meeting and that the result
might be detrimental. The Press of the Left had begun to take notice of us and we were
lucky enough in being able gradually to arouse their wrath. We had begun to appear at
other meetings and to ask questions or contradict the speakers, with the natural result
that we were shouted down forthwith. But still we thereby gained some of our ends.
People began to know of our existence and the better they understood us, the stronger
became their aversion and their enmity. Therefore we might expect that a large
contingent of our friends from the Red Camp would attend our first mass meeting.

I fully realized that our meeting would probably be broken up. But we had to face the
fight; if not now, then some months later. Since the first day of our foundation we were
resolved to secure the future of the movement by fighting our way forward in a spirit of
blind faith and ruthless determination. I was well acquainted with the mentality of all
those who belonged to the Red Camp, and I knew quite well that if we opposed them
tooth and nail not only would we make an impression on them but that we even might
win new followers for ourselves. Therefore I felt that we must decide on a policy of
active opposition.

Herr Harrer was then chairman of our party. He did not see eye to eye with me as to the
opportune time for our first mass meeting. Accordingly he felt himself obliged to resign
from the leadership of the movement, as an upright and honest man. Herr Anton
Drexler took his place. I kept the work of organizing the propaganda in my own hands
and I listened to no compromise in carrying it out.

We decided on February 24th 1920 as the date for the first great popular meeting to be
held under the aegis of this movement which was hitherto unknown.

I made all the preparatory arrangements personally. They did not take very long. The
whole apparatus of our organization was set in motion for the purpose of being able to
secure a rapid decision as to our policy. Within twenty-four hours we had to decide on
the attitude we should take in regard to the questions of the day which would be put
forward at the mass meeting. The notices which advertised the meeting had to bring
these points before the public. In this direction we were forced to depend on the use of
posters and leaflets, the contents of which and the manner in which they were
displayed were decided upon in accordance with the principles which I have already
laid down in dealing with propaganda in general. They were produced in a form which
would appeal to the crowd. They concentrated on a few points which were repeated
again and again. The text was concise and definite, an absolutely dogmatic form of
expression being used. We distributed these posters and leaflets with a dogged energy
and then we patiently waited for the effect they would produce.

For our principal colour we chose red, as it has an exciting effect on the eye and was
therefore calculated to arouse the attention of our opponents and irritate them. Thus
they would have to take notice of us--whether they liked it or not--and would not forget

One result of our tactics was to show up clearly the close political fraternization that
existed also here in Bavaria between the Marxists and the Centre Party. The political
party that held power in Bavaria, which was the Bavarian People's Party (affiliated with
the Centre Party) did its best to counteract the effect which our placards were having on
the 'Red' masses. Thus they made a definite step to fetter our activities. If the police
could find no other grounds for prohibiting our placards, then they might claim that we
were disturbing the traffic in the streets. And thus the so-called German National
People's Party calmed the anxieties of their 'Red' allies by completely prohibiting those
placards which proclaimed a message that was bringing back to the bosom of their own
people hundreds of thousands of workers who had been misled by international
agitators and incensed against their own nation. These placards bear witness to the
bitterness of the struggle in which the young movement was then engaged. Future
generations will find in these placards a documentary proof of our determination and
the justice of our own cause. And these placards will also prove how the so-called

national officials took arbitrary action to strangle a movement that did not please them,
because it was nationalizing the broad masses of the people and winning them back to
their own racial stock.

These placards will also help to refute the theory that there was then a national
government in Bavaria and they will afford documentary confirmation of the fact that if
Bavaria remained nationally-minded during the years 1919, 1920, 1921, 1922 and 1923,
this was not due to a national government but it was because the national spirit
gradually gained a deeper hold on the people and the Government was forced to follow
public feeling. The Government authorities themselves did everything in their power to
hamper this process of recovery and make it impossible. But in this connection two
officials must be mentioned as outstanding exceptions.

Ernst Pöhner was Chief of Police at the time. He had a loyal counsellor in Dr. Frick, who
was his chief executive official. These were the only men among the higher officials who
had the courage to place the interests of their country before their own interests in
holding on to their jobs. Of those in responsible positions Ernst Pöhner was the only one
who did not pay court to the mob but felt that his duty was towards the nation as such
and was ready to risk and sacrifice everything, even his personal livelihood, to help in
the restoration of the German people, whom he dearly loved. For that reason he was a
bitter thorn in the side of the venal group of Government officials. It was not the
interests of the nation or the necessity of a national revival that inspired or directed
their conduct. They simply truckled to the wishes of the Government, so as to secure
their daily bread for themselves, but they had no thought whatsoever for the national
welfare that had been entrusted to their care.

Above all, Pöhner was one of those people who, in contradistinction to the majority of
our so-called defenders of the authority of the State, did not fear to incur the enmity of
the traitors to the country and the nation but rather courted it as a mark of honour and
honesty. For such men the hatred of the Jews and Marxists and the lies and calumnies
they spread, were their only source of happiness in the midst of the national misery.
Pöhner was a man of granite loyalty. He was like one of the ascetic characters of the
classical era and was at the same time that kind of straightforward German for whom
the saying 'Better dead than a slave' is not an empty phrase but a veritable heart's cry.

In my opinion he and his collaborator, Dr. Frick, are the only men holding positions
then in Bavaria who have the right to be considered as having taken active part in the
creation of a national Bavaria.

Before holding our first great mass meeting it was necessary not only to have our
propaganda material ready but also to have the main items of our programme printed.

In the second volume of this book I shall give a detailed account of the guiding
principles which we then followed in drawing up our programme. Here I will only say
that the programme was arranged not merely to set forth the form and content of the
young movement but also with an eye to making it understood among the broad
masses. The so-called intellectual circles made jokes and sneered at it and then tried to
criticize it. But the effect of our programme proved that the ideas which we then held
were right.

During those years I saw dozens of new movements arise and disappear without
leaving a trace behind. Only one movement has survived. It is the National Socialist
German Labour Party. To-day I am more convinced than ever before that, though they
may combat us and try to paralyse our movement, and though pettifogging party
ministers may forbid us the right of free speech, they cannot prevent the triumph of our
ideas. When the present system of statal administration and even the names of the
political parties that represent it will be forgotten, the programmatic basis of the
National Socialist movement will supply the groundwork on which the future State will
be built.

The meetings which we held before January 1920 had enabled us to collect the financial
means that were necessary to have our first pamphlets and posters and programmes

I shall bring the first part of this book to a close by referring to our first great mass
meeting, because that meeting marked the occasion on which our framework as a small
party had to be broken up and we started to become the most powerful factor of this
epoch in the influence we exercised on public opinion. At that time my chief anxiety
was that we might not fill the hall and that we might have to face empty benches. I
myself was firmly convinced that if only the people would come this day would turn
out a great success for the young movement. That was my feeling as I waited
impatiently for the hour to come.

It had been announced that the meeting would begin at 7.30. A quarter-of-an-hour
before the opening time I walked through the chief hall of the Hofbräuhaus on the
PLATZ in Munich and my heart was nearly bursting with joy. The great hall--for at that
time it seemed very big to me--was filled to overflowing. Nearly 2,000 people were
present. And, above all, those people had come whom we had always wished to reach.
More than half the audience consisted of persons who seemed to be communists or
independents. Our first great demonstration was destined, in their view, to come to an
abrupt end.

But things happened otherwise. When the first speaker had finished I got up to speak.
After a few minutes I was met with a hailstorm of interruptions and violent encounters
broke out in the body of the hall. A handful of my loyal war comrades and some other

followers grappled with the disturbers and restored order in a little while. I was able to
continue my speech. After half an hour the applause began to drown the interruptions
and the hootings. Then interruptions gradually ceased and applause took their place.
When I finally came to explain the twenty-five points and laid them, point after point,
before the masses gathered there and asked them to pass their own judgment on each
point, one point after another was accepted with increasing enthusiasm. When the last
point was reached I had before me a hall full of people united by a new conviction, a
new faith and a new will.

Nearly four hours had passed when the hall began to clear. As the masses streamed
towards the exits, crammed shoulder to shoulder, shoving and pushing, I knew that a
movement was now set afoot among the German people which would never pass into

A fire was enkindled from whose glowing heat the sword would be fashioned which
would restore freedom to the German Siegfried and bring back life to the German

Beside the revival which I then foresaw, I also felt that the Goddess of Vengeance was
now getting ready to redress the treason of the 9th of November, 1918. The hall was
emptied. The movement was on the march.

Volume II

The National Socialist Movement

Chapter 1

Weltanschauung And Party

ON FEBRUARY 24th, 1920, the first great mass meeting under the auspices of the new
movement took place. In the Banquet Hall of the Hofbräuhaus in Munich the twenty-
five theses which constituted the programme of our new party were expounded to an
audience of nearly two thousand people and each thesis was enthusiastically received.

Thus we brought to the knowledge of the public those first principles and lines of action
along which the new struggle was to be conducted for the abolition of a confused mass
of obsolete ideas and opinions which had obscure and often pernicious tendencies. A
new force was to make its appearance among the timid and feckless bourgeoisie. This
force was destined to impede the triumphant advance of the Marxists and bring the
Chariot of Fate to a standstill just as it seemed about to reach its goal.

It was evident that this new movement could gain the public significance and support
which are necessary pre-requisites in such a gigantic struggle only if it succeeded from
the very outset in awakening a sacrosanct conviction in the hearts of its followers, that
here it was not a case of introducing a new electoral slogan into the political field but
that an entirely new WELTANSCHAUUNG, which was of a radical significance, had to
be promoted.

One must try to recall the miserable jumble of opinions that used to be arrayed side by
side to form the usual Party Programme, as it was called, and one must remember how
these opinions used to be brushed up or dressed in a new form from time to time. If we
would properly understand these programmatic monstrosities we must carefully
investigate the motives which inspired the average bourgeois 'programme committee'.

Those people are always influenced by one and the same preoccupation when they
introduce something new into their programme or modify something already contained
in it. That preoccupation is directed towards the results of the next election. The
moment these artists in parliamentary government have the first glimmering of a
suspicion that their darling public may be ready to kick up its heels and escape from the
harness of the old party wagon they begin to paint the shafts with new colours. On such
occasions the party astrologists and horoscope readers, the so-called 'experienced men'
and 'experts', come forward. For the most part they are old parliamentary hands whose

political schooling has furnished them with ample experience. They can remember
former occasions when the masses showed signs of losing patience and they now
diagnose the menace of a similar situation arising. Resorting to their old prescription,
they form a 'committee'. They go around among the darling public and listen to what is
being said. They dip their noses into the newspapers and gradually begin to scent what
it is that their darlings, the broad masses, are wishing for, what they reject and what
they are hoping for. The groups that belong to each trade or business, and even office
employees, are carefully studied and their innermost desires are investigated. The
'malicious slogans' of the opposition from which danger is threatened are now
suddenly looked upon as worthy of reconsideration, and it often happens that these
slogans, to the great astonishment of those who originally coined and circulated them,
now appear to be quite harmless and indeed are to be found among the dogmas of the
old parties.

So the committees meet to revise the old programme and draw up a new one.

For these people change their convictions just as the soldier changes his shirt in war--
when the old one is bug-eaten. In the new programme everyone gets everything he
wants. The farmer is assured that the interests of agriculture will be safeguarded. The
industrialist is assured of protection for his products. The consumer is assured that his
interests will be protected in the market prices. Teachers are given higher salaries and
civil servants will have better pensions. Widows and orphans will receive generous
assistance from the State. Trade will be promoted. The tariff will be lowered and even
the taxes, though they cannot be entirely abolished, will be almost abolished. It
sometimes happens that one section of the public is forgotten or that one of the
demands mooted among the public has not reached the ears of the party. This is also
hurriedly patched on to the whole, should there be any space available for it: until
finally it is felt that there are good grounds for hoping that the whole normal host of
philistines, including their wives, will have their anxieties laid to rest and will beam
with satisfaction once again. And so, internally armed with faith in the goodness of God
and the impenetrable stupidity of the electorate, the struggle for what is called 'the
reconstruction of the REICH' can now begin.

When the election day is over and the parliamentarians have held their last public
meeting for the next five years, when they can leave their job of getting the populace to
toe the line and can now devote themselves to higher and more pleasing tasks--then the
programme committee is dissolved and the struggle for the progressive reorganization
of public affairs becomes once again a business of earning one's daily bread, which for
the parliamentarians means merely the attendance that is required in order to be able to
draw their daily remunerations. Morning after morning the honourable deputy wends
his way to the House, and though he may not enter the Chamber itself he gets at least as
far as the front hall, where he will find the register on which the names of the deputies
in attendance have to be inscribed. As a part of his onerous service to his constituents he

enters his name, and in return receives a small indemnity as a well-earned reward for
his unceasing and exhausting labours.

When four years have passed, or in the meantime if there should be some critical weeks
during which the parliamentary corporations have to face the danger of being
dissolved, these honourable gentlemen become suddenly seized by an irresistible desire
to act. Just as the grub-worm cannot help growing into a cock-chafer, these
parliamentarian worms leave the great House of Puppets and flutter on new wings out
among the beloved public. They address the electors once again, give an account of the
enormous labours they have accomplished and emphasize the malicious obstinacy of
their opponents. They do not always meet with grateful applause; for occasionally the
unintelligent masses throw rude and unfriendly remarks in their faces. When this spirit
of public ingratitude reaches a certain pitch there is only one way of saving the
situation. The prestige of the party must be burnished up again. The programme has to
be amended. The committee is called into existence once again. And the swindle begins
anew. Once we understand the impenetrable stupidity of our public we cannot be
surprised that such tactics turn out successful. Led by the Press and blinded once again
by the alluring appearance of the new programme, the bourgeois as well as the
proletarian herds of voters faithfully return to the common stall and re-elect their old
deceivers. The 'people's man' and labour candidate now change back again into the
parliamentarian grub and become fat and rotund as they batten on the leaves that grow
on the tree of public life--to be retransformed into the glittering butterfly after another
four years have passed.

Scarcely anything else can be so depressing as to watch this process in sober reality and
to be the eyewitness of this repeatedly recurring fraud. On a spiritual training ground
of that kind it is not possible for the bourgeois forces to develop the strength which is
necessary to carry on the fight against the organized might of Marxism. Indeed they
have never seriously thought of doing so. Though these parliamentary quacks who
represent the white race are generally recognized as persons of quite inferior mental
capacity, they are shrewd enough to know that they could not seriously entertain the
hope of being able to use the weapon of Western Democracy to fight a doctrine for the
advance of which Western Democracy, with all its accessories, is employed as a means
to an end. Democracy is exploited by the Marxists for the purpose of paralysing their
opponents and gaining for themselves a free hand to put their own methods into action.
When certain groups of Marxists use all their ingenuity for the time being to make it be
believed that they are inseparably attached to the principles of democracy, it may be
well to recall the fact that when critical occasions arose these same gentlemen snapped
their fingers at the principle of decision by majority vote, as that principle is understood
by Western Democracy. Such was the case in those days when the bourgeois
parliamentarians, in their monumental shortsightedness, believed that the security of
the REICH was guaranteed because it had an overwhelming numerical majority in its
favour, and the Marxists did not hesitate suddenly to grasp supreme power in their

own hands, backed by a mob of loafers, deserters, political place-hunters and Jewish
dilettanti. That was a blow in the face for that democracy in which so many
parliamentarians believed. Only those credulous parliamentary wizards who
represented bourgeois democracy could have believed that the brutal determination of
those whose interest it is to spread the Marxist world-pest, of which they are the
carriers, could for a moment, now or in the future, be held in check by the magical
formulas of Western Parliamentarianism. Marxism will march shoulder to shoulder
with democracy until it succeeds indirectly in securing for its own criminal purposes
even the support of those whose minds are nationally orientated and whom Marxism
strives to exterminate. But if the Marxists should one day come to believe that there was
a danger that from this witch's cauldron of our parliamentary democracy a majority
vote might be concocted, which by reason of its numerical majority would be
empowered to enact legislation and might use that power seriously to combat Marxism,
then the whole parliamentarian hocus-pocus would be at an end. Instead of appealing
to the democratic conscience, the standard bearers of the Red International would
immediately send forth a furious rallying-cry among the proletarian masses and the
ensuing fight would not take place in the sedate atmosphere of Parliament but in the
factories and the streets. Then democracy would be annihilated forthwith. And what
the intellectual prowess of the apostles who represented the people in Parliament had
failed to accomplish would now be successfully carried out by the crow-bar and the
sledge-hammer of the exasperated proletarian masses--just as in the autumn of 1918. At
a blow they would awaken the bourgeois world to see the madness of thinking that the
Jewish drive towards world-conquest can be effectually opposed by means of Western

As I have said, only a very credulous soul could think of binding himself to observe the
rules of the game when he has to face a player for whom those rules are nothing but a
mere bluff or a means of serving his own interests, which means he will discard them
when they prove no longer useful for his purpose.

All the parties that profess so-called bourgeois principles look upon political life as in
reality a struggle for seats in Parliament. The moment their principles and convictions
are of no further use in that struggle they are thrown overboard, as if they were sand
ballast. And the programmes are constructed in such a way that they can be dealt with
in like manner. But such practice has a correspondingly weakening effect on the
strength of those parties. They lack the great magnetic force which alone attracts the
broad masses; for these masses always respond to the compelling force which emanates
from absolute faith in the ideas put forward, combined with an indomitable zest to fight
for and defend them.

At a time in which the one side, armed with all the fighting power that springs from a
systematic conception of life--even though it be criminal in a thousand ways--makes an
attack against the established order the other side will be able to resist when it draws its

strength from a new faith, which in our case is a political faith. This faith must
supersede the weak and cowardly command to defend. In its stead we must raise the
battle-cry of a courageous and ruthless attack. Our present movement is accused,
especially by the so-called national bourgeois cabinet ministers--the Bavarian
representatives of the Centre, for example--of heading towards a revolution. We have
one answer to give to those political pigmies. We say to them: We are trying to make up
for that which you, in your criminal stupidity, have failed to carry out. By your
parliamentarian jobbing you have helped to drag the nation into ruin. But we, by our
aggressive policy, are setting up a new WELTANSCHAUUNG which we shall defend
with indomitable devotion. Thus we are building the steps on which our nation once
again may ascend to the temple of freedom.

And so during the first stages of founding our movement we had to take special care
that our militant group which fought for the establishment of a new and exalted
political faith should not degenerate into a society for the promotion of parliamentarian

The first preventive measure was to lay down a programme which of itself would tend
towards developing a certain moral greatness that would scare away all the petty and
weakling spirits who make up the bulk of our present party politicians.

Those fatal defects which finally led to Germany's downfall afford the clearest proof of
how right we were in considering it absolutely necessary to set up programmatic aims
which were sharply and distinctly defined.

Because we recognized the defects above mentioned, we realized that a new conception
of the State had to be formed, which in itself became a part of our new conception of life
in general.

In the first volume of this book I have already dealt with the term VÖLKISCH, and I
said then that this term has not a sufficiently precise meaning to furnish the kernel
around which a closely consolidated militant community could be formed. All kinds of
people, with all kinds of divergent opinions, are parading about at the present moment
under the device VÖLKISCH on their banners. Before I come to deal with the purposes
and aims of the National Socialist Labour Party I want to establish a clear
understanding of what is meant by the concept VÖLKISCH and herewith explain its
relation to our party movement. The word VÖLKISCH does not express any clearly
specified idea. It may be interpreted in several ways and in practical application it is
just as general as the word 'religious', for instance. It is difficult to attach any precise
meaning to this latter word, either as a theoretical concept or as a guiding principle in
practical life. The word 'religious' acquires a precise meaning only when it is associated
with a distinct and definite form through which the concept is put into practice. To say
that a person is 'deeply religious' may be very fine phraseology; but, generally

speaking, it tells us little or nothing. There may be some few people who are content
with such a vague description and there may even be some to whom the word conveys
a more or less definite picture of the inner quality of a person thus described. But, since
the masses of the people are not composed of philosophers or saints, such a vague
religious idea will mean for them nothing else than to justify each individual in thinking
and acting according to his own bent. It will not lead to that practical faith into which
the inner religious yearning is transformed only when it leaves the sphere of general
metaphysical ideas and is moulded to a definite dogmatic belief. Such a belief is
certainly not an end in itself, but the means to an end. Yet it is a means without which
the end could never be reached at all. This end, however, is not merely something ideal;
for at the bottom it is eminently practical. We must always bear in mind the fact that,
generally speaking, the highest ideals are always the outcome of some profound vital
need, just as the most sublime beauty owes its nobility of shape, in the last analysis, to
the fact that the most beautiful form is the form that is best suited to the purpose it is
meant to serve.

By helping to lift the human being above the level of mere animal existence, Faith really
contributes to consolidate and safeguard its own existence. Taking humanity as it exists
to-day and taking into consideration the fact that the religious beliefs which it generally
holds and which have been consolidated through our education, so that they serve as
moral standards in practical life, if we should now abolish religious teaching and not
replace it by anything of equal value the result would be that the foundations of human
existence would be seriously shaken. We may safely say that man does not live merely
to serve higher ideals, but that these ideals, in their turn, furnish the necessary
conditions of his existence as a human being. And thus the circle is closed.

Of course, the word 'religious' implies some ideas and beliefs that are fundamental.
Among these we may reckon the belief in the immortality of the soul, its future
existence in eternity, the belief in the existence of a Higher Being, and so on. But all
these ideas, no matter how firmly the individual believes in them, may be critically
analysed by any person and accepted or rejected accordingly, until the emotional
concept or yearning has been transformed into an active service that is governed by a
clearly defined doctrinal faith. Such a faith furnishes the practical outlet for religious
feeling to express itself and thus opens the way through which it can be put into

Without a clearly defined belief, the religious feeling would not only be worthless for
the purposes of human existence but even might contribute towards a general
disorganization, on account of its vague and multifarious tendencies.

What I have said about the word 'religious' can also be applied to the term VÖLKISCH.
This word also implies certain fundamental ideas. Though these ideas are very
important indeed, they assume such vague and indefinite forms that they cannot be

estimated as having a greater value than mere opinions, until they become constituent
elements in the structure of a political party. For in order to give practical force to the
ideals that grow out of a WELTANSCHAUUNG and to answer the demands which are
a logical consequence of such ideals, mere sentiment and inner longing are of no
practical assistance, just as freedom cannot be won by a universal yearning for it. No.
Only when the idealistic longing for independence is organized in such a way that it
can fight for its ideal with military force, only then can the urgent wish of a people be
transformed into a potent reality.

Any WELTANSCHAUUNG, though a thousandfold right and supremely beneficial to
humanity, will be of no practical service for the maintenance of a people as long as its
principles have not yet become the rallying point of a militant movement. And, on its
own side, this movement will remain a mere party until is has brought its ideals to
victory and transformed its party doctrines into the new foundations of a State which
gives the national community its final shape.

If an abstract conception of a general nature is to serve as the basis of a future
development, then the first prerequisite is to form a clear understanding of the nature
and character and scope of this conception. For only on such a basis can a movement he
founded which will be able to draw the necessary fighting strength from the internal
cohesion of its principles and convictions. From general ideas a political programme
must be constructed and a general WELTANSCHAUUNG must receive the stamp of a
definite political faith. Since this faith must be directed towards ends that have to be
attained in the world of practical reality, not only must it serve the general ideal as such
but it must also take into consideration the means that have to be employed for the
triumph of the ideal. Here the practical wisdom of the statesman must come to the
assistance of the abstract idea, which is correct in itself. In that way an eternal ideal,
which has everlasting significance as a guiding star to mankind, must be adapted to the
exigencies of human frailty so that its practical effect may not be frustrated at the very
outset through those shortcomings which are general to mankind. The exponent of
truth must here go hand in hand with him who has a practical knowledge of the soul of
the people, so that from the realm of eternal verities and ideals what is suited to the
capacities of human nature may be selected and given practical form. To take abstract
and general principles, derived from a WELTANSCHAUUNG which is based on a solid
foundation of truth, and transform them into a militant community whose members
have the same political faith--a community which is precisely defined, rigidly
organized, of one mind and one will--such a transformation is the most important task
of all; for the possibility of successfully carrying out the idea is dependent on the
successful fulfilment of that task. Out of the army of millions who feel the truth of these
ideas, and even may understand them to some extent, one man must arise. This man
must have the gift of being able to expound general ideas in a clear and definite form,
and, from the world of vague ideas shimmering before the minds of the masses, he
must formulate principles that will be as clear-cut and firm as granite. He must fight for

these principles as the only true ones, until a solid rock of common faith and common
will emerges above the troubled waves of vagrant ideas. The general justification of
such action is to be sought in the necessity for it and the individual will be justified by
his success.

If we try to penetrate to the inner meaning of the word VÖLKISCH we arrive at the
following conclusions:

The current political conception of the world is that the State, though it possesses a
creative force which can build up civilizations, has nothing in common with the concept
of race as the foundation of the State. The State is considered rather as something which
has resulted from economic necessity, or, at best, the natural outcome of the play of
political forces and impulses. Such a conception of the foundations of the State, together
with all its logical consequences, not only ignores the primordial racial forces that
underlie the State, but it also leads to a policy in which the importance of the individual
is minimized. If it be denied that races differ from one another in their powers of
cultural creativeness, then this same erroneous notion must necessarily influence our
estimation of the value of the individual. The assumption that all races are alike leads to
the assumption that nations and individuals are equal to one another. And international
Marxism is nothing but the application--effected by the Jew, Karl Marx--of a general
conception of life to a definite profession of political faith; but in reality that general
concept had existed long before the time of Karl Marx. If it had not already existed as a
widely diffused infection the amazing political progress of the Marxist teaching would
never have been possible. In reality what distinguished Karl Marx from the millions
who were affected in the same way was that, in a world already in a state of gradual
decomposition, he used his keen powers of prognosis to detect the essential poisons, so
as to extract them and concentrate them, with the art of a necromancer, in a solution
which would bring about the rapid destruction of the independent nations on the globe.
But all this was done in the service of his race.

Thus the Marxist doctrine is the concentrated extract of the mentality which underlies
the general concept of life to-day. For this reason alone it is out of the question and even
ridiculous to think that what is called our bourgeois world can put up any effective
fight against Marxism. For this bourgeois world is permeated with all those same
poisons and its conception of life in general differs from Marxism only in degree and in
the character of the persons who hold it. The bourgeois world is Marxist but believes in
the possibility of a certain group of people--that is to say, the bourgeoisie--being able to
dominate the world, while Marxism itself systematically aims at delivering the world
into the hands of the Jews.

Over against all this, the VÖLKISCH concept of the world recognizes that the
primordial racial elements are of the greatest significance for mankind. In principle, the
State is looked upon only as a means to an end and this end is the conservation of the

racial characteristics of mankind. Therefore on the VÖLKISCH principle we cannot
admit that one race is equal to another. By recognizing that they are different, the
VÖLKISCH concept separates mankind into races of superior and inferior quality. On
the basis of this recognition it feels bound in conformity with the eternal Will that
dominates the universe, to postulate the victory of the better and stronger and the
subordination of the inferior and weaker. And so it pays homage to the truth that the
principle underlying all Nature's operations is the aristocratic principle and it believes
that this law holds good even down to the last individual organism. It selects individual
values from the mass and thus operates as an organizing principle, whereas Marxism
acts as a disintegrating solvent. The VÖLKISCH belief holds that humanity must have
its ideals, because ideals are a necessary condition of human existence itself. But, on the
other hand, it denies that an ethical ideal has the right to prevail if it endangers the
existence of a race that is the standard-bearer of a higher ethical ideal. For in a world
which would be composed of mongrels and negroids all ideals of human beauty and
nobility and all hopes of an idealized future for our humanity would be lost forever.

On this planet of ours human culture and civilization are indissolubly bound up with
the presence of the Aryan. If he should be exterminated or subjugated, then the dark
shroud of a new barbarian era would enfold the earth.

To undermine the existence of human culture by exterminating its founders and
custodians would be an execrable crime in the eyes of those who believe that the folk-
idea lies at the basis of human existence. Whoever would dare to raise a profane hand
against that highest image of God among His creatures would sin against the bountiful
Creator of this marvel and would collaborate in the expulsion from Paradise.

Hence the folk concept of the world is in profound accord with Nature's will; because it
restores the free play of the forces which will lead the race through stages of sustained
reciprocal education towards a higher type, until finally the best portion of mankind
will possess the earth and will be free to work in every domain all over the world and
even reach spheres that lie outside the earth.

We all feel that in the distant future many may be faced with problems which can be
solved only by a superior race of human beings, a race destined to become master of all
the other peoples and which will have at its disposal the means and resources of the
whole world.

It is evident that such a general sketch of the ideas implied in the folk concept of the
world may easily be interpreted in a thousand different ways. As a matter of fact there
is scarcely one of our recent political movements that does not refer at some point to
this conception of the world. But the fact that this conception of the world still
maintains its independent existence in face of all the others proves that their ways of
looking at life are quite difierent from this. Thus the Marxist conception, directed by a

central organization endowed with supreme authority, is opposed by a motley crew of
opinions which is not very impressive in face of the solid phalanx presented by the
enemy. Victory cannot be achieved with such weak weapons. Only when the
international idea, politically organized by Marxism, is confronted by the folk idea,
equally well organized in a systematic way and equally well led--only then will the
fighting energy in the one camp be able to meet that of the other on an equal footing;
and victory will be found on the side of eternal truth.

But a general conception of life can never be given an organic embodiment until it is
precisely and definitely formulated. The function which dogma fulfils in religious belief
is parallel to the function which party principles fulfil for a political party which is in
the process of being built up. Therefore, for the conception of life that is based on the
folk idea it is necessary that an instrument be forged which can be used in fighting for
this ideal, similar to the Marxist party organization which clears the way for

And this is the aim which the German National Socialist Labour Movement pursues.

The folk conception must therefore be definitely formulated so that it may be
organically incorporated in the party. That is a necessary prerequisite for the success of
this idea. And that it is so is very clearly proved even by the indirect acknowledgment
of those who oppose such an amalgamation of the folk idea with party principles. The
very people who never tire of insisting again and again that the conception of life based
on the folk idea can never be the exclusive property of a single group, because it lies
dormant or 'lives' in myriads of hearts, only confirm by their own statements the simple
fact that the general presence of such ideas in the hearts of millions of men has not
proved sufficient to impede the victory of the opposing ideas, which are championed by
a political party organized on the principle of class conflict. If that were not so, the
German people ought already to have gained a gigantic victory instead of finding
themselves on the brink of the abyss. The international ideology achieved success
because it was organized in a militant political party which was always ready to take
the offensive. If hitherto the ideas opposed to the international concept have had to give
way before the latter the reason is that they lacked a united front to fight for their cause.
A doctrine which forms a definite outlook on life cannot struggle and triumph by
allowing the right of free interpretation of its general teaching, but only by defining that
teaching in certain articles of faith that have to be accepted and incorporating it in a
political organization.

Therefore I considered it my special duty to extract from the extensive but vague
contents of a general WELTANSCHAUUNG the ideas which were essential and give
them a more or less dogmatic form. Because of their precise and clear meaning, these
ideas are suited to the purpose of uniting in a common front all those who are ready to
accept them as principles. In other words: The German National Socialist Labour Party

extracts the essential principles from the general conception of the world which is based
on the folk idea. On these principles it establishes a political doctrine which takes into
account the practical realities of the day, the nature of the times, the available human
material and all its deficiencies. Through this political doctrine it is possible to bring
great masses of the people into an organization which is constructed as rigidly as it
could be. Such an organization is the main preliminary that is necessary for the final
triumph of this ideal.

Chapter 2

The State

ALREADY IN 1920-1921 certain circles belonging to the effete bourgeois class accused
our movement again and again of taking up a negative attitude towards the modern
State. For that reason the motley gang of camp followers attached to the various
political parties, representing a heterogeneous conglomeration of political views,
assumed the right of utilizing all available means to suppress the protagonists of this
young movement which was preaching a new political gospel. Our opponents
deliberately ignored the fact that the bourgeois class itself stood for no uniform opinion
as to what the State really meant and that the bourgeoisie did not and could not give
any coherent definition of this institution. Those whose duty it is to explain what is
meant when we speak of the State, hold chairs in State universities, often in the
department of constitutional law, and consider it their highest duty to find explanations
and justifications for the more or less fortunate existence of that particular form of State
which provides them with their daily bread. The more absurd such a form of State is the
more obscure and artificial and incomprehensible are the definitions which are
advanced to explain the purpose of its existence. What, for instance, could a royal and
imperial university professor write about the meaning and purpose of a State in a
country whose statal form represented the greatest monstrosity of the twentieth
century? That would be a difficult undertaking indeed, in view of the fact that the
contemporary professor of constitutional law is obliged not so much to serve the cause
of truth but rather to serve a certain definite purpose. And this purpose is to defend at
all costs the existence of that monstrous human mechanism which we now call the
State. Nobody can be surprised if concrete facts are evaded as far as possible when the
problem of the State is under discussion and if professors adopt the tactics of concealing
themselves in morass of abstract values and duties and purposes which are described as
'ethical' and 'moral'.

Generally speaking, these various theorists may be classed in three groups:

1. Those who hold that the State is a more or less voluntary association of men who
have agreed to set up and obey a ruling authority.

This is numerically the largest group. In its ranks are to be found those who worship
our present principle of legalized authority. In their eyes the will of the people has no

part whatever in the whole affair. For them the fact that the State exists is sufficient
reason to consider it sacred and inviolable. To accept this aberration of the human brain
one would have to have a sort of canine adoration for what is called the authority of the
State. In the minds of these people the means is substituted for the end, by a sort of
sleight-of-hand movement. The State no longer exists for the purpose of serving men
but men exist for the purpose of adoring the authority of the State, which is vested in its
functionaries, even down to the smallest official. So as to prevent this placid and ecstatic
adoration from changing into something that might become in any way disturbing, the
authority of the State is limited simply to the task of preserving order and tranquillity.
Therewith it is no longer either a means or an end. The State must see that public peace
and order are preserved and, in their turn, order and peace must make the existence of
the State possible. All life must move between these two poles. In Bavaria this view is
upheld by the artful politicians of the Bavarian Centre, which is called the 'Bavarian
Populist Party'. In Austria the Black-and-Yellow legitimists adopt a similar attitude. In
the REICH, unfortunately, the so-called conservative elements follow the same line of

2. The second group is somewhat smaller in numbers. It includes those who would
make the existence of the State dependent on some conditions at least. They insist that
not only should there be a uniform system of government but also, if possible, that only
one language should be used, though solely for technical reasons of administration. In
this view the authority of the State is no longer the sole and exclusive end for which the
State exists. It must also promote the good of its subjects. Ideas of 'freedom', mostly
based on a misunderstanding of the meaning of that word, enter into the concept of the
State as it exists in the minds of this group. The form of government is no longer
considered inviolable simply because it exists. It must submit to the test of practical
efficiency. Its venerable age no longer protects it from being criticized in the light of
modern exigencies. Moreover, in this view the first duty laid upon the State is to
guarantee the economic well-being of the individual citizens. Hence it is judged from
the practical standpoint and according to general principles based on the idea of
economic returns. The chief representatives of this theory of the State are to be found
among the average German bourgeoisie, especially our liberal democrats.

3. The third group is numerically the smallest. In the State they discover a means for the
realization of tendencies that arise from a policy of power, on the part of a people who
are ethnically homogeneous and speak the same language. But those who hold this
view are not clear about what they mean by 'tendencies arising from a policy of power'.
A common language is postulated not only because they hope that thereby the State
would be furnished with a solid basis for the extension of its power outside its own
frontiers, but also because they think--though falling into a fundamental error by doing
so--that such a common language would enable them to carry out a process of
nationalization in a definite direction.

During the last century it was lamentable for those who had to witness it, to notice how
in these circles I have just mentioned the word 'Germanization' was frivolously played
with, though the practice was often well intended. I well remember how in the days of
my youth this very term used to give rise to notions which were false to an incredible
degree. Even in Pan-German circles one heard the opinion expressed that the Austrian
Germans might very well succeed in Germanizing the Austrian Slavs, if only the
Government would be ready to co-operate. Those people did not understand that a
policy of Germanization can be carried out only as regards human beings. What they
mostly meant by Germanization was a process of forcing other people to speak the
German language. But it is almost inconceivable how such a mistake could be made as
to think that a Nigger or a Chinaman will become a German because he has learned the
German language and is willing to speak German for the future, and even to cast his
vote for a German political party. Our bourgeois nationalists could never clearly see
that such a process of Germanization is in reality de-Germanization; for even if all the
outstanding and visible differences between the various peoples could be bridged over
and finally wiped out by the use of a common language, that would produce a process
of bastardization which in this case would not signify Germanization but the
annihilation of the German element. In the course of history it has happened only too
often that a conquering race succeeded by external force in compelling the people
whom they subjected to speak the tongue of the conqueror and that after a thousand
years their language was spoken by another people and that thus the conqueror finally
turned out to be the conquered.

What makes a people or, to be more correct, a race, is not language but blood. Therefore
it would be justifiable to speak of Germanization only if that process could change the
blood of the people who would be subjected to it, which is obviously impossible. A
change would be possible only by a mixture of blood, but in this case the quality of the
superior race would be debased. The final result of such a mixture would be that
precisely those qualities would be destroyed which had enabled the conquering race to
achieve victory over an inferior people. It is especially the cultural creativeness which
disappears when a superior race intermixes with an inferior one, even though the
resultant mongrel race should excel a thousandfold in speaking the language of the race
that once had been superior. For a certain time there will be a conflict between the
different mentalities, and it may be that a nation which is in a state of progressive
degeneration will at the last moment rally its cultural creative power and once again
produce striking examples of that power. But these results are due only to the activity of
elements that have remained over from the superior race or hybrids of the first crossing
in whom the superior blood has remained dominant and seeks to assert itself. But this
will never happen with the final descendants of such hybrids. These are always in a
state of cultural retrogression.

We must consider it as fortunate that a Germanization of Austria according to the plan
of Joseph II did not succeed. Probably the result would have been that the Austrian

State would have been able to survive, but at the same time participation in the use of a
common language would have debased the racial quality of the German element. In the
course of centuries a certain herd instinct might have been developed but the herd itself
would have deteriorated in quality. A national State might have arisen, but a people
who had been culturally creative would have disappeared.

For the German nation it was better that this process of intermixture did not take place,
although it was not renounced for any high-minded reasons but simply through the
short-sighted pettiness of the Habsburgs. If it had taken place the German people could
not now be looked upon as a cultural factor.

Not only in Austria, however, but also in the REICH, these so-called national circles
were, and still are, under the influence of similar erroneous ideas. Unfortunately, a
policy towards Poland, whereby the East was to be Germanized, was demanded by
many and was based on the same false reasoning. Here again it was believed that the
Polish people could be Germanized by being compelled to use the German language.
The result would have been fatal. A people of foreign race would have had to use the
German language to express modes of thought that were foreign to the German, thus
compromising by its own inferiority the dignity and nobility of our nation.

It is revolting to think how much damage is indirectly done to German prestige to-day
through the fact that the German patois of the Jews when they enter the United States
enables them to be classed as Germans, because many Americans are quite ignorant of
German conditions. Among us, nobody would think of taking these unhygienic
immigrants from the East for members of the German race and nation merely because
they mostly speak German.

What has been beneficially Germanized in the course of history was the land which our
ancestors conquered with the sword and colonized with German tillers of the soil. To
the extent that they introduced foreign blood into our national body in this
colonization, they have helped to disintegrate our racial character, a process which has
resulted in our German hyper-individualism, though this latter characteristic is even
now frequently praised.

In this third group also there are people who, to a certain degree, consider the State as
an end in itself. Hence they consider its preservation as one of the highest aims of
human existence. Our analysis may be summed up as follows:

All these opinions have this common feature and failing: that they are not grounded in
a recognition of the profound truth that the capacity for creating cultural values is
essentially based on the racial element and that, in accordance with this fact, the
paramount purpose of the State is to preserve and improve the race; for this is an
indispensable condition of all progress in human civilization.

Thus the Jew, Karl Marx, was able to draw the final conclusions from these false
concepts and ideas on the nature and purpose of the State. By eliminating from the
concept of the State all thought of the obligation which the State bears towards the race,
without finding any other formula that might be universally accepted, the bourgeois
teaching prepared the way for that doctrine which rejects the State as such.

That is why the bourgeois struggle against Marxist internationalism is absolutely
doomed to fail in this field. The bourgeois classes have already sacrificed the basic
principles which alone could furnish a solid footing for their ideas. Their crafty
opponent has perceived the defects in their structure and advances to the assault on it
with those weapons which they themselves have placed in his hands though not
meaning to do so.

Therefore any new movement which is based on the racial concept of the world will
first of all have to put forward a clear and logical doctrine of the nature and purpose of
the State.

The fundamental principle is that the State is not an end in itself but the means to an
end. It is the preliminary condition under which alone a higher form of human
civilization can be developed, but it is not the source of such a development. This is to
be sought exclusively in the actual existence of a race which is endowed with the gift of
cultural creativeness. There may be hundreds of excellent States on this earth, and yet if
the Aryan, who is the creator and custodian of civilization, should disappear, all culture
that is on an adequate level with the spiritual needs of the superior nations to-day
would also disappear. We may go still further and say that the fact that States have been
created by human beings does not in the least exclude the possiblity that the human
race may become extinct, because the superior intellectual faculties and powers of
adaptation would be lost when the racial bearer of these faculties and powers

If, for instance, the surface of the globe should be shaken to-day by some seismic
convulsion and if a new Himalaya would emerge from the waves of the sea, this one
catastrophe alone might annihilate human civilization. No State could exist any longer.
All order would be shattered. And all vestiges of cultural products which had been
evolved through thousands of years would disappear. Nothing would be left but one
tremendous field of death and destruction submerged in floods of water and mud. If,
however, just a few people would survive this terrible havoc, and if these people
belonged to a definite race that had the innate powers to build up a civilization, when
the commotion had passed, the earth would again bear witness to the creative power of
the human spirit, even though a span of a thousand years might intervene. Only with
the extermination of the last race that possesses the gift of cultural creativeness, and
indeed only if all the individuals of that race had disappeared, would the earth

definitely be turned into a desert. On the other hand, modern history furnishes
examples to show that statal institutions which owe their beginnings to members of a
race which lacks creative genius are not made of stuff that will endure. Just as many
varieties of prehistoric animals had to give way to others and leave no trace behind
them, so man will also have to give way, if he loses that definite faculty which enables
him to find the weapons that are necessary for him to maintain his own existence.

It is not the State as such that brings about a certain definite advance in cultural
progress. The State can only protect the race that is the cause of such progress. The State
as such may well exist without undergoing any change for hundreds of years, though
the cultural faculties and the general life of the people, which is shaped by these
faculties, may have suffered profound changes by reason of the fact that the State did
not prevent a process of racial mixture from taking place. The present State, for
instance, may continue to exist in a mere mechanical form, but the poison of
miscegenation permeating the national body brings about a cultural decadence which
manifests itself already in various symptoms that are of a detrimental character.

Thus the indispensable prerequisite for the existence of a superior quality of human
beings is not the State but the race, which is alone capable of producing that higher
human quality.

This capacity is always there, though it will lie dormant unless external circumstances
awaken it to action. Nations, or rather races, which are endowed with the faculty of
cultural creativeness possess this faculty in a latent form during periods when the
external circumstances are unfavourable for the time being and therefore do not allow
the faculty to express itself effectively. It is therefore outrageously unjust to speak of the
pre-Christian Germans as barbarians who had no civilization. They never have been
such. But the severity of the climate that prevailed in the northern regions which they
inhabited imposed conditions of life which hampered a free development of their
creative faculties. If they had come to the fairer climate of the South, with no previous
culture whatsoever, and if they acquired the necessary human material--that is to say,
men of an inferior race--to serve them as working implements, the cultural faculty
dormant in them would have splendidly blossomed forth, as happened in the case of
the Greeks, for example. But this primordial creative faculty in cultural things was not
solely due to their northern climate. For the Laplanders or the Eskimos would not have
become creators of a culture if they were transplanted to the South. No, this wonderful
creative faculty is a special gift bestowed on the Aryan, whether it lies dormant in him
or becomes active, according as the adverse conditions of nature prevent the active
expression of that faculty or favourable circumstances permit it.

From these facts the following conclusions may be drawn:

The State is only a means to an end. Its end and its purpose is to preserve and promote
a community of human beings who are physically as well as spiritually kindred. Above
all, it must preserve the existence of the race, thereby providing the indispensable
condition for the free development of all the forces dormant in this race. A great part of
these faculties will always have to be employed in the first place to maintain the
physical existence of the race, and only a small portion will be free to work in the field
of intellectual progress. But, as a matter of fact, the one is always the necessary
counterpart of the other.

Those States which do not serve this purpose have no justification for their existence.
They are monstrosities. The fact that they do exist is no more of a justification than the
successful raids carried out by a band of pirates can be considered a justification of

We National Socialists, who are fighting for a new WELTANSCHAUUNG, must never
take our stand on the famous 'basis of facts', and especially not on mistaken facts. If we
did so, we should cease to be the protagonists of a new and great idea and would
become slaves in the service of the fallacy which is dominant to-day. We must make a
clear-cut distinction between the vessel and its contents. The State is only the vessel and
the race is what it contains. The vessel can have a meaning only if it preserves and
safeguards the contents. Otherwise it is worthless.

Hence the supreme purpose of the ethnical State is to guard and preserve those racial
elements which, through their work in the cultural field, create that beauty and dignity
which are characteristic of a higher mankind. As Aryans, we can consider the State only
as the living organism of a people, an organism which does not merely maintain the
existence of a people, but functions in such a way as to lead its people to a position of
supreme liberty by the progressive development of the intellectual and cultural

What they want to impose upon us as a State to-day is in most cases nothing but a
monstrosity, the product of a profound human aberration which brings untold
suffering in its train.

We National Socialists know that in holding these views we take up a revolutionary
stand in the world of to-day and that we are branded as revolutionaries. But our views
and our conduct will not be determined by the approbation or disapprobation of our
contemporaries, but only by our duty to follow a truth which we have acknowledged.
In doing this we have reason to believe that posterity will have a clearer insight, and
will not only understand the work we are doing to-day, but will also ratify it as the
right work and will exalt it accordingly.

On these principles we National Socialists base our standards of value in appraising a
State. This value will be relative when viewed from the particular standpoint of the
individual nation, but it will be absolute when considered from the standpoint of
humanity as a whole. In other words, this means:

That the excellence of a State can never be judged by the level of its culture or the
degree of importance which the outside world attaches to its power, but that its
excellence must be judged by the degree to which its institutions serve the racial stock
which belongs to it.

A State may be considered as a model example if it adequately serves not only the vital
needs of the racial stock it represents but if it actually assures by its own existence the
preservation of this same racial stock, no matter what general cultural significance this
statal institution may have in the eyes of the rest of the world. For it is not the task of
the State to create human capabilities, but only to assure free scope for the exercise of
capabilities that already exist. On the other hand, a State may be called bad if, in spite of
the existence of a high cultural level, it dooms to destruction the bearers of that culture
by breaking up their racial uniformity. For the practical effect of such a policy would be
to destroy those conditions that are indispensable for the ulterior existence of that
culture, which the State did not create but which is the fruit of the creative power
inherent in the racial stock whose existence is assured by being united in the living
organism of the State. Once again let me emphasize the fact that the State itself is not the
substance but the form. Therefore, the cultural level is not the standard by which we
can judge the value of the State in which that people lives. It is evident that a people
which is endowed with high creative powers in the cultural sphere is of more worth
than a tribe of negroes. And yet the statal organization of the former, if judged from the
standpoint of efficiency, may be worse than that of the negroes. Not even the best of
States and statal institutions can evolve faculties from a people which they lack and
which they never possessed, but a bad State may gradually destroy the faculties which
once existed. This it can do by allowing or favouring the suppression of those who are
the bearers of a racial culture.

Therefore, the worth of a State can be determined only by asking how far it actually
succeeds in promoting the well-being of a definite race and not by the role which it
plays in the world at large. Its relative worth can be estimated readily and accurately;
but it is difficult to judge its absolute worth, because the latter is conditioned not only
by the State but also by the quality and cultural level of the people that belong to the
individual State in question.

Therefore, when we speak of the high mission of the State we must not forget that the
high mission belongs to the people and that the business of the State is to use its
organizing powers for the purpose of furnishing the necessary conditions which allow
this people freely to unfold its creative faculties. And if we ask what kind of statal

institution we Germans need, we must first have a clear notion as to the people which
that State must embrace and what purpose it must serve.

Unfortunately the German national being is not based on a uniform racial type. The
process of welding the original elements together has not gone so far as to warrant us in
saying that a new race has emerged. On the contrary, the poison which has invaded the
national body, especially since the Thirty Years' War, has destroyed the uniform
constitution not only of our blood but also of our national soul. The open frontiers of
our native country, the association with non-German foreign elements in the territories
that lie all along those frontiers, and especially the strong influx of foreign blood into
the interior of the REICH itself, has prevented any complete assimilation of those
various elements, because the influx has continued steadily. Out of this melting-pot no
new race arose. The heterogeneous elements continue to exist side by side. And the
result is that, especially in times of crisis, when the herd usually flocks together, the
Germans disperse in all directions. The fundamental racial elements are not only
different in different districts, but there are also various elements in the single districts.
Beside the Nordic type we find the East-European type, beside the Eastern there is the
Dinaric, the Western type intermingling with both, and hybrids among them all. That is
a grave drawback for us. Through it the Germans lack that strong herd instinct which
arises from unity of blood and saves nations from ruin in dangerous and critical times;
because on such occasions small differences disappear, so that a united herd faces the
enemy. What we understand by the word hyper-individualism arises from the fact that
our primordial racial elements have existed side by side without ever consolidating.
During times of peace such a situation may offer some advantages, but, taken all in all,
it has prevented us from gaining a mastery in the world. If in its historical development
the German people had possessed the unity of herd instinct by which other peoples
have so much benefited, then the German REICH would probably be mistress of the
globe to-day. World history would have taken another course and in this case no man
can tell if what many blinded pacifists hope to attain by petitioning, whining and
crying, may not have been reached in this way: namely, a peace which would not be
based upon the waving of olive branches and tearful misery-mongering of pacifist old
women, but a peace that would be guaranteed by the triumphant sword of a people
endowed with the power to master the world and administer it in the service of a
higher civilization.

The fact that our people did not have a national being based on a unity of blood has
been the source of untold misery for us. To many petty German potentates it gave
residential capital cities, but the German people as a whole was deprived of its right to

Even to-day our nation still suffers from this lack of inner unity; but what has been the
cause of our past and present misfortunes may turn out a blessing for us in the future.
Though on the one hand it may be a drawback that our racial elements were not welded

together, so that no homogeneous national body could develop, on the other hand, it
was fortunate that, since at least a part of our best blood was thus kept pure, its racial
quality was not debased.

A complete assimilation of all our racial elements would certainly have brought about a
homogeneous national organism; but, as has been proved in the case of every racial
mixture, it would have been less capable of creating a civilization than by keeping intact
its best original elements. A benefit which results from the fact that there was no all-
round assimilation is to be seen in that even now we have large groups of German
Nordic people within our national organization, and that their blood has not been
mixed with the blood of other races. We must look upon this as our most valuable
treasure for the sake of the future. During that dark period of absolute ignorance in
regard to all racial laws, when each individual was considered to be on a par with every
other, there could be no clear appreciation of the difference between the various
fundamental racial characteristics. We know to-day that a complete assimilation of all
the various elements which constitute the national being might have resulted in giving
us a larger share of external power: but, on the other hand, the highest of human aims
would not have been attained, because the only kind of people which fate has obviously
chosen to bring about this perfection would have been lost in such a general mixture of
races which would constitute such a racial amalgamation.

But what has been prevented by a friendly Destiny, without any assistance on our part,
must now be reconsidered and utilized in the light of our new knowledge.

He who talks of the German people as having a mission to fulfil on this earth must
know that this cannot be fulfilled except by the building up of a State whose highest
purpose is to preserve and promote those nobler elements of our race and of the whole
of mankind which have remained unimpaired.

Thus for the first time a high inner purpose is accredited to the State. In face of the
ridiculous phrase that the State should do no more than act as the guardian of public
order and tranquillity, so that everybody can peacefully dupe everybody else, it is given
a very high mission indeed to preserve and encourage the highest type of humanity
which a beneficent Creator has bestowed on this earth. Out of a dead mechanism which
claims to be an end in itself a living organism shall arise which has to serve one purpose
exclusively: and that, indeed, a purpose which belongs to a higher order of ideas.

As a State the German REICH shall include all Germans. Its task is not only to gather in
and foster the most valuable sections of our people but to lead them slowly and surely
to a dominant position in the world.

Thus a period of stagnation is superseded by a period of effort. And here, as in every
other sphere, the proverb holds good that to rest is to rust; and furthermore the proverb

that victory will always be won by him who attacks. The higher the final goal which we
strive to reach, and the less it be understood at the time by the broad masses, the more
magnificent will be its success. That is what the lesson of history teaches. And the
achievement will be all the more significant if the end is conceived in the right way and
the fight carried through with unswerving persistence. Many of the officials who direct
the affairs of State nowadays may find it easier to work for the maintenance of the
present order than to fight for a new one. They will find it more comfortable to look
upon the State as a mechanism, whose purpose is its own preservation, and to say that
'their lives belong to the State,' as if anything that grew from the inner life of the nation
can logically serve anything but the national being, and as if man could be made for
anything else than for his fellow beings. Naturally, it is easier, as I have said, to consider
the authority of the State as nothing but the formal mechanism of an organization,
rather than as the sovereign incarnation of a people's instinct for self-preservation on
this earth. For these weak minds the State and the authority of the State is nothing but
an aim in itself, while for us it is an effective weapon in the service of the great and
eternal struggle for existence, a weapon which everyone must adopt, not because it is a
mere formal mechanism, but because it is the main expression of our common will to

Therefore, in the fight for our new idea, which conforms completely to the primal
meaning of life, we shall find only a small number of comrades in a social order which
has become decrepit not only physically but mentally also. From these strata of our
population only a few exceptional people will join our ranks, only those few old people
whose hearts have remained young and whose courage is still vigorous, but not those
who consider it their duty to maintain the state of affairs that exists.

Against us we have the innumerable army of all those who are lazy-minded and
indifferent rather than evil, and those whose self-interest leads them to uphold the
present state of affairs. On the apparent hopelessness of our great struggle is based the
magnitude of our task and the possibilities of success. A battle-cry which from the very
start will scare off all the petty spirits, or at least discourage them, will become the
signal for a rally of all those temperaments that are of the real fighting metal. And it
must be clearly recognized that if a highly energetic and active body of men emerge
from a nation and unite in the fight for one goal, thereby ultimately rising above the
inert masses of the people, this small percentage will become masters of the whole.
World history is made by minorities if these numerical minorities represent in
themselves the will and energy and initiative of the people as a whole.

What seems an obstacle to many persons is really a preliminary condition of our
victory. Just because our task is so great and because so many difficulties have to be
overcome, the highest probability is that only the best kind of protagonists will join our
ranks. This selection is the guarantee of our success. Nature generally takes certain
measures to correct the effect which racial mixture produces in life. She is not much in

favour of the mongrel. The later products of cross-breeding have to suffer bitterly,
especially the third, fourth and fifth generations. Not only are they deprived of the
higher qualities that belonged to the parents who participated in the first mixture, but
they also lack definite will-power and vigorous vital energies owing to the lack of
harmony in the quality of their blood. At all critical moments in which a person of pure
racial blood makes correct decisions, that is to say, decisions that are coherent and
uniform, the person of mixed blood will become confused and take measures that are
incoherent. Hence we see that a person of mixed blood is not only relatively inferior to a
person of pure blood, but is also doomed to become extinct more rapidly. In
innumerable cases wherein the pure race holds its ground the mongrel breaks down.
Therein we witness the corrective provision which Nature adopts. She restricts the
possibilities of procreation, thus impeding the fertility of cross-breeds and bringing
them to extinction.

For instance, if an individual member of a race should mingle his blood with the
member of a superior race the first result would be a lowering of the racial level, and
furthermore the descendants of this cross-breeding would be weaker than those of the
people around them who had maintained their blood unadulterated. Where no new
blood from the superior race enters the racial stream of the mongrels, and where those
mongrels continue to cross-breed among themselves, the latter will either die out
because they have insufficient powers of resistance, which is Nature's wise provision, or
in the course of many thousands of years they will form a new mongrel race in which
the original elements will become so wholly mixed through this millennial crossing that
traces of the original elements will be no longer recognizable. And thus a new people
would be developed which possessed a certain resistance capacity of the herd type, but
its intellectual value and its cultural significance would be essentially inferior to those
which the first cross-breeds possessed. But even in this last case the mongrel product
would succumb in the mutual struggle for existence with a higher racial group that had
maintained its blood unmixed. The herd solidarity which this mongrel race had
developed through thousands of years will not be equal to the struggle. And this is
because it would lack elasticity and constructive capacity to prevail over a race of
homogeneous blood that was mentally and culturally superior.

Therewith we may lay down the following principle as valid: every racial mixture
leads, of necessity, sooner or later to the downfall of the mongrel product, provided the
higher racial strata of this cross-breed has not retained within itself some sort of racial
homogeneity. The danger to the mongrels ceases only when this higher stratum, which
has maintained certain standards of homogeneous breeding, ceases to be true to its
pedigree and intermingles with the mongrels.

This principle is the source of a slow but constant regeneration whereby all the poison
which has invaded the racial body is gradually eliminated so long as there still remains
a fundamental stock of pure racial elements which resists further crossbreeding.

Such a process may set in automatically among those people where a strong racial
instinct has remained. Among such people we may count those elements which, for
some particular cause such as coercion, have been thrown out of the normal way of
reproduction along strict racial lines. As soon as this compulsion ceases, that part of the
race which has remained intact will tend to marry with its own kind and thus impede
further intermingling. Then the mongrels recede quite naturally into the background
unless their numbers had increased so much as to be able to withstand all serious
resistance from those elements which had preserved the purity of their race.

When men have lost their natural instincts and ignore the obligations imposed on them
by Nature, then there is no hope that Nature will correct the loss that has been caused,
until recognition of the lost instincts has been restored. Then the task of bringing back
what has been lost will have to be accomplished. But there is serious danger that those
who have become blind once in this respect will continue more and more to break
down racial barriers and finally lose the last remnants of what is best in them. What
then remains is nothing but a uniform mish-mash, which seems to be the dream of our
fine Utopians. But that mish-mash would soon banish all ideals from the world.
Certainly a great herd could thus be formed. One can breed a herd of animals; but from
a mixture of this kind men such as have created and founded civilizations would not be
produced. The mission of humanity might then be considered at an end.

Those who do not wish that the earth should fall into such a condition must realize that
it is the task of the German State in particular to see to it that the process of
bastardization is brought to a stop.

Our contemporary generation of weaklings will naturally decry such a policy and
whine and complain about it as an encroachment on the most sacred of human rights.
But there is only one right that is sacrosanct and this right is at the same time a most
sacred duty. This right and obligation are: that the purity of the racial blood should be
guarded, so that the best types of human beings may be preserved and that thus we
should render possible a more noble development of humanity itself.

A folk-State should in the first place raise matrimony from the level of being a constant
scandal to the race. The State should consecrate it as an institution which is called upon
to produce creatures made in the likeness of the Lord and not create monsters that are a
mixture of man and ape. The protest which is put forward in the name of humanity
does not fit the mouth of a generation that makes it possible for the most depraved
degenerates to propagate themselves, thereby imposing unspeakable suffering on their
own products and their contemporaries, while on the other hand contraceptives are
permitted and sold in every drug store and even by street hawkers, so that babies
should not be born even among the healthiest of our people. In this present State of
ours, whose function it is to be the guardian of peace and good order, our national

bourgeoisie look upon it as a crime to make procreation impossible for syphilitics and
those who suffer from tuberculosis or other hereditary diseases, also cripples and
imbeciles. But the practical prevention of procreation among millions of our very best
people is not considered as an evil, nor does it offend against the noble morality of this
social class but rather encourages their short-sightedness and mental lethargy. For
otherwise they would at least stir their brains to find an answer to the question of how
to create conditions for the feeding and maintaining of those future beings who will be
the healthy representatives of our nation and must also provide the conditions on
which the generation that is to follow them will have to support itself and live.

How devoid of ideals and how ignoble is the whole contemporary system! The fact that
the churches join in committing this sin against the image of God, even though they
continue to emphasize the dignity of that image, is quite in keeping with their present
activities. They talk about the Spirit, but they allow man, as the embodiment of the
Spirit, to degenerate to the proletarian level. Then they look on with amazement when
they realize how small is the influence of the Christian Faith in their own country and
how depraved and ungodly is this riff-raff which is physically degenerate and therefore
morally degenerate also. To balance this state of affairs they try to convert the
Hottentots and the Zulus and the Kaffirs and to bestow on them the blessings of the
Church. While our European people, God be praised and thanked, are left to become
the victims of moral depravity, the pious missionary goes out to Central Africa and
establishes missionary stations for negroes. Finally, sound and healthy--though
primitive and backward--people will be transformed, under the name of our 'higher
civilization', into a motley of lazy and brutalized mongrels.

It would better accord with noble human aspirations if our two Christian
denominations would cease to bother the negroes with their preaching, which the
negroes do not want and do not understand. It would be better if they left this work
alone, and if, in its stead, they tried to teach people in Europe, kindly and seriously, that
it is much more pleasing to God if a couple that is not of healthy stock were to show
loving kindness to some poor orphan and become a father and mother to him, rather
than give life to a sickly child that will be a cause of suffering and unhappiness to all.

In this field the People's State will have to repair the damage that arises from the fact
that the problem is at present neglected by all the various parties concerned. It will be
the task of the People's State to make the race the centre of the life of the community. It
must make sure that the purity of the racial strain will be preserved. It must proclaim
the truth that the child is the most valuable possession a people can have. It must see to
it that only those who are healthy shall beget children; that there is only one infamy,
namely, for parents that are ill or show hereditary defects to bring children into the
world and that in such cases it is a high honour to refrain from doing so. But, on the
other hand, it must be considered as reprehensible conduct to refrain from giving
healthy children to the nation. In this matter the State must assert itself as the trustee of

a millennial future, in face of which the egotistic desires of the individual count for
nothing and will have to give way before the ruling of the State. In order to fulfil this
duty in a practical manner the State will have to avail itself of modern medical
discoveries. It must proclaim as unfit for procreation all those who are inflicted with
some visible hereditary disease or are the carriers of it; and practical measures must be
adopted to have such people rendered sterile. On the other hand, provision must be
made for the normally fertile woman so that she will not be restricted in child-bearing
through the financial and economic system operating in a political regime that looks
upon the blessing of having children as a curse to their parents. The State will have to
abolish the cowardly and even criminal indifference with which the problem of social
amenities for large families is treated, and it will have to be the supreme protector of
this greatest blessing that a people can boast of. Its attention and care must be directed
towards the child rather than the adult.

Those who are physically and mentally unhealthy and unfit must not perpetuate their
own suffering in the bodies of their children. From the educational point of view there
is here a huge task for the People's State to accomplish. But in a future era this work will
appear greater and more significant than the victorious wars of our present bourgeois
epoch. Through educational means the State must teach individuals that illness is not a
disgrace but an unfortunate accident which has to be pitied, yet that it is a crime and a
disgrace to make this affliction all the worse by passing on disease and defects to
innocent creatures out of mere egotism.

And the State must also teach the people that it is an expression of a really noble nature
and that it is a humanitarian act worthy of admiration if a person who innocently
suffers from hereditary disease refrains from having a child of his own but gives his
love and affection to some unknown child who, through its health, promises to become
a robust member of a healthy community. In accomplishing such an educational task
the State integrates its function by this activity in the moral sphere. It must act on this
principle without paying any attention to the question of whether its conduct will be
understood or misconstrued, blamed or praised.

If for a period of only 600 years those individuals would be sterilized who are
physically degenerate or mentally diseased, humanity would not only be delivered
from an immense misfortune but also restored to a state of general health such as we at
present can hardly imagine. If the fecundity of the healthy portion of the nation should
be made a practical matter in a conscientious and methodical way, we should have at
least the beginnings of a race from which all those germs would be eliminated which
are to-day the cause of our moral and physical decadence. If a people and a State take
this course to develop that nucleus of the nation which is most valuable from the racial
standpoint and thus increase its fecundity, the people as a whole will subsequently
enjoy that most precious of gifts which consists in a racial quality fashioned on truly
noble lines.

To achieve this the State should first of all not leave the colonization of newly acquired
territory to a haphazard policy but should have it carried out under the guidance of
definite principles. Specially competent committees ought to issue certificates to
individuals entitling them to engage in colonization work, and these certificates should
guarantee the racial purity of the individuals in question. In this way frontier colonies
could gradually be founded whose inhabitants would be of the purest racial stock, and
hence would possess the best qualities of the race. Such colonies would be a valuable
asset to the whole nation. Their development would be a source of joy and confidence
and pride to each citizen of the nation, because they would contain the pure germ
which would ultimately bring about a great development of the nation and indeed of
mankind itself.

The WELTANSCHAUUNG which bases the State on the racial idea must finally
succeed in bringing about a nobler era, in which men will no longer pay exclusive
attention to breeding and rearing pedigree dogs and horses and cats, but will
endeavour to improve the breed of the human race itself. That will be an era of silence
and renunciation for one class of people, while the others will give their gifts and make
their sacrifices joyfully.

That such a mentality may be possible cannot be denied in a world where hundreds
and thousands accept the principle of celibacy from their own choice, without being
obliged or pledged to do so by anything except an ecclesiastical precept. Why should it
not be possible to induce people to make this sacrifice if, instead of such a precept, they
were simply told that they ought to put an end to this truly original sin of racial
corruption which is steadily being passed on from one generation to another. And,
further, they ought to be brought to realize that it is their bounden duty to give to the
Almighty Creator beings such as He himself made to His own image.

Naturally, our wretched army of contemporary philistines will not understand these
things. They will ridicule them or shrug their round shoulders and groan out their
everlasting excuses: "Of course it is a fine thing, but the pity is that it cannot be carried
out." And we reply: "With you indeed it cannot be done, for your world is incapable of
such an idea. You know only one anxiety and that is for your own personal existence.
You have one God, and that is your money. We do not turn to you, however, for help,
but to the great army of those who are too poor to consider their personal existence as
the highest good on earth. They do not place their trust in money but in other gods, into
whose hands they confide their lives. Above all we turn to the vast army of our German
youth. They are coming to maturity in a great epoch, and they will fight against the
evils which were due to the laziness and indifference of their fathers." Either the
German youth will one day create a new State founded on the racial idea or they will be
the last witnesses of the complete breakdown and death of the bourgeois world.

For if a generation suffers from defects which it recognizes and even admits and is
nevertheless quite pleased with itself, as the bourgeois world is to-day, resorting to the
cheap excuse that nothing can be done to remedy the situation, then such a generation
is doomed to disaster. A marked characteristic of our bourgeois world is that they no
longer can deny the evil conditions that exist. They have to admit that there is much
which is foul and wrong; but they are not able to make up their minds to fight against
that evil, which would mean putting forth the energy to mobilize the forces of 60 or 70
million people and thus oppose this menace. They do just the opposite. When such an
effort is made elsewhere they only indulge in silly comment and try from a safe
distance to show that such an enterprise is theoretically impossible and doomed to
failure. No arguments are too stupid to be employed in the service of their own
pettifogging opinions and their knavish moral attitude. If, for instance, a whole
continent wages war against alcoholic intoxication, so as to free a whole people from
this devastating vice, our bourgeois European does not know better than to look
sideways stupidly, shake the head in doubt and ridicule the movement with a superior
sneer--a state of mind which is effective in a society that is so ridiculous. But when all
these stupidities miss their aim and in that part of the world this sublime and intangible
attitude is treated effectively and success attends the movement, then such success is
called into question or its importance minimized. Even moral principles are used in this
slanderous campaign against a movement which aims at suppressing a great source of

No. We must not permit ourselves to be deceived by any illusions on this point. Our
contemporary bourgeois world has become useless for any such noble human task
because it has lost all high quality and is evil, not so much--as I think--because evil is
wished but rather because these people are too indolent to rise up against it. That is
why those political societies which call themselves 'bourgeois parties' are nothing but
associations to promote the interests of certain professional groups and classes. Their
highest aim is to defend their own egoistic interests as best they can. It is obvious that
such a guild, consisting of bourgeois politicians, may be considered fit for anything
rather than a struggle, especially when the adversaries are not cautious shopkeepers but
the proletarian masses, goaded on to extremities and determined not to hesitate before
deeds of violence.

If we consider it the first duty of the State to serve and promote the general welfare of
the people, by preserving and encouraging the development of the best racial elements,
the logical consequence is that this task cannot be limited to measures concerning the
birth of the infant members of the race and nation but that the State will also have to
adopt educational means for making each citizen a worthy factor in the further
propagation of the racial stock.

Just as, in general, the racial quality is the preliminary condition for the mental
efficiency of any given human material, the training of the individual will first of all

have to be directed towards the development of sound bodily health. For the general
rule is that a strong and healthy mind is found only in a strong and healthy body. The
fact that men of genius are sometimes not robust in health and stature, or even of a
sickly constitution, is no proof against the principle I have enunciated. These cases are
only exceptions which, as everywhere else, prove the rule. But when the bulk of a
nation is composed of physical degenerates it is rare for a great spirit to arise from such
a miserable motley. And in any case his activities would never meet with great success.
A degenerate mob will either be incapable of understanding him at all or their will-
power is so feeble that they cannot follow the soaring of such an eagle.

The State that is grounded on the racial principle and is alive to the significance of this
truth will first of all have to base its educational work not on the mere imparting of
knowledge but rather on physical training and development of healthy bodies. The
cultivation of the intellectual facilities comes only in the second place. And here again it
is character which has to be developed first of all, strength of will and decision. And the
educational system ought to foster the spirit of readiness to accept responsibilities
gladly. Formal instruction in the sciences must be considered last in importance.
Accordingly the State which is grounded on the racial idea must start with the principle
that a person whose formal education in the sciences is relatively small but who is
physically sound and robust, of a steadfast and honest character, ready and able to
make decisions and endowed with strength of will, is a more useful member of the
national community than a weakling who is scholarly and refined. A nation composed
of learned men who are physical weaklings, hesitant about decisions of the will, and
timid pacifists, is not capable of assuring even its own existence on this earth. In the
bitter struggle which decides the destiny of man it is very rare that an individual has
succumbed because he lacked learning. Those who fail are they who try to ignore these
consequences and are too faint-hearted about putting them into effect. There must be a
certain balance between mind and body. An ill-kept body is not made a more beautiful
sight by the indwelling of a radiant spirit. We should not be acting justly if we were to
bestow the highest intellectual training on those who are physically deformed and
crippled, who lack decision and are weak-willed and cowardly. What has made the
Greek ideal of beauty immortal is the wonderful union of a splendid physical beauty
with nobility of mind and spirit.

Moltke's saying, that in the long run fortune favours only the efficient, is certainly valid
for the relationship between body and spirit. A mind which is sound will generally
maintain its dwelling in a body that is sound.

Accordingly, in the People's State physical training is not a matter for the individual
alone. Nor is it a duty which first devolves on the parents and only secondly or thirdly a
public interest; but it is necessary for the preservation of the people, who are
represented and protected by the State. As regards purely formal education the State
even now interferes with the individual's right of self-determination and insists upon

the right of the community by submitting the child to an obligatory system of training,
without paying attention to the approval or disapproval of the parents. In a similar way
and to a higher degree the new People's State will one day make its authority prevail
over the ignorance and incomprehension of individuals in problems appertaining to the
safety of the nation. It must organize its educational work in such a way that the bodies
of the young will be systematically trained from infancy onwards, so as to be tempered
and hardened for the demands to be made on them in later years. Above all, the State
must see to it that a generation of stay-at-homes is not developed.

The work of education and hygiene has to begin with the young mother. The
painstaking efforts carried on for several decades have succeeded in abolishing septic
infection at childbirth and reducing puerperal fever to a relatively small number of
cases. And so it ought to be possible by means of instructing sisters and mothers in an
opportune way, to institute a system of training the child from early infancy onwards so
that this may serve as an excellent basis for future development.

The People's State ought to allow much more time for physical training in the school. It
is nonsense to burden young brains with a load of material of which, as experience
shows, they retain only a small part, and mostly not the essentials, but only the
secondary and useless portion; because the young mind is incapable of sifting the right
kind of learning out of all the stuff that is pumped into it. To-day, even in the
curriculum of the high schools, only two short hours in the week are reserved for
gymnastics; and worse still, it is left to the pupils to decide whether or not they want to
take part. This shows a grave disproportion between this branch of education and
purely intellectual instruction. Not a single day should be allowed to pass in which the
young pupil does not have one hour of physical training in the morning and one in the
evening; and every kind of sport and gymnastics should be included. There is one kind
of sport which should be specially encouraged, although many people who call
themselves VÖLKISCH consider it brutal and vulgar, and that is boxing. It is incredible
how many false notions prevail among the 'cultivated' classes. The fact that the young
man learns how to fence and then spends his time in duels is considered quite natural
and respectable. But boxing--that is brutal. Why? There is no other sport which equals
this in developing the militant spirit, none that demands such a power of rapid decision
or which gives the body the flexibility of good steel. It is no more vulgar when two
young people settle their differences with their fists than with sharp-pointed pieces of
steel. One who is attacked and defends himself with his fists surely does not act less
manly than one who runs off and yells for the assistance of a policeman. But, above all,
a healthy youth has to learn to endure hard knocks. This principle may appear savage
to our contemporary champions who fight only with the weapons of the intellect. But it
is not the purpose of the People's State to educate a colony of aesthetic pacifists and
physical degenerates. This State does not consider that the human ideal is to be found in
the honourable philistine or the maidenly spinster, but in a dareful personification of
manly force and in women capable of bringing men into the world.

Generally speaking, the function of sport is not only to make the individual strong, alert
and daring, but also to harden the body and train it to endure an adverse environment.

If our superior class had not received such a distinguished education, and if, on the
contrary, they had learned boxing, it would never have been possible for bullies and
deserters and other such CANAILLE to carry through a German revolution. For the
success of this revolution was not due to the courageous, energetic and audacious
activities of its authors but to the lamentable cowardice and irresolution of those who
ruled the German State at that time and were responsible for it. But our educated
leaders had received only an 'intellectual' training and thus found themselves
defenceless when their adversaries used iron bars instead of intellectual weapons. All
this could happen only because our superior scholastic system did not train men to be
real men but merely to be civil servants, engineers, technicians, chemists, litterateurs,
jurists and, finally, professors; so that intellectualism should not die out.

Our leadership in the purely intellectual sphere has always been brilliant, but as regards
will-power in practical affairs our leadership has been beneath criticism.

Of course education cannot make a courageous man out of one who is temperamentally
a coward. But a man who naturally possesses a certain degree of courage will not be
able to develop that quality if his defective education has made him inferior to others
from the very start as regards physical strength and prowess. The army offers the best
example of the fact that the knowledge of one's physical ability develops a man's
courage and militant spirit. Outstanding heroes are not the rule in the army, but the
average represents men of high courage. The excellent schooling which the German
soldiers received before the War imbued the members of the whole gigantic organism
with a degree of confidence in their own superiority such as even our opponents never
thought possible. All the immortal examples of dauntless courage and daring which the
German armies gave during the late summer and autumn of 1914, as they advanced
from triumph to triumph, were the result of that education which had been pursued
systematically. During those long years of peace before the last War men who were
almost physical weaklings were made capable of incredible deeds, and thus a self-
confidence was developed which did not fail even in the most terrible battles.

It is our German people, which broke down and were delivered over to be kicked by
the rest of the world, that had need of the power that comes by suggestion from self-
confidence. But this confidence in one's self must be instilled into our children from
their very early years. The whole system of education and training must be directed
towards fostering in the child the conviction that he is unquestionably a match for any-
and everybody. The individual has to regain his own physical strength and prowess in
order to believe in the invincibility of the nation to which he belongs. What has
formerly led the German armies to victory was the sum total of the confidence which

each individual had in himself, and which all of them had in those who held the
positions of command. What will restore the national strength of the German people is
the conviction that they will be able to reconquer their liberty. But this conviction can
only be the final product of an equal feeling in the millions of individuals. And here
again we must have no illusions.

The collapse of our people was overwhelming, and the efforts to put an end to so much
misery must also be overwhelming. It would be a bitter and grave error to believe that
our people could be made strong again simply by means of our present bourgeois
training in good order and obedience. That will not suffice if we are to break up the
present order of things, which now sanctions the acknowledgment of our defeat and
cast the broken chains of our slavery in the face of our opponents. Only by a
superabundance of national energy and a passionate thirst for liberty can we recover
what has been lost.

Also the manner of clothing the young should be such as harmonizes with this purpose.
It is really lamentable to see how our young people have fallen victims to a fashion
mania which perverts the meaning of the old adage that clothes make the man.

Especially in regard to young people clothes should take their place in the service of
education. The boy who walks about in summer-time wearing long baggy trousers and
clad up to the neck is hampered even by his clothes in feeling any inclination towards
strenuous physical exercise. Ambition and, to speak quite frankly, even vanity must be
appealed to. I do not mean such vanity as leads people to want to wear fine clothes,
which not everybody can afford, but rather the vanity which inclines a person towards
developing a fine bodily physique. And this is something which everybody can help to

This will come in useful also for later years. The young girl must become acquainted
with her sweetheart. If the beauty of the body were not completely forced into the
background to-day through our stupid manner of dressing, it would not be possible for
thousands of our girls to be led astray by Jewish mongrels, with their repulsive crooked
waddle. It is also in the interests of the nation that those who have a beautiful physique
should be brought into the foreground, so that they might encourage the development
of a beautiful bodily form among the people in general.

Military training is excluded among us to-day, and therewith the only institution which
in peace-times at least partly made up for the lack of physical training in our education.
Therefore what I have suggested is all the more necessary in our time. The success of
our old military training not only showed itself in the education of the individual but
also in the influence which it exercised over the mutual relationship between the sexes.
The young girl preferred the soldier to one who was not a soldier. The People's State
must not confine its control of physical training to the official school period, but it must

demand that, after leaving school and while the adolescent body is still developing, the
boy continues this training. For on such proper physical development success in after-
life largely depends. It is stupid to think that the right of the State to supervise the
education of its young citizens suddenly comes to an end the moment they leave school
and recommences only with military service. This right is a duty, and as such it must
continue uninterruptedly. The present State, which does not interest itself in developing
healthy men, has criminally neglected this duty. It leaves our contemporary youth to be
corrupted on the streets and in the brothels, instead of keeping hold of the reins and
continuing the physical training of these youths up to the time when they are grown
into healthy young men and women.

For the present it is a matter of indifference what form the State chooses for carrying on
this training. The essential matter is that it should be developed and that the most
suitable ways of doing so should be investigated. The People's State will have to
consider the physical training of the youth after the school period just as much a public
duty as their intellectual training; and this training will have to be carried out through
public institutions. Its general lines can be a preparation for subsequent service in the
army. And then it will no longer be the task of the army to teach the young recruit the
most elementary drill regulations. In fact the army will no longer have to deal with
recruits in the present sense of the word, but it will rather have to transform into a
soldier the youth whose bodily prowess has been already fully trained.

In the People's State the army will no longer be obliged to teach boys how to walk and
stand erect, but it will be the final and supreme school of patriotic education. In the
army the young recruit will learn the art of bearing arms, but at the same time he will
be equipped for his other duties in later life. And the supreme aim of military education
must always be to achieve that which was attributed to the old army as its highest
merit: namely, that through his military schooling the boy must be transformed into a
man, that he must not only learn to obey but also acquire the fundamentals that will
enable him one day to command. He must learn to remain silent not only when he is
rightly rebuked but also when he is wrongly rebuked.

Furthermore, on the self-consciousness of his own strength and on the basis of that
ESPRIT DE CORPS which inspires him and his comrades, he must become convinced
that he belongs to a people who are invincible.

After he has completed his military training two certificates shall be handed to the
soldier. The one will be his diploma as a citizen of the State, a juridical document which
will enable him to take part in public affairs. The second will be an attestation of his
physical health, which guarantees his fitness for marriage.

The People's State will have to direct the education of girls just as that of boys and
according to the same fundamental principles. Here again special importance must be

given to physical training, and only after that must the importance of spiritual and
mental training be taken into account. In the education of the girl the final goal always
to be kept in mind is that she is one day to be a mother.

It is only in the second place that the People's State must busy itself with the training of
character, using all the means adapted to that purpose.

Of course the essential traits of the individual character are already there fundamentally
before any education takes place. A person who is fundamentally egoistic will always
remain fundamentally egoistic, and the idealist will always remain fundamentally an
idealist. Besides those, however, who already possess a definite stamp of char